Ninety-nine topsoil( 0-15 cm) samples were collected from Kaifeng City,China using the grid method,and then the concentrations of As,Cd,Cr,Cu,Ni,Pb and Zn in the samples were measured by standard methods. Soil pollution levels and potential ecological risks of the heavy metals were assessed using the pollution load index( PLI) and potential ecological risk index( RI),respectively. Ordinary Kriging interpolation technique was employed to investigate the spatial distribution of PLI and RI of the city. The results showed that high pollution of Cd occurred in Kaifeng urban soils,and there was moderate pollution of Zn,slight pollution of Pb and Cu,and no pollution of Ni,Cr and As. Very high ecological risk was posed by Cd and low risk by other metals.The mean PLI of the 7 metals from all sample points was 2. 53,which was categorized as moderate pollution. The average RI was344. 58 which represented a considerable ecological risk. PLI and RI shared a similar spatial distribution with high values centralized in the old industrial area in the southeast and railway stations for passengers and goods in the south of the city,followed by the old town within the ancient city wall,and low values located in the north and west areas. Cadmium was the main factor for both soil pollution and potential ecological risk primarily due to farmland topsoil in the eastern suburb of Kaifeng City with high Cd concentrations resulted from sewage irrigation deposited in the urban area by wind,human activities such as soot discharged from the chemical fertilizer plant of Kaifeng,transportation and coal combustion.
Chinese Journal of Environmental Science
potential ecological risk