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被遗忘权:传统元素、新语境与利益衡量 被引量:13

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摘要 以同意权开始,以删除权(“被遗忘权”)收尾的一整套个人数据权利建立在“个人信息自治”的理念之上,体现了更高水平的个体权利保护,是对新媒介技术及其催生的互联网社会的法律应对。一方面,这些权利具有绝对权的某些特征,另一方面,它们并非放之四海而皆准,其最佳适用场合为当事人为平等主体的民事交易交往语境,包括21世纪新兴的社交网络。于此,是否以及在多大程度上利用公民个人信息,决定于当事人的意思。而当被遗忘权指向对互联网上旧闻及其搜索链接的删除时,则进入了新的语境,即新闻报道和信息自由对人格利益的侵入。此时,是否以及在多大程度上披露个人信息,决定于公共利益的需要,须考虑所报道事件的公共属性、信息的时效性和报道对当事人将会造成的影响。将旧报道置于互联网存档具有重大公共价值,且不属于对当事人进行新闻聚焦,故个体人格保护原则上应让位于信息自由。基于类似的利益衡量,应当认为,如源网址的公开不构成侵权,只有在极特殊的情况下才允许发生移除姓名搜索链接的后果。 The bundle of rights to the protection of personal data,beginning with right of consent and ending with right to erasure(right to be forgotten),is based on the conviction in personal information autonomy,which reflects the protection of individuals at a higher level and embodies the legal reaction to new media technology and the Internet society arising thereof.On the one hand,these rights have certain characteristics of absolute rights;on the other hand,they are not universally applicable.They can be best applied in the civil transaction context,including social network that flourishes in the 21st century,where the subjects have equal status and the will of the subjects is decisive as regards whether and to which degree personal data can be utilized.When the right to be forgotten is directed at deletion of old news online and their hyper-links from the Internet,the discussion enters into a different context,i.e.the invasion of personality interest by news reports and information freedom,where disclosure of personal data depends on the outcome of legal balancing.Consideration is given to the nature of the reported event,timeliness of the information and the impact of the report on the subject of data.Internet archiving of old news has significant public value and does not constitute focusing of the individual,thus the protection of personality should in principle give place to freedom of information.For the same reason,when the publication of personal data on the original website does not constitute an infringement,deletion of hyper-links thereof based on the function of name search can be approved only in very special circumstances.
作者 刘文杰
出处 《法学研究》 CSSCI 北大核心 2018年第2期24-41,共18页 Cass Journal of Law
关键词 个人信息保护 数据删除权 被遗忘权 信息自由 protection of personal information right to erasure right to be forgotten freedom of information
作者简介 中国传媒大学法律系副教授
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