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保护性耕作对土壤物理特性及玉米产量的影响 预览 被引量:82

Effects of conservation tillage on soil physical properties and corn yield
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摘要 保护性耕作措施是干旱区农田提高作物产量的新型耕作技术。为了探讨其区域适应性,在2004~2007年期间,以毛乌素沙地南缘的靖边县北部风沙区农田为研究对象,选用了免耕、秸秆覆盖、覆膜和传统翻耕(CK)4种措施,采用完全随机试验设计进行了田间定位试验研究。结果表明,秸秆覆盖和免耕地的地温在春播初期略比传统翻耕低0.1℃,但随后迅速回升,覆膜在玉米生长期都高于其他措施。耕作措施对播种前土壤容重没有显著影响,而对收获后土壤容重影响显著,与传统翻耕相比,免耕降低了表层土壤容重1.65%,但次层20~40 cm容重增加了1.8%。3种保护性耕作措施均增加了土壤含水量,顺序依次为秸秆覆盖〉覆膜〉免耕〉翻耕,且在作物需水关键期免耕和秸秆覆盖下的土壤含水量相对稳定,保证作物需水,提高水分利用率,分别为8%、22.0%和13.3%。使作物分别增产4.44%、13.14%和19.26%。因此,保护性耕作在风沙区有利于改善农田土壤物理条件,提高作物产量,适于在风沙区推广。 Conservation tillage is a new technology for increasing crop yield in arid areas. The objective of this field experiment was to compare the effects of four tillage measurements (no-till, stalk-mulching, film-mulching and conventional tillage) on soil physical properties and crop yield in the sandy soil region of northern Jingbian County, Shaanxi Province during 2004 to 2007. A completely randomized design was used to study field location. The results showed that at early spring planting, soil temperatures were 0.1℃ lower in the stalk-mulching and no-till treatments compare with to the conventional tillage treatment. Soil temperatures were the highest under film mulch in corn grouing season. There was no significant difference in soil bulk density among the treatments before planting; however, there was a significant difference among the treatments after harvest. Soil bulk density in the 0-20 cm layer was 1.65% lower in the no-tillage treatment compared with conventional tillage; however, the bulk density in the 20-40 cm layer was 1.8% higher in the no-tillage treatment compared with conventional tillage. Soil water content was increased under the three conservation tillage in the order stalk-mulching〉 film-mulching〉no-till〉 conventional tillage. Water use efficiency increased by 8% in the stalk-mulching treatment, 22.0% in the film mulch treatment, and 13.3% in the no-till treatment compared with the conventional tillage treatment. Similarly, crop yield was 4.44% higher in the stalk-mulching treatment, 13.14% higher in the film mulch treatment, and 19.26% higher in the no-till treatment compared with the conventional tillage treatment. The conclusion is that conservation tillage method can improve soil physical properties and increase crop yield, and it can be implemented in the southern part of Mu Us desert.
作者 雷金银 吴发启 王健 郭建华 Lei Jinyin, Wu Faqi, Wang Jian, Guo Jianhua ( College of Resources and Environment, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling 712100, China)
出处 《农业工程学报》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2008年第10期 40-45,共6页 Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering
基金 基金项目:农业科技成果转化基金项目“陕北农牧交错区农田综合防沙技术中试与转化”(03EFN217100323)
关键词 保护性耕作 土壤物理性质 作物产量 毛乌素沙地 conservation tillage, soil physical property, crop yield, Mu Us Sand Land
作者简介 作者简介:雷金银:(1981-),男,宁夏西吉人,博士生,主要从事土壤侵蚀及流域管理研究。杨凌西北农林科技大学资源环境学院,712100。E-mail:leijinyin@yahoo.com.cn 通讯作者:吴发启,男(1957-),陕西黄陵人,博士生导师,主要从事土壤侵蚀与流域管理研究。杨凌西北农林科技大学资源环境学院,712100。E-mail:wufaqi@263.net
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