以膨胀石墨与氧化锌为原料,采用复合改性法改性聚氨酯海绵,在硅烷偶联剂的作用下,用月桂酸的醇溶液表面修饰后制备出改性聚氨酯海绵.通过扫描电子显微镜（SEM）与接触角测定仪进行表征,对改性聚氨酯海绵的吸油、吸水及循环使用性能进行了测定,并试验获得了最佳的油水分离条件.结果表明：改性聚氨酯海绵具有良好的疏水超亲油性,在膨胀石墨分散液与氧化锌胶体溶液体积比为1∶1时,对于质量浓度为20 g/L的机油水溶液,饱和单位吸油量最高可达17.7 g/g,对机油的选择性吸附系数为10.41,油水分离效果最佳;在选择吸附过程中,15 min以内油水分离效率就能达到78.41%;改性聚氨酯海绵每次循环利用后,单位吸油量的减幅均低于7.3%,循环使用性能良好.研究显示,该种改性聚氨酯海绵对油水体系中的油类具有很好的选择性,吸附完成后,经过简单的挤压将油回收后即可循环利用,具有便捷、高效、循环、无二次污染的特性.
Oil spills frequently occur and cause water pollution. Techniques for oil removal or separation from water bodies have attracted much worldwide attention. The conventional methods used to solve these problems include combustion,oil containment booms and oil skimmer vessels. However,they are limited by environmental incompatibility,low absorption capacity,poor recyclability,and so on. A new modified material with improved performance compared to traditional methods was developed. With the effect of silanes coupling agent,polyurethane foam was modified with the raw material of expanded graphite,zinc oxide and lauric alcohol solution. It was characterized by scanning electron microscopy（ SEM） and contact angle measurement. In the experiment of separating oil-water solution,the factors including adsorption performance for oil/water and recycling properties were investigated. The best conditions for oil-water separation in the experiment were also obtained. The result showed that the modified polyurethane sponge exhibited hydrophobicity and was super lipophilic. The best separation ability was achieved when expanded graphite and zinc oxide had the same volume. For the mass concentration of 20 g/L,saturated adsorption capacity was up to 17. 7 g/g,and the selective adsorption coefficient of oil was 10. 41. Oilwater separation efficiency could reach 78. 41% within 15 min in the selective adsorption process. After each recycling,the amount of adsorption decreased by less than 7. 3%. Therefore,the modified polyurethane foam had a good recycling performance. The modified polyurethane foam had a good selectivity about oil-water system. It could be recycled with a simple squeeze. With the characteristics of convenience,efficient circulation and no secondary pollution,the modified polyurethane foam has broad application prospects.
Research of Environmental Sciences
modified polyurethane sponge
hydrophobic and lipophilic