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气候正义理论的两次转向及其展望

Two Turns of Climate Justice Theory and Its Prospects
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摘要 梳理气候正义理论,可以看出在早期气候正义理论的基础上出现过两次明显的问题转向。早期气候正义理论以功利主义、代际问题为讨论的中心,强调在温室气体减排问题上如何获得最大的效益。随着气候问题的发展和研究的深入,气候正义理论出现了第一次转向,如何在当代各国间进行温室气体排放权的分配成为话题的中心,对个人生存权、发展权平等的要求成为这个时期的热点话题。随着研究与争论的进一步深入,人们逐渐发现气候正义问题难以解决的关键其实是全球各国间业已形成的巨大的贫富差距,气候正义理论出现了第二次转向,气候正义的可行性与全球各国间日益加剧的贫富差距的关系问题成为气候正义讨论的核心。当前气候正义问题的主要矛盾是日益严重的气候变化对人类未来生存安全的威胁和当代贫穷国家社会经济发展对温室气体排放需求之间的矛盾,解决这个主要矛盾,发达国家在气候正义问题上必须承担主要责任,并有义务帮助贫穷国家通过资金以及新能源技术来获得社会与经济的进一步发展。 A thorough examination of the climate justice theory worldwide indicates that there are two obvious turns. The early climate justice theory, based on utilitarianism and intergenerational justice, emphasizes how to get the most benefit in the issue of greenhouse gas emissions. However, with the in-depth understanding of climate problems, the climate justice theory changed for the first time. It focused on how to distribute the greenhouse gas emission rights among contemporary countries. The demand for equality of individual right and development was the hot topic of this period. With the in-depth research and discussion, it was found that the key problem of climate justice which was difficult to solve was the huge gap between rich countries and poor countries with regard to development, which resulted in the discussion of climate justice focusing on the relationship between feasibility of climate justice and the development gap between rich and poor countries. The principal contradiction of the current climate justice issue is the contradiction between the growing threat of climate change to the future survival of mankind and the social and economic development of contemporary poor countries. Developed countries must take the primary responsibility for climate justice and fulfill the obligation to help poor countries to achieve further social and economic development through financial support and achievement of new energy technologies.
作者 陈晓 CHEN Xiao (School of Philosophy, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China)
出处 《上海交通大学学报:哲学社会科学版》 CSSCI 北大核心 2018年第2期34-43,共10页 Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University(Social Science)
关键词 温室气体排放权 气候正义 人均分配原则 贫富差距 greenhouse gas emission rights climate justice per capita distribution principle gap between the rich and poor
作者简介 陈晓,中国人民大学哲学院博士研究生。
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参考文献1

  • 1孙振清..全球气候变化谈判历程与焦点[M].北京:中国环境科学出版社,2013:220.
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