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不同干湿交替灌溉与氮肥形态耦合下水稻根系生长及功能差异 预览

Comparison of rice root development and function among different degrees of dry-wet alternative irrigation coupled with nitrogen forms
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摘要 【目的】适宜的灌溉方式及氮肥管理是水稻高产高效的有效途径,大多数研究集中于地上部分及产量品质的形成,而对于根系形态生理及其与产量之间的关系研究还不够深入。本文探讨了干湿交替灌溉方式与氮肥形态耦合对水稻根系形态、生理及代谢的影响,探索干湿交替灌溉与氮肥形态耦合机理,为水稻高产及根系生理提供理论依据。【方法】试验于2016和2017年在河南科技大学试验农场进行,以徐稻3号为材料,供试土壤土质为黏壤土,采用灌水方式和氮肥形态二因素随机试验,设置CK [浅水层灌溉(0 kPa)]、WMD[轻度干湿交替灌溉(–20 kPa)]和WSD[重度干湿交替灌溉(–40 kPa)] 3种灌溉方式。氮肥供应设置铵态氮∶硝态氮三个混合比例处理:100∶0、50∶50 (即1∶1)、0∶100,由硫酸铵、硝酸铵和硝酸钠提供氮源。在分蘖盛期、穗分化始期、抽穗期和成熟期采样,以水稻茎基部为中心,挖取20 cm (长)×20 cm (宽)×30 cm (深)的土块测定干湿交替灌溉和氮肥形态处理的水稻根长、直径、表面积、体积、根尖数等根系形态指标、根系氧化力,采集根系伤流液分析其中氨基酸、蛋白质、可溶性糖含量以及在成熟期测定产量和产量构成。【结果】灌溉方式与氮肥形态之间存在显著的互作关系。WMD与铵硝1∶1耦合后水稻产量最高,达到1015.8 g/m^2,为本试验的最佳互作组合模式。WMD下,铵硝1∶1处理主要生育时期的根长显著增加了10.6%~17.0%,平均根直径增加了3.98%~25.25%,根体积增加了5.27%~26.40%,根表面积增加了6.27%~25.19%,提高了根尖数、根系伤流液中氨基酸、蛋白质、可溶性糖的含量,促进了根系的碳氮代谢和对养分、水分的吸收。WSD降低单位面积穗数及每穗粒数,显著降低水稻产量,铵硝100∶0处理平均降低38.20%、铵硝1∶1平均降低29.94%、铵硝0∶100平均降低35.0%,减少了根系长度,降低根体积、根 【Objectives】Rice(Oryza sativa L.) is one of the main staple food crops in the world. Nitrogen application and irrigation play key roles in rice production. This study investigated the coupling effects of dry-wet alternative irrigation with nitrogen supplying forms on root morphology and physiology of rice, to provide a theoretical basis for efficient water and nutrient management in high-yield production of rice.【Methods】Field experiments were conducted with completely 2-factor random design in the Pilot Farm of Henan University of Science and Technology in 2016 and 2017, the tested rice cultivar was Oryza sativa L. cv. Xudao-3 and the soil was clay loam. Three N form treatments of NH4+-N∶NO3–-N ratio in 100∶0, 50∶50(1∶1) and 0∶100 were set up, using ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate as the required N sources and with three irrigation regimes included shallow submerged irrigation control(CK, 0 kPa), alternative wetting and moderate drying(–20 kPa, WMD) and alternate wetting and severe drying(–40 kPa, WSD). Plant and soil samples were collected at mid-tillering, panicle initiation, heading and maturity stages. In soil sample volume of 20 cm × 20 cm × 30 cm with the plant stem in the center, root length, diameter, surface area, volume and tip number were measured, the oxidative ability and the contents of amino acid, protein and soluble sugar in root bleeding sap were determined. The yield and its composition at maturity were investigated.【Results】There was a significant interaction between irrigation regime and nitrogen forms. Grain yield was the highest in the treatment of ammonium nitrate ratio 1∶1 coupling with WMD among all treatments in two years. Under WMD, the ammonium nitrate ratio 50∶50 treatment enhanced root length, average root diameter, root volume and root surface area at the main growth stages with averages of 10.6%–17.0%, 3.98%–25.25%, 5.27%–26.40% and6.27%–25.19%, respectively, and increased the number of root tips, the contents of amin
作者 陆大克 段骅 王维维 刘明爽 魏艳秋 徐国伟 LU Da-ke;DUAN Hua;WANG Wei-wei;LIU Ming-shuang;WEI Yan-qiu;XU Guo-wei(Agronomy College, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471003, China;Crop Institute, Tianjin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Tianjin 300112, China)
出处 《植物营养与肥料学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第8期1362-1372,共11页 Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers
基金 国家自然科学基金项目(U1304316,31601248) 江苏省作物栽培生理重点实验室开放基金(027388003K11009) 天津市应用基础与前沿技术研究计划(青年项目15JCQNJC14800) 河南省国际人才合作项目(GH2019024)。
关键词 干湿交替灌溉 氮肥形态 根系形态 根系活力 伤流液组分 dry-wet alternative irrigation nitrogen fertilizer form root morphology root activity composition of root bleeding sap
作者简介 联系方式:陆大克,E-mail:18638838547@163.com;通信作者:徐国伟,E-mail:gwxu2007@163.com.
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