As one of the most important principles of criminal procedure in continental law, the meaning of principle of substantive truth should be explained in the levels of intent and method sepa- rately. Its history can be divided into two phases, emergence and development. At the stage of emer- gence, it aimed at the pursuit of absolute truth, with the method that judge was the only judicial sub- ject, the defendant was the tool to ascertain the truth, and the investigation of evidences was not sub- ject to any restrictions. At the development stage, it aimed at pursuing ＂maximizing truth＂ with methodological characteristics ： dualization of the judicial officers, gradual waning of inquisitorial trial procedure, subjective tendency of the defendant, and diversification of the fact finding. The philo- sophical basis for this evolution can be summarized as monological cognitive theory which includes the ＂mirror＂ correspondence theory, scientific rationalism and value-free, and dialogical cognitive theo- ry which expressed as ＂match＂ correspondence theory, humanism and value relevance.
Law and Social Development
Principle of Substantive Truth