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面向室内应急疏散标识的VR眼动感知实验与布局评估

VR Eye-Tracking Perception Experiment and Layout Evaluation for Indoor Emergency Evacuation Signs
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摘要 在室内应急疏散的背景下,理解人们如何感知应急疏散标识以及他们的感知如何影响疏散行为十分重要。虚拟地理环境基于虚拟现实(VR)技术构建的沉浸式多维信息空间,是一个符合人类感知认知规律的三维、动态、可交互空间。而基于虚拟地理环境的虚拟地理感知/认知实验,则可以提供一个可定量观测的可控虚拟实验环境,通过设计多种实验方案,定量地获取与空间感知、认知行为相关的客观实验数据。本文将沉浸式虚拟环境与眼动追踪技术相结合,设计了VR眼动感知实验,以室内通道为例,采用定量观测、数据统计、可视化分析等方法,对不同虚拟火灾逃生场景下的疏散时间、眼动注视点、个体移动轨迹数据进行了处理与分析,最后对室内应急疏散标识布局进行评估并提出合理建议。实验结果表明:①女性参与者比男性更容易被逃生起始位置干扰,拥有较差的虚拟空间感;②3种场景类型(无标识无烟雾、有标识无烟雾、有标识有烟雾)在疏散时间之间存在明显差异,应急标识、烟雾与逃生起始位置对疏散时间有显著性影响;③通道墙贴标识的感知率最高为0.929,在火灾逃生中最容易被识别;④安全出口标识感知率最低为0.333,眼动注视点大多在安全门而非安全出口标识上,因此需要提升安全出口标识的视觉吸引力;⑤室内通道微观环境的不同(例如通道长度)对应急标识注视时长的变化有较大影响;⑥安全出口附近的标识布局、设计有待改进。虚拟眼动感知实验为评估室内应急疏散标识的合理性和布局优化提供了一个有效的科学途径。 In the context of indoor emergency evacuation,it is important to understand how people perceive emergency evacuation signs and how their perceptions affect evacuation behaviour.As a new generation of geospatial cognitive analysis tool,virtual geographic environments (VGE) provides an immersive multidimensional information space based on virtual reality (VR) technology.It is a three-dimensional,dynamic,and interactive space that conforms to the laws of human perception and cognition.Moreover,based on virtual geographical environments,virtual geographical perception/cognition experiment has developed rapidly,which plays an important role in many research fields including physical geography,environment and health,crowd evacuation,and human-computer interaction,providing a controlled virtual experimental environment that can be observed quantitatively.By designing a variety of experimental schemes,objective experimental data related to spatial perception and cogrdtive behaviour can be obtained.By combining immersive virtual environment with eye-tracking technology,a VR eye-tracking perception experiment was designed in this study.Taking the indoor corridor as an example,the data of evacuation time,eye movement fixation point,and individual movement trajectory under three types of different virtual fire escape scenarios were obtained,processed,and analyzed by quantitative observation,data statistics,and visual analysis.Finally,the layout of indoor emergency evacuation signs was evaluated and suggestions were proposed.We found that female participants were more likely to be disturbed by the starting position of escape than male participants,and had a poorer sense of virtual space.The evacuation time differed notably among the three types of scenario (no-sign,sign,and smoke).Emergency evacuation signs,smoke,and the initial position of escape had significant influence on evacuation time.The channel wall sign had the highest perception rate (0.929) and was most easily recognized by pedestrians in fire escape.The safety ex
作者 马晓辉 周洁萍 龚建华 黄琳 李文航 邹宇玲 MA Xiaohui;ZHOU Jieping;GONG Jianhua;HUANG Lin;LI Wenhang;ZOU Yuling(Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100101,China;University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049,China;Zhejiang-CAS Application Center for Geoinformatics,Jiaxing 314199,China)
出处 《地球信息科学学报》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第8期1170-1182,共13页 Journal of Geo-information Science
基金 中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA19080101) 中国科学院遥感与数字地球所所长青年基金项目(Y5SJ1900CX) 国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFB0503602) 装备发展部预研项目(315050501) 国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(41701469)。
关键词 应急疏散标识 眼动感知实验 虚拟现实 虚拟火灾逃生 布局评估 虚拟地理环境 眼动追踪 emergency evacuation signs eye-tracking perception experiment virtual reality virtual fire escape layout evaluation virtual geographic environments eye tracking
作者简介 马晓辉(1994-),女,河北石家庄人,硕士生,主要从事虚拟地理环境研究。E-mail:annmxh@163.com;通讯作者:周洁萍(1979-),女,江苏南京人,博士,助理研究员,主要从事虚拟地理环境、地学可视化等研究。E-mail:zhoiyp@radi.ac.cn.
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