在盆栽土培条件下,以武香粳14号和汕优63为材料,研究了土壤铜含量对水稻生长发育和产量形成的影响.结果表明:(1)土壤铜含量100、200 mg/kg处理对水稻株高、主茎总叶数、伸长节间数和抽穗期几乎没有影响,土壤铜含量达到400 mg/kg及其以上时,随着土壤铜含量的增加,水稻株高显著变矮、主茎总叶数和伸长节间数显著变少、抽穗期显著推迟;(2)土壤铜处理使水稻产量显著低于CK,且随着土壤铜含量的提高水稻产量下降幅度显著增大;(3)土壤铜含量100、200 mg/kg处理使水稻减产是由于每穗颖花数减少所致,土壤铜含量400 mg/kg及其以上处理使水稻减产是由于穗数和每穗颖花数共同减少所致;(4)土壤铜处理使穗数减少主要是由于返青活棵慢、分蘖发生迟、高峰苗少所致,每穗颖花数减少主要是由于抽穗期单茎干物质量小和单位干物质量形成的颖花数少所致;(5)随着土壤铜含量的增加水稻生物产量显著下降,经济系数呈下降趋势,但只有土壤铜含量达到800 mg/kg及其以上时经济系数才显著下降.
Pot experiments were conducted in 2002-2003 using japonica variety Wuxiangjing 14 and hybrid rice Shanyou 63 as materials. Effects of lower soil Cu concentrations (100, 200 mg/kg) were light on rice height, leaf number of the main stem, elongated internode number and heading date. However, when soil Cu concentration reached 400 mg/kg,rice growth was inhibited seriously, and the degrees of damage on rice growth were enlarged with the increment of soil Cu concentration. With the increase of soil Cu concentration,the yield loss became significant. Which were attributed to the reduction of spikelet numbers per panicle under lower soil Cu concentration (100, 200mg/kg), and the decreases of panicle numbers and spikelet numbers per panicle under higher soil Cu concentration (400 mg/kg and above). The decreases of panicle numbers at higher soil Cu concentrations were mainly related to delay in reviving and establishment of plant,lower initial tillering velocity and maximum tiller numbers. The decrease of spikelet numbers per panicle at higher soil Cu concentrations was chiefly caused by the drop of dry matter weight per stem and spikelet surviving ability (the ratio of survived spikelet number per panicle to the dry matter weight per stem) at heading stage. Total biomass fell significantly with the increase of soil Cu concentration, while no significant decrease of economic coefficients were detected except at very higher soil Cu concentrations (800 mg/kg and (above).)
Chinese Journal of Rice Science