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我国海岸带灾害的加剧发展及其防御方略 预览 被引量:33

EXACERBATING COASTAL HAZARDS AND DEFENSIVE COUNTERMEASURES IN CHINA
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摘要 中国大陆海岸带绵长1.8万公里,地跨12个省市,是我国人口密集、经济发展最快的地区。出现的严重灾害有台风、风暴潮、洪涝、地震海啸、海岸侵蚀、盐水入侵、海冰、地基下沉、污染、赤潮等十类,并互相叠加,形成年直接经济损失100亿元以上。全球海平面上升与人类活动加强,使海岸带灾害加剧发展,粗略估计到下世纪初中期,导致的损失可能达到1000亿元以上,是海岸带经济发展的重要制约因素。必须提高全民防灾意识,在调查研究基础上,拟订海岸带减灾规划;加强灾害的监测、预报和预警;加高加固防潮防洪大堤与护岸工程,疏浚内陆洼地和城市排洪河道,提高排水能力;保护地下水源,严格限制过量开采,以防止地面下沉和盐水入侵;合理开发海岸带资源,保护生态环境,严格限制超标排污;积极参加国际合作,逐步限制CO_2等温室气体的排放,和缓海平面上升趋势,争取大幅度减轻海岸带灾害。 Through systematically researching the current situation of coastal hazards (including tropical cycle, storm surge, flood, tsunami, coastal erosion, salt water intrusion, sea-ice, land subsidence, pollution and red-tide) in China, this paper focuses discussion on sea level rise caused by global warming and heightening human activities, as well as the relation among each of them and the evolution of coastal hazards. The results show that, coastal hazards of China are exacerbating due to sea level rise and unreasonable human activities; By the middle of next century, economic losses caused by exacerbating coastal hazards would reach 100 billion RMB yuan in the coastal areas of China. Finally, this paper also puts forward corresponding defensive countermeasures from seven categories, these measures include drafting comprehensive programme for mitigation disas-ter, giving more effective observation and forecasting to coastal hazards, heightening the standard of defence projects, reducing unreasonable human activities and strengthening the awareness of people's preventing disaster etc.
作者 施雅风 Shi Yafeng (Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou) (Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing)
出处 《自然灾害学报》 CSCD 1994年第2期 3-15,共13页 Journal of Natural Disasters
关键词 海岸带灾害 海平面上升 防御方略 台风 Coastal hazards Sea level rise Human activities Defensive countermeasures
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