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刈割干扰对羊草草甸草原植物功能群及多样性的影响

Effects of Mowing Disturbance on Grassland Plant Functional Groups and Diversity in Leymus chinensis Meadow Steppe
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摘要 【目的】刈割是草原主要利用方式之一,植物功能群和群落物种多样性是判别干扰条件下草地生态系统退化的重要生态学指标。研究不同刈割干扰下羊草草甸草原植物功能群和群落物种多样性的变化,了解刈割干扰下草原功能群与多样性变化过程和机制,为退化割草地生态恢复提供理论依据。【方法】以呼伦贝尔羊草草甸草原时空刈割配置为试验平台,于2014—2018年植物生长最旺盛的季节(即每年8月初),采用样方法对各个小区进行群落植被调查。分析一年一割(G1)、两年一割(G2)、漏割带10 m(G3)、漏割带5 m(G4)和对照(CK)处理下草甸草原群落功能群和物种多样性变化以及刈割时间和不同刈割处理间的交互作用,探讨植物功能群与群落物种多样性的相关关系。【结果】研究发现羊草(Leymus chinensis)在不同刈割制度下均为优势物种,但是随着刈割频次的增加呈现出羊草重要值逐渐降低,退化指示物种星毛委陵菜(Potentilla acaulis)、披针叶黄华(Thermopsis lanceolate)等重要值增加的趋势;两年一割处理下羊草、糙隐子草(Cleistogenes squarrosa)、长柱沙参(Adenophora stenanthina)、柴胡(Bupleurum scorzonerifolium)和草地早熟禾(Poa ratensis)等植物重要值均高于其他处理。一年一割和常年不刈割处理下草地植物禾本科和豆科植物重要值所占比例减少,以退化植物居多的菊科和莎草科植物所占比例增加,在漏割带为10 m处理草地的豆科植物增加;刈割处理5年后,不同刈割制度下植物群落物种多样性指数均有增加,其中漏割带为10 m处理Shannon-Wiener多样性和Simpson优势度指数增加明显。5个刈割处理均匀度指数变化趋势不同,其中G3和G4处理草地的群落均匀度有增加的趋势,分别增加16%和5.8%,G1、G2和CK草地群落均匀度指数下降,其中G1下降最大(下降了1.8%),其次是CK(下降1.6%),G2草地下降最少。植物群落物种多样性 【Objective】Mowing is one of the main utilization methods of grassland,and plant functional groups and community species diversity are important ecological indicators for evaluating the degradation of grassland ecosystem under interference conditions.The plant functional groups and diversity in Leymus chinensis meadow grassland under different mowing were studied to understand the change process and mechanism of grassland functional groups and diversity,so as to provide a theoretical basis for ecological restoration of degraded mowing grassland.【Method】Taking the Hulunber Leymus chinensis meadow steppe as the experimental platform,the community vegetation was investigated by the sample method in the season with the most vigorous plant growth from 2014 to 2018(early August of every year).The changes of community function groups and species diversity,as well as the interaction between different cutting time and cutting treatments,were analyzed under the conditions of annual cutting(G1),biennial cutting(G2),missed cutting 10 m(G3),missed cutting 10 m(G4)and control(CK),and the correlation between plant function groups and community species diversity was discussed.【Result】It was found that Leymus chinensis was the dominant species under different cutting systems,but with the increase of cutting frequency,the important value of Leymus chinensis decreased gradually,and the important value of the degraded indicator species such as Potentilla acaulis and Thermopsis lanceolate increased.The important values of leymus chinensis,Cleistogenes squarrosa,Adenophora stenanthina,Bupleurum scorzonerifolium and Poa ratensis were higher than those of other treatments.The proportion of important values of gramineae and leguminous plants decreased under annual and perennial mowing treatment,and the proportion of compositae and sedge plants increased,which were mostly degraded plants.After mowing treatment for 5 years,the species diversity index of plant communities under different mowing systems increased,among which shann
作者 闫瑞瑞 张宇 辛晓平 卫智军 乌仁其其格 郭美兰 YAN RuiRui;ZHANG Yu;XIN XiaoPing;WEI ZhiJun;Wurenqiqige;GUO MeiLan(Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Hulunber Grassland Ecosystem Research Station,Beijing 100081;College of Grassland and Resources Environmental,Inner Mongolia Agricultural University,Hohhot 010019;Hulunber College/Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Key Laboratory of Meadow Grassland Ecosystem and Global Change,Hailar 021008,Inner Mongolia;School of Life Sciences,Jining Teachers College,Wulanchabu 012000,Inner Mongolia)
出处 《中国农业科学》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第13期2573-2583,共11页 Scientia Agricultura Sinica
基金 国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0500601) 中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(1610132018022,1610132018023,1610132019031,1610132019040) 现代农业产业技术体系建设专项资金(CARS-34-11)。
关键词 刈割 刈割制度 羊草草甸草原 植物功能群 群落物种多样性 mowing mowing system Leymus chinensis meadow steppe plant functional groups community species biodiversity
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