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庄子的科技思想及其对当代科技教育的启示 预览

Zhuangzi’s Scientific and Technological Thoughts and the Inspiration for the Contemporary Education of Science and Technology
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摘要 庄子认为,逍遥有三种境界,只有达到乘天地之正以御六气之变的境界,才有可能达到无待的逍遥。因此,在科学教育中要加强科学理论和人文思想的教育,以驾驭变化不定的技术;要培养协作精神和协作能力,依靠群体的力量克服“吾生也有涯而知也无涯”的矛盾。庄子还提出了“所好者道,进乎技矣”的思想,要求将技能上升为艺能。因此,在科技教育中首先要精熟技术,这需要专心致志地反复磨练;其次要抛弃功利心;再次要探讨技术背后的原理;最后要从自然之道中领悟为人之道。庄子认为,功利机巧必然让人丧失纯真的本心,无道的技术一方面导致对自然之物的破坏,另一方面导致对人的自然本性的破坏。因此,科技教育不能培养“风波之民”,而要培养“全德之人”;要守护人的“天机”,培养“真人”。 Zhuangzi proposes that the goal of one’s life is to pursue an independent and absolute freedom. To wander in absolute freedom, man must firstly shake off the bondage of worldly external evaluation and establish his own existence. Then he must ride on the true course of Heaven and Earth, and harness the changes of the Six Vital Elements, namely, to master the laws of Nature, understand the laws of Heaven and Earth, so as to control the changeable things, thus freeing himself from the bondage of the external material world. However, an individual is unable to reach such realm, because wandering in absolute freedom is only a long-term goal pursued by human groups. Contemporary science and technology education has obvious partiality for a certain discipline or specialty, resulting in difficulties in communication between disciplines or specialties, and also in lack of students' cooperative spirit and ability. As a result, the goal of governing the material world by human beings as a group can not be achieved.However, Zhuangzi's ideas of “wandering in absolute freedom” can shed some light on the contemporary science and technology education. First, we should strengthen general education so as to master the changeable technology. General education not only refers to the acquirement of theoretical basis and research methods of technology, but also the learning of cultural thoughts, philosophy in particular. Second, we should cultivate the students’ cooperative spirit and ability by constructing double-degree system and major-minor system for them, and encourage them to acquire interdisciplinary professional knowledge;to stress the integration of disciplines, the update of specialties and the construction of new specialties;to encourage the interdisciplinary learning at different educational stages. In a word, by focusing on such large-scale projects, we should develop comprehensive technology education integrating science, technology and humanities. Zhuangzi also puts forward the idea of “What I love is Tao, w
作者 姜国钧 黄卓 JIANG Guo-jun;HUANG Zhuo(不详)
出处 《大学教育科学》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第2期93-98,126共7页 University Education Science
关键词 庄子 科技思想 科技教育 艺能 天机 真人 Zhuangzi scientific and technological thought education of science and technology artistic skill natural gift true man
作者简介 姜国钧(1962-),男,湖南宁乡人,教育学博士,中南大学公共管理学院教授,主要从事中国教育史、高等教育学研究;黄卓,中南大学公共管理学院硕士研究生.
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