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中国有机农业发展:贡献与启示 预览

Organic agriculture development in China:Challenges and implications
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摘要 改革开放40年以来,中国农业和农村经济取得了令人瞩目的成就。当前,农业和农村发展正从数量型向质量和数量型并重的模式转变,需要对农业发展模式和措施进一步优化,其中有机农业近年来得到较快发展。到2016年底,中国有机农业耕地面积(180万hm^2)约占全国耕地面积的1.5%,有机产值和销售额分别达1323亿元和450.6亿元。有机农业发展,具有显著的环境、经济和社会效益,特别是在促进物质循环利用、发挥农业生态系统内生能力、加强生产者与消费者互动、振兴乡村经济、创造宜居环境等方面能够发挥重要作用。有机农业也面临着无法充分保障氮素供应以及适度规模化困难等挑战,需要在发展中考虑和关注。政府应制定和实施相应政策,采取生态补偿等具体措施,引导有机农业合理、有序发展。此外,发展有机农业更重要的意义在于对常规农业进行生态化改造,将有机农业理念、原则和技术在常规农业中推广应用,促进中国农业的健康和可持续发展。 Over the past 4 decades after the reform and opening up policy in 1978,rural and agricultural development in China has been highly successful.Currently,rural and agricultural development in China has switched from quantitative goal to dual quantitative and qualitative goals,which sought for the optimization of modes and practices of agricultural development,and organic agriculture is an alternative approach.By the end of 2016,organically managed farmland was 1.8 million hm^2,accounting 1.5%of total farmland in China.The production and sales values of organic agriculture were respectively 132.3 billion and 45.06 billion RMB.Organic agriculture has significant environmental,economic and social benefits,especially for nutrient recycles,empowerment of inner capacity of agro-ecosystem,enhancement of communication between farmers and consumers,revitalization of rural economy and creation of harmonious living environment.However,organic agriculture has also faced challenges of limited supply of nitrogen for crop production and difficulties for large-scale extension;all of which need to be fully addressed during the dissemination of organic agriculture.There is the need to develop and implement policies by the government(including ecological compensation)to guide the rational development of organic farming.Besides direct benefits,the most important implications and significances of organic agriculture are ecological intensification of conventional farming and introduction of principles,concepts and technologies of organic farming into conventional farming.This will help to promote healthy and sustainable rural and agricultural development in China.
作者 孟凡乔 MENG Fanqiao(Beijing Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Organic Farming,College of Resources and Environmental Sciences,ChinaAgricultural University/Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation,Beijing 100193,China)
出处 《中国生态农业学报(中英文)》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第2期198-205,共8页 Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture
基金 “十三五”国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0201204) “十二五”国家科技支撑计划项目(2014BAK19B05)资助.
关键词 有机农业 常规农业 农业生态系统 产量 环境 Organic agriculture Conventional agriculture Agro-ecosystem Nitrogen Yield Environment
作者简介 孟凡乔,主要研究方向为农业生态系统碳氮循环。E-mail:mengfq@cau.edu.cn
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参考文献4

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