基于黑龙江省26个气象站1960—2015年逐日气象数据和29个水稻灌溉试验站的作物系数,利用Penman Monteith方法和Arcmap空间分析功能计算并绘制了1960—1979年、1980—1999年和2000—2015年3个阶段水稻生长季参考作物蒸散量( ET 0 )、水稻生育期天数、需水量、有效降雨量和需水量与有效降雨量耦合度及相应的气候倾向率分布图。结果表明:水稻生长季 ET 0 平均值为620 mm,自西向东总体表现为先减小后增大趋势,风速、湿度、日照时数的减小和温度的升高共同作用导致水稻生长季 ET 0 以-3.90 mm/(10 a)的平均速度下降;生育期平均天数为115 d,自北向南总体表现为增加趋势,温度升高引起了水稻生育期天数以2.68 d/(10 a)的平均速度增加;水稻生育期有效降雨量平均值为297.03 mm,自西向东总体表现为先增大后减小的趋势,生育期天数的增加也弥补了降雨量减小的影响,使有效降雨量以0.62 mm/(10 a)的平均速度增加;需水量平均值为490.52 mm,自西向东总体表现为先减小后增加的趋势,生育期天数的增加弥补了 ET 0 减小对需水量的影响,使研究区内水稻需水量以 6.66 mm/(10 a)的平均速度增加;需水量与有效降雨量耦合度平均值为0.64,自西向东表现为先增加后减小的趋势,需水量增幅大于有效降雨量增幅,使需水量与有效降雨量耦合度总体以-0.009/(10 a)速度下降。本研究可为黑龙江省合理分配灌溉水资源和优化水稻品种布局提供依据。
Distribution maps of ET0 during rice growth season, day of growth period (DGP), crop water requirement ( ETc ), effective precipitation ( Pe ), coupling degree of ETc and Pe , and their climatic tendencies during 1970s, 1990s and 2010s were calculated and drawn by Penman Monteith method and Arcmap spatial analysis based on daily meteorological data in 1960-2015 of 26 meteorological stations and crop coefficient of 29 rice irrigation experimental stations in Heilongjiang Province. The result showed that the average ET0 during rice growth season was 620 mm, it was decreased firstly, and then increased from west to east, the decrease of wind speed, humidity, sunshine hours and the increase of temperature led to the decrease of ET0 at a climatic tendency of -3.90 mm/(10 a). The average DGP was 115 d, and it showed an increase trend from north to south, the increase of temperature caused DGP to increase at a climatic tendency of 2.68 d/(10 a). The average Pe in rice growth period was 297.03 mm, which was increased firstly and then decreased from west to east, the increase of DGP compensated for the decrease of rainfall, and the Pe was increased at an average climatic tendency of 0.62 mm/(10 a). The average ETc was 490.52 mm, which was decreased firstly and then increased from west to east, the increase of DGP compensated for the effect of ET0 on ETc , and the ETc was increased at an average climatic tendency of 6.66 mm/(10 a). The average coupling degree of ETc and Pe was 0.64, which was increased firstly and then decreased from west to east, the increase of ETc was larger than that of Pe , which made the coupling degree of ETc and Pe decrease at an average climatic tendency of -0.009/(10 a). The research result provided a basis for rational allocation of irrigation water resources and rice variety layout in Heilongjiang Province.
Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery