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干旱胁迫下秸秆覆盖增强玉米耐旱性的研究 预览 被引量:14

Effect of Straw Mulch on Drought-tolerance in Maize under Drought Stress
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摘要 田间试验于1994-2000年在吉林省西部半干旱地区洮南市幸福乡实施,试验田包括露地栽培和秸秆覆盖栽培两个处理,覆盖区于玉米植株5叶期用粉碎的长度为2~3㎝的玉米和小麦秸秆全面覆盖,随机区阻设计,重复4次,试验区每年重新安排,以免上一年的覆盖物对试验结果产生影响.于5叶期在每个小区的中部连续标记10株,以后跟踪调查记录,子粒达生理成熟时收获.研究结果表明:秸秆覆盖前处理与对照的土壤含水量无差异,而5叶期实施秸秆覆盖处理的土壤含水量显著高于对照,这种效应一直持续到7月的第二周.6月10日、6月25日和7月15日秸秆覆盖处理的土壤含水量分别比对照高12^86%、7^17%和2^86%,这就保证了玉米植株的根系和地上部生长发育对水分的需求.在半干旱地区及干旱年份实施秸秆覆盖处理可提高田间土壤水分含量、促进玉米植株中后期的生长发育、提高单株叶面积和干物质重、有利于雌穗分化发育、改善穗部性状、增加单穗粒数和粒重、最终增加子粒产量.因此,可把秸秆覆盖作为玉米综合抗旱栽培措施中的一项措施加以实施. Field experiments were conducted during 1994 to 2000 at Xingfu of Taonan city situated in semi\|arid areas in western Jilin. Two treatments consisting of cultivation on bare land and cultivation on land covered by straw residues have been designed. Mulching was conducted at the five\|leaf stage of maize and with frittered maize and wheat straws at 2~3 cm length. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. In every next year, plots were re\|randomized to avoid carry\|over effects of the previous years residue materials. Corn residues from the previous year were removed prior to the establishment of the treatments. Maize, Dan Yu 13, was cultivated at 51 000 plants hm -2 during the last week in April from 1996 to 2000. Fertilizer applying and controlling of diseases, pests and weeds were same in the treated and the check plots. From 1996 to 2000, 10 consecutive plants in each plot were marked at the beginning of the growing season and observed and investigated at different stages of growth and development. Maize ears were harvested after physiological maturity. Analyses of variance were performed and differences between means were tested using the least significant difference test (LSD) at an alpha level of 0.05. The effects of straw mulch on growth, development of maize and water content in soil were deeply investigated under semi\|drought condition. Prior to the straw mulching, all the plots had synchronous water content in soil. After the five\|leaf stage of maize plant the water content in soil of treatments was significantly higher than that in the checker. The effect lasted until the end of second week of July during the years of experiments. In details, the water content in soil of treatments was 12.86% higher than that in control on 10 June, 7.17% on 25 June and 2.86% on 15 July, respectively. The increased water content in soil was very important for maize because it warranted the need of water for roots and above ground growth and development at it
作者 宋凤斌 戴俊英 SONG Feng\|bin 1 , DAI Jun\|ying 2 (1. Changchun Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130021,China; 2. Department of Agronomy, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161,China)
出处 《中国沙漠》 CSCD 北大核心 2001年第z1期 58-62,共5页 Journal of Desert Research
基金 农业部“八五”期间重点,“九五”期间延续资助项目
关键词 玉米 干旱 秸秆覆盖 生长发育 子粒产量 maize drought straw mulch growth and development grain yield
作者简介 宋凤斌(1963-),男(汉族),吉林前郭人,博士后,研究员,主要从事玉米高产理论与实践及作物生产与环境的研究.
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