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新中国成立70年来城乡关系的演变

The Evolution of Urban-Rural Relations in the 70 YearsSince the Founding of New China
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摘要 新中国成立70年来,城乡关系发生了转折性变化,可以分为三个时期:一是改革前的严重偏斜时期,在由统购统销制度、人民公社制度、户籍制度"三大支柱”构成的传统体制下,农民通过农业税、工农产品价格“剪刀差”为国家工业化积累资金,造成了城乡关系的严重偏斜和农业农村自我发展能力的丧失;二是自改革开放到中共十九大召开前的改善时期,由于一系列“三农”政策的实施,城乡关系从改革初期的“恢复性缓和”到20世纪末期的紧张加剧,再到新世纪以来由于政策、体制、机制的变化导致的“实质性改善”;三是中共十九大提出乡村振兴战略,中国的城乡关系进入融合发展时期。预计2035年基本实现现代化时,城乡关系整体上达到当前发达县市的水平。 In the 70 years since the founding of New China, the urban-rural relationship has undergone a turning point and can be divided into three periods. First, during the period of severe deviation before the reform, under the traditional system consisting of the urdfied purchasing and marketing system, the people's commune system, and the “three pillars” of the household registration system, farmers accumulating funds for the industrialization of the country through the “scissors difference" of agricultural taxes and industrial and agricultural products, resulting in The serious deviation of urbanrural relations and the loss of agricultural and rural self-development capabilities. The second is from the reform and opening up to the improvement period before the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. Due to the implementation of a series of “three rural” policies, the urban-rural relationship has intensified from the urestorative relaxation,, in the early stage of reform to the tension in the late 20th century, and then to the “substantial improvement” in the new century due to changes in policies, institutions, and mechanisms. Third, the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed a strategy for rural revitalization, and China5s urban-rural relationship entered a period of integrated development. It is expected that when urbanization is basically achieved in 2035, the urban-rural relationship as a whole will reach the level of the current developed counties and cities.
作者 孔祥智 Kong Xiangzhi(School of Agriculture and Rural Development,Renmin University of China,Beijing 100872)
出处 《教学与研究》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第8期5-14,共10页 Teaching and Research
基金 研究阐述党的十九大精神国家社科基金专项课题“实现小农户和现代农业发展有机衔接研究”(项目号:18VSJ062)的阶段性成果。
关键词 城乡关系 城乡统筹 城乡一体化 城乡融合 乡村振兴 urban-rural relationship urban-rural integration rural revitalization
作者简介 孔祥智,中国人民大学农业与农村发展学院教授、农村发展研究所所长(北京100872)。
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