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半干旱地区补充灌溉对冬小麦根系及耗水特征的影响 被引量:1

Effects of Supplementary Irrigation on Root System and Water Consumption of Winter Wheat in Semiarid Region
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摘要 通过田间定位试验分析了不同生育期补充灌溉对冬小麦根系及土壤水分耗损特征的影响。试验共设4个处理,分别为雨养不灌溉(W0)、拔节期灌水30 mm(W1)、孕穗期灌水30 mm(W2)及拔节期灌水30 mm+孕穗期灌水30 mm(W3)。试验结果表明:在平水年,拔节期—开花期冬小麦耗水量占整个生育期耗水量的42%,在丰水年下降到29%。而补充灌溉仅在平水年型下提高了拔节—开花期的耗水比例,减弱了分蘖的两极分化,增加了开花期冬小麦群体数量,实现了增产,其中又以W1及W3效果最为显著。综合2 a数据,灌水实现了增产但并未有效提高产量水分利用效率(WUE)。究其原因可能是,在半干旱地区,冬小麦增产增效的关键在于生育后期对深层土壤水分的利用,而补充灌溉并没有增加冬小麦深层根系,反而降低了对土壤深层水分的利用程度,从而导致产量增加但水分利用效率(WUE)并未同步提升。 Supplementary irrigation is an important approach for increasing crop yield in dryland agriculture. However,its effects on the crop yield,crop water use efficiency and soil water consumption are different in previous researches. In this study,the effects of supplementary irrigation on the yield,population,water use efficiency and root distribution of winter wheat and the soil moisture content were investigated. The field experiments were conducted in continues two years at Changwu Research Station in the Loess Plateau,China. The experiments included four different irrigation treatments: no irrigation( W0),30 mm irrigation at jointing stage( W1),30 mm irrigation at booting stage( W2),and 30 mm irrigation at jointing stage + 30 mm irrigation at booting stage( W3). The results showed that the hsupplementary irrigation could be used to increase wheat yield,but not water use efficiency. The wheat yield could be increased more under the irrigation treatments of W1 and W3 than that under the W0 and W2. The proportions of water consumption during the jointing and flowering stages were 42% and 29% of the total water consumption during the whole growth period of winter wheat in the continue two years,and the supplemental irrigation increased the proportion of water consumption during the jointing-flowering stage in normal flow year,reduced the tillering polarization,and increased the population of winter wheat during its flowering stage. Supplementary irrigation affected significantly the root distribution by increasing shallow roots and decreasing deep roots. Compared with W0,the root densities at 1-2 m depth under the irrigation treatments of W1,W2 and W3 were decreased by 12%,7% and 16% in normal flow year,and by 31%,16% and 39% in high flow years. As a results,the supplementary irrigation failed to make the full use of deep soil water storage. In addition,the effect of supplementary irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of winter wheat was also significantly affected by rainfall during the gr
作者 杨文稼 王仕稳 李雨霖 孙海妮 殷修帅 殷俐娜 可庆波 邓西平 YANG Wen-jia1,2 ,WANG Shi-wen1,2,3,LI Yu-lin2,3 ,SUN Hai-ni1,2, YIN Xiu-shuai2,3,YIN Li-na1,2,3, KE Qinq-bo2,3, DENG Xi-ping2,3 (1. College of Resources and Environment, Northwest A &F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi , China; 2. lnsitute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi , China ; 3. State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau ,Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences/Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi , China )
出处 《干旱区研究》 CSCD 北大核心 2018年第4期920-928,共9页 Arid Zone Research
基金 国家科技支撑计划(2015BAD22B01) 国家重点基础研究发展计划(973)项目(2015CB150402)
关键词 补充灌溉 冬小麦 根系 水分利用效率 产量 耗水量 半干旱区 arid areasupplemental irrigation winter wheat root water use efficiency yield water consumption semi-
作者简介 杨文稼(1993-),男,硕士研究生,主要从事植物营养及旱地农业方面研究.E-mail:wenjiayangl23@126.com;通讯作者:王仕稳.E-mail:shiwenwang@nwsuaf.edu.cn
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