林窗数量特征及其空间分布格局对南亚热带森林生态系统的动态变化、物种共存及生物多样性的维持等具有重要意义。本文基于鼎湖山南亚热带常绿阔叶林20 ha动态监测样地2015年的植被调查数据,结合无人机航拍图像处理技术和地理信息系统,分析了样地内林窗的几何特征和空间分布格局。结果表明：该样地的林窗空隙率为13.72%,密度为35.75个/ha,平均面积38.37 m~2。具体特征有：（1）区域内林窗数量随林窗面积的增加呈负指数分布,整体表现为小林窗多、大林窗少的规律。（2）不同成熟度林分中,过熟林林窗平均面积大于成熟林;成熟林更能体现出小林窗多而大林窗少的特点。（3）各生境林窗分布与大样地整体表现出基本一致的规律,但低谷与其他生境差异显著,林窗平均面积、林窗空隙率等都大于其他生境,而山脊林窗也在林窗空隙率与林窗密度方面低于其他生境。（4）林窗面积和地形因子显著相关：与海拔和凹凸度呈显著负相关;与坡度和坡向呈显著正相关。据此提出建立利用无人机进行森林群落林冠变化与格局的监测体系,是实现林窗与林下群落动态变化同步监测的新手段。
Studying the dynamic characteristics, species coexistence and biodiversity conservation mecha- nisms of subtropical forest ecosystems is important in the study of the quantitative characteristics and spatial gap distribution patterns. Based on census data from the 20 ha dynamics plot of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Dinghushan in 2015, we analyzed the geometric characteristics and spatial distribution pattern of gaps in the plot by combining aerial image processing technology of unmanned aerial vehicles and GIS. Results show that the gap fraction is 13.72%, the gap density is 35.75 no./ha, and the average gap area is 38.37 mE. Results also show that： （1） The number of gaps in the area is negatively exponentially distributed with the increase of gap area, that is, the gap is small and the marginal effect is not significant. （2） The average area of forest gaps in over-mature forest stands is larger than that in mature forests, while the mature for- est is more likely to have more small gaps and fewer large gaps. （3） In different habitats, the distribution of gaps in each habitat shows the same pattem as that found in the whole plot. However, the difference in the valley is significant when compared with other habitats, and gap area and gap density in the valley are larger than other habitats. The ridge gap is also distinctive, and its gap density is lower than other habitats. （4） Gap area is significantly correlated with topographic factors. It was significantly negatively correlated with alti- tude and convexity, and had a significantly positive correlation with aspect and gradient. Based on these comparative analyses, a monitoring system of forest canopy changes and patterns can be established using drones, to dynamically monitor forest gaps and the undergrowth community.
通讯作者Authors for correspondence．E-mail：lianjy@scbgac．cn