为探讨芦笋设施栽培对土壤养分和环境的影响,本文研究了不同种植年限大棚土壤速效养分、理化性状、微生物区系及土壤酶活性的差异变化,并对种植年限与土壤理化性状、养分因子、生物活性间的相关性进行了统计分析。结果显示,随种植年限增加,土壤速效氮、速效钾和有机质含量持续增加,其中速效钾含量增长迅速,种植3年后,速效钾由120 mg/kg迅速上升至500～600 mg/kg;土壤持续酸化,次生盐渍化逐渐加重;芦笋设施栽培后,细菌种群数量减少,真菌数量增加,细菌与真菌数量比降低,土壤由细菌型向真菌型转化;随种植年限增加,土壤微生物代谢类群多样性减少,呼吸强度和过氧化氢酶活性持续降低,二者降低趋势与种植年限呈显著负相关。这说明芦笋设施种植后,其大量施肥和密闭性管理措施使土壤养分快速累积,土壤在耕作3年时就出现了酸化和次生盐渍化状况,微生态平衡遭到破坏,存在一定的风险,应提倡合理施肥以保证设施栽培土壤的可持续性利用。
Soil physio-chemical properties, microbial community and enzyme activities of asparagus＇ s greenhouse soils with different planting years were investigated systematically, and the correlations between these factors and planting ages were analyzed for illustrating the effect of protected cultivation years on soil nutrients and environment. The results show that the soil available N, K and organic matter are increased with asparagu＇ s cultivation years, and soil available K is increased to 500 - 600 mg/kg from 120 mg/kg rapidly after 3 years planted. Soil acidization and secondary salinization are more and more serious. After the cultivation of asparagus, amount of bacteria is decreased, amount of fungi is increased and bacteria/fungus ratio（B/F） is decreased sharply, which indicate that the soils are translated into fungi from bacteria type. The diversity of microbial metabolic type, soil respiration and catalase activity are decreased as the increase of asparagu＇ s protected cultivation years. There are the negative linear correlation between respiration, catalase activity and the planted ages. After protected cultivation of asparagus, soil nutrients are accumulated significantly, and soil acidification and secondary salinization are appeared in 3 years rapidly because of excessive fertilization and closed planting. Microecology balance of soil becomes worse and a risk is formed on the health of asparagu＇ s facility cultivation soil. Advocating rational fertilization is necessary for sustainable development of greenhouse soils.
Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science
Asparagus officinalis L.
soil microbial community
soil enzyme activity