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基于话语分析的广义“去安全化”理论建构

The Construction of Generalized Theory of Desecuritization Based on Discourse Analysis
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摘要 狭义的"去安全化"是指将安全议题移出安全领域而置于常态政治领域的过程,而广义的"去安全化"则包括防止尚未被"安全化"的问题被"安全化"或"过度安全化",以及防止已经被"安全化"了的议题被"超安全化"。广义的"去安全化"不仅是安全化的逆向过程,也是国家行为体通过创设以"和合共生"为核心的共同语境来建构适合双方的价值认同与合作机制的过程。把话语分析中的施事话语、价值认同和交往生态三个要素引入广义"去安全化"理论十分重要,而外交对接合法化和互文性则是分析广义"去安全化"理论在外交实践中作用的重要维度。在美国等国越来越趋向于对中国实施全面安全化战略的语境下,中国需要重视广义"去安全化"的理论及其应用,打造以"构建新型国际关系与人类命运共同体"为核心的中国特色大国外交话语体系,建构具有中国特色并被国际社会认可的规范性力量。 Securitization theory introduced by the Copenhagen School has brought about a breakthrough in the paradigm of security studies,in which the concept of desecuritization in particular has provided a new methodological perspective for exploring the diplomatic path of″positive peace″.However,the Copenhagen School has not constructed a theoretical framework for understanding desecuritization,nor has it clearly elaborated a definition of desecuritization that is entailed in inform foreign policy and its impacts on the international community.Desecuritization in a narrow sense refers to the process of moving security issues out of the security realm and placing them into normal politics.In a broad sense,however,desecuritization should also include actions designed to prevent non-securitized issues from becoming securitized,and securitized issues from being hyper-securitized.Desecuritization is not only a reverse process of securitization,but also a process in which state actors construct suitable bilateral identities,values,and cooperation mechanisms through the creation of shared contexts with″harmony and coexistence″at its core. Past research on desecuritization has been characterized by a Western-centric logic.However,following the rise of non-Western countries on the international stage,the construction of a generalized theory of desecuritization is crucial not only for enhancing the broad explanatory power of this theory,but also for promoting experiences exchanging and cultural merging across different regions of the world.Given these shortcomings we introduce three important elements from discourse analysis into ageneralized theory of desecuritization,including″performative utterance″,″identity of values″,and″communicative ecology″.″Performative utterance″demonstrates that diplomatic discourse characterized by desecuritization serves as a perlocutionary act,whereby the discourse structure and the discursiveenvironment reflecting values and identities embedded in diplomatic affairs play a d
作者 余潇枫 张伟鹏 Yu Xiaofeng;Zhang Weipeng(School of Public Affairs,Zhejiang University,Hangzhou 310058,China;Department for International and Strategic Studies,China Institute of International Studies,Beijing 100005,China)
出处 《浙江大学学报:人文社会科学版》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第4期19-33,共15页 Journal of Zhejiang University:Humanities and Social Sciences
关键词 广义“去安全化” 话语分析 外交对接 施事话语 交往生态 general theory of desecuritization discourse analysis linkage diplomacy performative utterance communicative ecology
作者简介 余潇枫(https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2319-3461),男,浙江大学公共管理学院教授,博士生导师,哲学博士,主要从事非传统安全理论研究;张伟鹏(https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5180-9956),男,中国国际问题研究院国际战略研究所助理研究员,管理学博士,主要从事国际战略、非传统安全理论研究。
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