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施肥复合化率及复合肥消费现状与变化分析(一)

Analysis of Fertilization Compounding Rate and Compound Fertilizer Consumption Status and Changes(Part Ⅰ)
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摘要 通过跨越10年的2个时间段,对全国22个省、市、自治区70种作物、3602家农户的施肥基本情况进行调查并对统计数据予以汇总,以掌握我国施肥复合化率水平、农户习惯施肥养分投入状况及变化规律,进而明确复合肥产业的未来发展趋势,为施肥推荐和宏观政策的制定提供理论支撑。研究结果表明:基于大量的农户施肥调查,各类作物复合肥施用比率均有所提升,平均提高31.2%;在基肥中施用复合肥的比率大幅提高,各类作物平均提高28.5%;不同作物单位面积复合肥施用量大幅增加,平均增幅77.2%;复合肥作为玉米基肥的施用方式发生了一定变化,春玉米的深翻覆土比例下降而穴施(种肥同播)比例大幅上升,夏玉米种肥同播比例上升至76.0%而沟施或撒施比列下降至11.6%;商品有机肥施用比率大幅上升,平均增幅351.7%;追肥的用肥结构发生变化,施用单质肥的比率下降,施用复合肥的比率显著提升,水溶肥、叶面肥等特种肥料在经济作物上的施用比率上升;专用型复合肥在基肥和追肥上的施用比率呈上升趋势。 Through two periods spanning 10 years,the basic situation of fertilization of 70 crops and 3602 farmers in 22 provinces,municipalities,and autonomous regions in China has been investigated,and the statistical data have been summarized in order to grasp the level of fertilization compounding rate and status and change law of nutrient input of farmers in customary fertilization in China,and then clarify the future development trend of the compound fertilizer industry,so as to provide theoretical support for fertilization recommendation and the formulation of macro policies.The research results show that based on the large number of farmer fertilization surveys,the use rate of compound fertilizers for various crops has increased,with an average increase of 31.2%;the use rate of compound fertilizers in base fertilizers has increased significantly,with an average increase of 28.5%for various crops;the amount of compound fertilizer applied per unit area of different crops has increased significantly,with an average increase of 77.2%;the utilization mode of compound fertilizer in corn base fertilizer has changed to a certain extent.The proportion of deep tillage and covering soil of spring corn has decreased while the proportion of hole application(seed and fertilizer sowing together)has increased significantly.The proportion of summer corn seed and fertilizer sowing together has increased to 76.0%,while the proportion of furrow fertilization or spray fertilization has decreased to 11.6%;the use rate of commercial organic fertilizers has increased sharply,with an average increase of 351.7%;the structure of topdressing fertilizers has changed,the use rate of straight fertilizers has decreased,while the use rate of compound fertilizers has increased significantly,and the use rate of special fertilizers such as water-soluble fertilizers and foliar fertilizers on cash crops has increased;the application rate of special compound fertilizer applied to base fertilizer and topdressing is on the rise.
作者 贾可 沈兵 张天山 朱彦锋 曲艳娣 王旭 JIA Ke;SHEN Bing;ZHANG Tianshan;ZHU Yanfeng;QU Yandi;WANG Xu(College of Resources and Environmental Sciences,Hebei Agricultural University,Baoding,Hebei 071001,China;China BlueChemical Ltd.,Beijing 100029,China;Sino-Arab Chemical Fertilizer Co.,Ltd.,Qinhuangdao,Hebei 066003,China)
出处 《肥料与健康》 CAS 2020年第2期1-5,共5页 Journal of the Chemical Fertilizer Industry
关键词 复合肥 复合化率 施肥推荐 消费现状 发展趋势 宏观政策 compound fertilizer compounding rate fertilization recommendation consumption status development trend macro policy
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