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塿土区长期施肥农田土壤的可持续性评价 预览 被引量:10

Evaluation on the sustainability of cropland under different long-term fertilization in Eum-Orthic Anthrosols area
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摘要 【目的】施肥是实现作物增产和土壤培肥的主要途径,综合评价长期不同施肥条件下农田土壤的可持续性.可为农田合理施肥和管理提供理论支撑。【方法】依托陕西杨凌"国家黄土肥力与肥料效益监测基地"长期肥料定位试验(23年)采集分析了该试验9个处理[不施肥(CK)、单施氮(N)、氮钾配合(NK)、磷钾配合(PK)、氮磷配合(NP)、氮磷钾配合(NPK)、氮磷钾配合秸秆还田(SNPK)、低量有机肥配合氮磷钾(M_1NPK)和高量有机肥配合氮磷钾(M_2NPK]的土壤养分、微生物特性及作物产量,计算了土壤养分指数、微生物指数、作物指数和可持续性指数.综合评价了长期不同施肥处理对(?)土区农田土壤可持续性的影响。【结果】CK和N处理土壤养分指数分别为0.75和0.87,两者之间差异显著(P〈0.05)均低于土壤养分指数临界值1.00;其余处理的土壤养分指数在1.12-3.12之间均大于临界值,其中NP和NK差异不显著,SNPK和PK差异不显著,其余各处理间均差异显著(P〈0.05)。CK、N、NK和PK处理土壤微生物指数在0.74-0.84之间低于土壤微生物指数临界值1.00,其中CK和N差异不显著,NK和PK差异不显著但两组之间差异显著(P〈0.05);NP、NPK、SNPK、M、NPK和M,NPK处理的在0.98-1.21之间,接近或大于临界值,其中M、NPK和M,NPK差异不显著,NP、NPK和SNPK差异不显著,两组之间差异显著(P〈0.05)。CK、N、NK和PK的作物指数在0.52-0.60之间均低于作物指数临界值1.00,仅PK和N差异显著(P〈0.05);氮磷配合的施肥处理(NP、NPK、SNPK、M_1NPK和M_2NPK)在0.98-1.02之间,各处理间差异不显著但均接近或大于临界值1.00。CK、N、NK和PK的可持续性指数分别为0.49、0.54、0.74和0.99均低于可持续性指数临界值1.30,其中CK和N差异不显著;NP和NPK处理的可持续性指数分别为1.18和1.26,两者差异不显著,接近于可持续临界值;� [Objectives]Fertilization is one of the main approaches to increase crop yields and soil fertility.Assessment on the sustainability of farmland under long-term different fertilization modes will supply theoretical and practical supports for rational and sustainable fertilization in areas of Earth-Orthic Anthrosols.[Methods]Based on a long-term experiment of "National Monitoring Base of Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Efficiency on Loess Soil" in Yangling City,Shaanxi Province,samples were collected from the 9 treatment plots(CK,N,NK,PK,NP,NPK,SNPK,M_1NPK and M_2NPK),and totally 22 parameters were analyzed for the calculation of soil nutrient index(NI),microbial index(MI),crop index(CI) and sustainability index(SI),which were used to comprehensively assess the sustainability of the soil-crop system under different fertilization modes.[Results 11) The soil NI values in both the CK and N treatments were respective 0.75 and 0.87,lower than the threshold(1.00),and there was significant different between them(P〈0.05).While those in other treatments were in range of 1.12-3.12,higher than the threshold.The differences between NP and NK and between SNPK and PK were not significant,but significant among other treatments(P〈0.05).2) The soil MI values in chemical fertilizer treatments(CK,N,NK and PK) were all lower than the threshold(1.00) in range of 0.74-0.84.The differences between NP and NK and between SNPK and PK were not significant,whereas significant between these two groups(P〈0.05).The MI values in treatments containing NP(NP,NPK,SNPK,M_1NPK and M_2NPK) were in range of 0.98-1.21,all close to or higher than the threshold 1.00.The difference was not significant between M_1NPK and M_2NPK,nor between NP,NPK and SNPK,but significant between these 2 groups(P〈0.05).3) The CI values in CK,N,NK and PK were in range of 0.52-0.60,all lower than the threshold 1.00.Significant difference was only between N and PK(P〈0.05).The CI values in treatments contai
作者 孙本华 孙瑞 郭芸 皮小敏 杨学云 张树兰 高明霞 SUN Ben-hua,SUN Rui,GUO Yun,PI Xiao-min,YANG Xue-yun,ZHANG Shu-lan,GAO Ming-xia(1 Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and the Agri-environment in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China ; 2 College of Water Resources and Architectural Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China)
出处 《植物营养与肥料学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2015年第6期1403-1412,共10页 Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science
基金 公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201203030) 陕西省自然科学基础研究计划项目(2015JM4130) 中央高校基本科研创新项目(QN2012038) 高等学校学科创新引智计划(B12007)资助
关键词 长期施肥 土壤养分指数 土壤微生物指数 作物指数 可持续指数 long-term fertilization soil nutrient index soil microbial index crop index sustainability index
作者简介 孙本华(1972-),男,江苏金湖人,博士,副教授,主要从事土壤化学和土壤生态研究。E-mail:sunbenhua@126.com 通信作者E—mail:gaomingxia@126.com
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