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核磁共振技术在污水等环境样品分析中的应用 预览

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for Sewage Analysis
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摘要 随着城市化的加剧和化肥、农药使用量的增加,作为生命之源的水已经受到了严重的污染。水污染降低了水体的使用功能,加剧了水资源短缺,水污染严重破坏生态环境、影响人类生存,因此,对污水等的有害成分分析很有必要。核磁共振技术可以在简单预处理或不做任何预处理的状态下获得不同物理状态分析物的分子层次的信息,这非常适合环境研究。本文概述了污水处理的简要流程,核磁共振技术的应用现状,重点论述了核磁共振技术在污水成分检测分析中的理论依据和应用原理,并以实例说明了应用核磁共振技术检测各类污水成分的效果。最后展望了核磁共振技术将来的发展方向,并建议加强应用技术的理论向实践推广和加快新仪器的研发工作,为改善环境质量、降低检测成本提供新的技术手段。 Water pollution is increasingly becoming a serious problem with the development of industry,the augment of population,the over-rapid urbanization and the uncontrolled application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.Water pollution is usually caused by various pollutant substances discharged into the water.Commonly,there are four kinds of pollution sources.First,the waste water and liquid from industrial production,ordinarily containing raw/finished materials unavailable,intermediate products,by-products and pollutants engendered.Second,the drainage collected by the sewer pipes,mostly coming from various domestic sewage and industrial effluents.Third,the polluting liquid substances out from agricultural activities.Fourth,the solid and semi-solid waste materials from people’s lives and industrial process.Water pollution is malign as it has already reduced the utilization of water,exacerbated the shortage of water resources,seriously damaged the ecological environment and affected human health.Therefore,it is necessary to analyze the harmful components in polluted water/sewage.Nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR)boasts of simple sample preparation,small destructivity to the analytes and complete component resolution so that it has got a great attention and been widely applied by most researchers among physics,chemistry,biology,medicine,food and other sciences.NMR can obtain information at the molecular level of different physical states with simple or even without sample pretreatment,thus excelling in environmental research.This paper emphasizes on the theoretical basis and application principle of NMR technique for analyzing the components in polluted water/sewage,illustrates the effect of NMR on detecting various components from sewage,together with the brief introduction to the sewage disposal process and NMR application status.Finally,a prospect was made on the progress of NMR technique,suggesting that the theory ought to be strengthened for applying NMR,the relevant new instruments should be researched and deve
作者 李彭 高利生 LI Peng;GAO Lisheng(Institute of Forensic Science,Ministry of Public Security,Beijing 100038,China)
出处 《刑事技术》 2019年第1期66-73,共8页 Forensic Science and Technology
基金 中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金项目(No.2016JB008).
关键词 核磁共振 环境样品 污水 NMR(nuclear magnetic resonance) environmental samples sewage/polluted water
作者简介 第一作者:李彭(1986—),男,山东泰安人,硕士,助理研究员,研究方向为毒品检验。E-mail:lipeng77727@163.com
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