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湿位涡和倾斜涡度发展 预览 被引量:475

MOIST POTENTIAL VORTICITY AND SLANTWISE VORTICITY DEVELOPMENT
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摘要 从完整的原始方程出发,在导出精确形式的湿位涡方程的基础上,证得绝热无摩擦的饱和湿空气具有湿位涡守恒的特性。并由此去研究湿斜压过程中涡旋垂直涡度的发展。结果表明,在湿等熵坐标中,涡旋的发展与对流稳定度的减少,等熵面上的辐合和潜热的释放有关。由于等熵位涡分析的应用受等熵面倾斜的限制,又进而发展了Z坐标及P坐标中的倾斜涡度发展理论。指出无论是湿对称不稳定或对流不稳定大气,还是湿对称稳定或对流稳定大气,除 An accurate form of the moist potential vorticity (MPV) equation was deduced from a complete set of primitive equations system. It was shown that motion in a saturated atmosphere without diabatic heating and frictional dissipation conserves moist potential vorticity.This property was then used to investigate the development of vertical vorticity in moist baroclinic processes. Results show that in the frame work of moist isentropic coordinate, vorticity development can result from reduction of convective stability, or convergence. or latent heat release in isentropic surfaces. However, the application of the usual analysis of moist isentropic potential vorticity is limitted due to the declination of moist isentropic surfaces, and a theory of slantwise vorticity development based on Z-coordinate and P-coordinate was then proposed. According to this theory, whether the atmosphere is moist symetrically stable or unstable. or convectively stable or unstable. so long as the moist insentropic surface is slantwise the reduction of convective stability, the increase of the vertical shear of horizontal wind or moist baroclinity can result in the increase of vertical vorticity. The larger the declination of the moist isentropes, the more vigorous the deveolopment of vertical vorticity. In a region with a monsoonal front to the north and warm and moist air to the south, or bye the north of front the moist isentropes are very stiff. This is the region most favorable for the development of vorticities and formation of torrential rain.For a case of persistent torrential rain occuriny in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze and Huai River in June 12-15, 1991. moist potential vorticity analysis, especially the isobaric analysis of its vertical and horizontal compoments, i e. MPVI and MPV2 respectively, is effective for indentifying synoptic systems not only in middle and high latitudes. but also in the low latitudes and in the lower troposphere. It can serve as a powerful tool for the diagnosis and prediction of torrential
作者 吴国雄 蔡雅萍 Wu Guoxiong;Cat Yaping;Tang Xiaojing (LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Beijing. 100080 China)
出处 《气象学报》 CSCD 北大核心 1995年第4期387-405,共19页 Acta Meteorologica Sinica
关键词 湿位涡 倾斜涡度 大气 对流层 Moist potential vorticity, Slantwise vorticity development. Moist symmetricstability.
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