目的 探讨 72 h密闭隔离伴或不伴睡眠剥夺对注意网络功能和模拟航天人控交会对接任务操作绩效的影响. 方法 12 名健康男性志愿者,平均分为 4 个小组,采取自身对照、交叉设计的方式进行试验.2 组志愿者先进行 72 h单纯密闭隔离试验,恢复 7 d后进行 72 h密闭隔离伴有睡眠剥夺的试验;另 2 组志愿者试验顺序相反.每次密闭隔离前后进行注意网络功能测评、功能性核磁共振检查,密闭隔离期间进行模拟航天人控交会对接操作测试. 结果 ①与试验前比较,单纯密闭隔离后志愿者注意网络功能测验平均反应时、正确率和漏做率差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05 );密闭隔离伴睡眠剥夺后平均反应时和漏做率明显升高(t=2.505、2.324,P<0.05).对于平均反应时,试验条件主效应显著(F=6.725,η2=0.657,P<0.05),测试时间和试验条件交互效应显著(F=13.630,η2=0.918,P<0.01);对于漏做率,测试时间和试验条件主效应均显著(F=6.057、5.906, η2=0.612、0.601,P<0.05);对于正确率,3 种效应均不显著(P>0.05).②功能性核磁共振成像检查表明,密闭隔离伴睡眠剥夺试验后大脑右侧额眼区域神经自发活动明显减弱(t=6.580,P<0.05),右侧颞叶联合 3 个聚类区域神经自发活动显著增强(t=6.726、4.905、8.305,P<0.05).③与单纯密闭隔离相比,密闭隔离伴睡眠剥夺条件下志愿者模拟航天人控交会对接操作成功率显著降低(χ2=9.761,P<0.01),燃料消耗、对接面俯仰角偏差和偏航角偏差均显著增加(t=3.475、3.161、3.375,P<0.01),对接时间明显缩短(t=2.681,P<0.01). 结论 72 h密闭隔离伴睡眠剥夺对注意网络功能、模拟航天人控交会对接操作绩效有明显的负性影响,睡眠剥夺是主要影响因素.
Objective To measure the effects of 72 h-isolation and confinement(IC)with or without sleep deprivation(SD)on attention network functions and operation performance of manual controlled rendezvous and docking task.Methods Twelve healthy male volunteers were randomly divided into 4 groups of 3.The experiments were done by means of self-control and cross-over design.Two groups underwent 72 h IC without SD,and then recovered for 7 d.After that,they underwent 72 h IC with SD.Other 2 groups underwent the identical environments in the opposite order.The evaluation of attention network functions and the functional nuclear magnetic resonance examination of brain were conducted before and after isolation.The operation performance of manual controlled rendezvous and docking task was tested during isolation.Meanwhile,the functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI)technology was used to evaluate the autonomic activity in the brain region.Results①The volunteers,average reaction time,accuracy and omission rates of the attention network function test in 72 h IC had insignificant differences as compared with those before the isolation(P>0.05).The 72 h IC and SD caused average reaction time and omission rate evidently increased(t=2.505,2.3 24,P<0.05).For average reaction time,the main effect of test condition was obvious(F=6.725,η2=0.657,P<0.05),so as the mutual effects of test time and test condition for omission rate(F=6.057,5.906,η2=0.612,0.601,P<0.05).For accuracy rates,all three effects were not obvious(P>0.05).②The fMRI data indicated that the spontaneous nervous activity in right frontal eye field was significantly weakened by IC and SD(t=6.580,P<0.05),but the activities in 3 clustering fields of right temporal lobe joint were significantly enhanced(t=6.726,4.905,8.305,P<0.05).③As compared with those in IC condition,the volunteers,success rate of manual controlled rendezvous and docking task in IC plus SD condition was evidently decreased(χ2=9.7 6 1,P<0.0 1),but the fuel consumption,pitch angle deviation and yaw an
Chinese Journal of Aerospace Medicine
Magnetic resonance imaging
Manual controlled rendezvous and docking