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麦类作物粮饲兼用研究进展 预览 被引量:7

Advances in utilisation of dual-purpose Triticeae crops
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摘要 粮饲兼用是指将营养期作物用于青绿饲草生产(放牧或刈割),待作物再生形成籽粒后收获籽粒的一种生产措施。这一措施已在全球10多个国家和地区广泛应用,以麦类作物的粮饲兼用最为普遍,一定程度上缓解了全球普遍存在的饲草供应季节性不均衡与家畜需求相对稳定的矛盾,促进了畜牧业的持续稳定发展。粮饲兼用的效益优势在于可确保作物籽粒生产的稳定,同时获取额外家畜生产收益。然而,不合理的粮饲兼用会导致饲草及籽粒的产量及品质均会受到影响,有必要开展相关研究以规范化粮饲兼用的应用模式。本文分析了麦类作物粮饲兼用的分布及其效益优势,深入分析了作物类型、播种时间及密度、水热条件等对粮饲兼用生产的影响,归纳得到如下4条技术要点。1)麦类作物可在分蘖期用于适度的利用,保留原有茎尖分生组织可维持籽粒生产的相对稳定。2)应优先选育冬性较强,早期生长缓慢,粮饲兼用不易破坏其茎尖分生组织且花期较晚的高秆品种用于粮饲兼用。3)粮饲兼用作物时,播种时间应提前2~4周,且需适当增加播种密度及提高底肥水平以增加饲草生产;为补偿饲草转移造成的氮亏缺,需在利用后适当添加氮肥以维持其籽粒生产。4)为保证粮饲兼用的效益优势,麦类作物粮饲兼用更适宜于在较湿润的地区(年降水量350~500mm)开展。本文可为我国深入开展麦类作物粮饲兼用研究提供理论基础,并将进一步指导粮饲兼用措施的应用及推广。 Dual-purpose crops are often utilized as forage (grazing or cutting) during the vegetative stages and subsequently managed as grain crops. It is practiced a number of different countries and regions and most often involves utilization of Triticeae crops. The benefits include partial alleviation of the conflict between uneven seasonal forage supply and the relatively stable forage requirements of livestock, promoting sustainable live stock production. The economic advantage of dual-purpose crops is that grain production remains relatively steady while livestock production can be increased. However, forage and grain production is potentially nega- tively influenced by inappropriate management, consequently it is vital to undertake research which will help standardize management of dual-purpose crops. This review paper summarized the distribution and advantages of dual-purpose Triticeae crops world-wide and analyzed the influences of crop genotype, sowing date, sowingdensity, temperature and moisture conditions on the productivity of these crops. Four key recommendations were identified. 1) Triticeae crops can be lightly grazed or cut at the tillering stage without reducing grain yield provided the apical meristem is not damaged. 2) Genotypes with a strong vernalization requirement and delayed reproductive growth are less likely to suffer apical meristem damage; tall cultivars with a late flowering date should be selected for dual-purpo fertilizer application rates should se use. 3) Sowing date should be 2--4 be increased slightly to maximize forage weeks earlier and sowing density and production. Nitrogen fertilizer should be applied post grazing/cutting to replace removed nitrogen, maintaining grain production. 4) The economic vi- ability of dual-purpose crops requires an annual precipitation (350--500 mm). There view identifies opportuni ties for further research on dual-purpose Triticeae crops in China.
作者 田莉华 王丹丹 沈禹颖 TIAN Lihua, WANG Dandan, SHEN Yuying( College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosysterns , Lanzhou Universi ty, Lanzhou 730020, China)
出处 《草业学报》 CSCD 北大核心 2015年第2期185-193,共9页 Acta Prataculturae Sinica
基金 教育部重大科技项目(313028) 甘肃省重大科技专项(1203FKDA035) 教育部创新团队项目(IRT13019)资助
关键词 作物 籽粒产量 饲草生产 管理 crop grain yield forage production management
作者简介 田莉华(1986-),女,山东潍坊人,博士。E-mail:tianlihuahua@sina.com 通讯作者Correspondingauthor.E-mail:yy.shen@lzu.edu.cn
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