It has been the theme of ideologists in the world for hundreds of years that the transition of human＇s ideology in modem times, the Chinese ideologists could not stride over either. The ancient Chinese culture advocated to the good- ness and virtues of the humans while the westerners reagarded it as the essential freedom of human beings by enjoining material desire, political entitlement and free ideology. In modern China, the pioneers of the Reform Movement of 1898 and Revolution of 1911 confessed to the rationality of the self-interests and sparkpluged the liberation of human beings but they failed at last. The radicals of the New Culture Movement upgraded the concept of the human~ s liberation, self- interets and social harmony. But obviously they focalized to the spiritual liberation due to the time pressures. Most of the pioneers shifted to the political and revolutionary causes after the May Fourth Movement. The Kuomingtang initia- ted the cultural return, some continued to discuss the human~ s liberation but could not carry on further since they could not reach the headstreams. Yet there is a long way to run to explore the transition of the human＇ s ideology in modern China.
Journal of Historical Science
spirit of liberation