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2005—2015年西北春谷中晚熟区谷子育成品种评价 预览 被引量:8

Evaluation of Foxtail Millet Cultivars Developed in the Middle and Late-Maturing Spring-Sowing Region in Northwest China in 2005-2015
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摘要 【目的】对11年来西北春谷中晚熟区育成的谷子品种产量、农艺性状、抗逆性及品质性状综合分析,为西北春谷中晚熟区谷子新品种选育、推广及资源利用提供理论参考。【方法】基于2005—2015年国家谷子品种区域试验西北春谷中晚熟区数据,对参试品种及通过鉴定品种的产量、主要农艺性状进行比较与分析。并对通过鉴定的30个品种抗逆性、品质进行分析。【结果】2005—2015年参试品种及通过鉴定品种的产量有逐年增加的趋势。参试品种和通过鉴定品种的农艺性状在年度间存在一定的变异,参试品种的株高、单穗重、穗粒重、出谷率有逐年增加的趋势,生育期有缩短的趋势;通过鉴定的30个品种和对照相比,生育期、株高有降低趋势,株高变幅为105—165 cm;穗长在17—27 cm,70%的品种分布在19—23 cm;单穗重变幅为15—25 g,80%品种为18—22 g;穗粒重为12—20 g;出谷率分布在74%—84%,80%的品种在75%—80%;千粒重变异范围较大,分布在2.5—3.4 g,有9个品种的千粒重超过对照,公顷穗数分布在33万—43万。对通过鉴定品种农艺性状与产量的相关分析表明,产量与单穗重、穗粒重和公顷穗数呈显著正相关,与生育期呈负相关。鉴定品种总体抗性有提高的趋势,其中抗倒性明显优于对照,红叶病和白发病为主要病害,谷锈病、谷瘟病、纹枯病、蛀茎率也有不同程度地发生。穗松紧度多为中等偏紧类型,熟相中等偏好为主。品质上,通过鉴定品种的米色全为黄色,优质米的粗蛋白、粗脂肪含量及胶稠度偏低,赖氨酸含量相对较高。鉴定品种中包括了糯质、高蛋白、高脂肪及粮草兼用、抗除草剂、优质米等多种类型,丰富了品种类型。【结论】西北春谷晚熟区谷子品种的选育取得了一定的进步,所育品种在数量、多样性、产量、品质等方面有了一定的提高,但没有取得大的突破。在育种方� 【Objective】 The objective of this study is to analyze the changes of agronomic traits, grain yield, stress resistance and quality traits of newly developed foxtail millet cultivars in the middle and late-maturing spring-sowing region in Northwest China in 2005-2015, and provide scientific data for new cultivar development and genetic resource enhancement.【Method】 Based on the data of middle and late-maturing spring-sowing foxtail millet lines tested in the regional adaptation tests from 2005 to 2015 in Northwest China, main agronomic traits and yield traits were analyzed and compared. Diseases resistances and quality traits of 30 foxtail millet cultivars released were further analyzed in this paper. 【Result】The grain yield potential of the newly developed foxtail millet cultivars in 2005-2015 showed a trend of increase from the data analyzed. Great difference of agronomic characteristics of tested lines and released cultivars among experimental years were identified, which implied that climate difference among years might have great impact on foxtail millet characters. The data showed a clear increasing trend in characteristics such as plant height, panicle weight, panicle grain weight and ratio of grain on a panicle of the newly developed cultivars, while the growth duration of those varieties became shorter than before. Coefficient correlation analyses of the agronomic traits indicated that grain yield of cultivars is positively correlated with panicle weight, grain weight per panicle and number of panicles per hectare and negatively related with the length of growth duration. The commonly occurred diseases in this foxtail millet growing region included leaf rust, blast, sheath blight, red leaf disease and downy-mildew in the past ten years and among which the latter two are the main ones. All the newly developed cultivars showed their increase in the abilities of diseases resistance. Most newly developed cultivars were characterized with yellow kernel, and the most adapted cultivars were usually ch
作者 张艾英 郭二虎 刁现民 范惠萍 李瑜辉 王丽霞 郭红亮 程丽萍 吴引生 ZHANG AiYing1, GUO ErHu1, DIAO XianMin2, FAN HuiPing1, LI YuHui1, WANG LiXia1, GUO HongLiang1, CHENG LiPing1, WU YinSheng1 (Millet Research Institute, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Scienees/Shanxi Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Breeding in Minor Crops, Changzhi 046011, Shanxi; 2Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081)
出处 《中国农业科学》 CSCD 北大核心 2017年第23期4486-4495,共10页 Scientia Agricultura Sinica
基金 国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-07-13.5-A10) 山西省农业科学院生物育种工程项目(17yzgc024) 山西省农业科学院农业科技创新研究课题(YYS1703)
关键词 春谷 中晚熟区 区域试验 农艺性状 相关分析 spring foxtail millet middle and late maturing region regional adaptation test agronomic characters correlation analysis
作者简介 联系方式:张艾英,E-mail:zayl012@126.com。;通信作者郭二虎,E-mail:guoerhu2003@163.com。;通信作者刁现民,E-mail:diaoxianmin@caas.cn
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