Large quantities of antibiotics are administered to humans and animals to treat diseases and infection every year, Antibiotics are also commonly used at sub-therapeutic levels to livestock to prevent diseases and promote growth. As results of incomplete metabolism and absorption, up to 85 % of administered antibiotics with the parent compound and their metabolites may be excreted into the environment via animal manure and human waste, and then be discharged to the soil and water system through different exposure routes. Recent studies had indicated the presence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater effluent and surface water. Despite the detection of antibiotics, little is known about their distribution, mobility and persistence in natural and engineered systems. Presence of antibiotics in environment could perturb ecosystem including bacteria, water and soil microorganism and plants, increase the proliferation of antibiotics-resistant pathogens, and could pose threats to human health.To assess the magnitude of the potential impacts of antibiotics released into environment, a review was conducted on theoccurrence, fate and environmental ecotoxicology of antibiotics in environment, and the possible future study was also discussed.
Acta Ecologica Sinica
通讯作者 Author for correspondence．E-mail：tianwang@njau．edu．cn