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第二次世界大战后法国的乡村复兴与重构

Rural Renaissance and Rural Restructuring in France After World War Ⅱ
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摘要 第二次世界大战后,法国在"光辉三十年"中经历了经济的腾飞、城市化和工业化的快速发展,同时遭遇了乡村地区的人口外流、老龄化和空心化,社会各界对乡村的未来一度非常悲观。然而自1970年代开始,法国乡村地区出现人口回流、经济复兴、社会重组以及空间提升和城乡关系改善的新局面。本文梳理了20世纪后半叶法国乡村复兴与重构的过程,总结出其总体趋势:城市人口回流使得乡村地区的社会结构与城市趋同,甚至面临更加严峻的老龄化趋势;土地整理促进了农业生产的规模化发展,中小企业兴起不仅提升了乡村地区的经济活力,同时带动了乡村地区的旅游业、服务业和地产业的增长;人口和产业的变化塑造了新的乡土空间,一方面空间组织呈现就业集中化、居住分散化和服务等级化的特点,另一方面国土功能以农业生产为主向居住、休闲旅游、环境保护和景观遗产兼备转变。文章认为,乡村复兴与重构意味着人、产、地等生产要素的全面重组,既需要以开放的市场环境和公平的制度环境为前提,更需要有公共政策的积极干预,并且要重视包括小城镇在内的中小城市的作用。凡此,均可为我国即将到来的乡村复兴与重构提供有益参考。 During the thirty years of glorious development after World War II, when France saw rapid industrialization and urbanization driven by strong economic regeneration, its rural areas had suffered from continuous outflow and remarkable aging, which once made the whole society quite pessimistic about the future of rural France. However, since the 1970s, rural France saw a series of new figures, such as demographic growth, economic restructuring and social reconfiguration, which led to a significant transformation of the rural landscape and the urban-rural interrelationship. This article reviews the process of renaissance and restructuring of rural France in the later part of the 20th century, and summarizes its general trends: the back flow of urban population to the countryside made the rural society tend to have the same social structure as the urban society but a more serious situation of aging;Land adjustment promoted the scaled development of agriculture, while the prosperity of small- and medium-sized enterprises promoted the economic vitality of the countryside, in particular the growth of tourism, service and real estate;The demographic and industrial changes shaped a new rural territory, with its spatial organization being characterized by the concentration of employment, the dispersion of residence, and the hierarchization of services and its function being transformed from agricultural production to the integration of residence, tourism, environmental protection and landscape heritage. It argues that rural renaissance and restructuring implies the fundamental reconfiguration of the productive elements of people, industry and land and relies on an open market environment, a fair institutional environment, and a positive governmental intervention, with due attention to the role of small towns and small- and medium-sized cities. All these can serve as useful reference for the rural revitalization in China.
作者 范冬阳 刘健 Fan Dongyang;Liu Jian(不详)
出处 《国际城市规划》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第3期87-95,108共10页 URBAN PLANNING INTERNATIONAL
基金 国家自然科学基金(51678326).
关键词 法国乡村 乡村复兴 乡村发展 乡村振兴 美丽乡村建设 Rural France Rural Renaissance Rural Development Rural Revitalization Beautiful Countryside Construction
作者简介 范冬阳,清华大学建筑学院,博士研究生;通信作者:刘健,博士,清华大学建筑学院,长聘副教授,博士生导师.
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