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不同有机肥对砂田西瓜产量、品质和养分吸收的影响

Effects of different kinds of organic fertilizer on fruit yield, quality and nutrient uptake of watermelon in gravel-mulched field
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摘要 探讨不同有机肥对西北砂田西瓜生长、产量、品质和养分吸收利用的影响,为砂田西瓜合理施肥、优质高效生产提供理论依据.本试验以单施化肥为对照,在氮、磷、钾等养分条件下,设置了牛粪、鸡粪、羊粪、猪粪4个处理,测定了西瓜不同生育时期生长指标、产量、品质及养分吸收积累量.结果表明:施用牛粪、鸡粪和猪粪有机肥较单施化肥可促进西瓜营养生长和氮、钾养分的运转,显著提高西瓜产量和养分的吸收积累量,其中西瓜产量较化肥处理分别显著提高了27.4%、31.6%和30.2%,氮素积累量分别提高了26.3%、39.8%和47.4%,磷素积累量分别提高了49.3%、48.3%和55.9%,钾素积累量分别提高了35.8%、41.6%和51.9%.猪粪处理的西瓜品质最优,中心、边缘可溶性固形物含量较化肥处理分别显著提高了5.5%和11.6%,Vc含量提高了19.9%.羊粪处理各指标与化肥处理间差异不显著,甚至略低于化肥处理.综上,砂田西瓜种植应优先选用猪粪和鸡粪有机肥,避免或减少施用羊粪有机肥. The effects of different kinds of organic fertilizer on the growth,yield,quality,and nutrient absorption and utlization of watermelon were examined to provide theoretical basis for adequate fertilization and efficient production of watermelon in gravel-mulched field in the Loess Pla-teau of Northwest China.The growth index and nutrient absorption at main stages of growth and development,yield and quality of watermelon were compared among treatments of applying chemical fertilizer(CK),cattle dung,chicken manure,sheep manure and pig manure which contained the equal amount of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium.The results showed that vegetative growth index,nitrogen and potassium transportation were promoted,yield and nutrient accumulation were improved in treatments of cattle dung,chicken manure and pig manure.Compared to chemical fertilizer,the fruit yield increased by 27.4%,31.6%and 30.2%,respectively,nitrogen accumulation improved by 26.3%,39.8%and 47.4%,phosphorus accumulation increased by 49.3%,48.3%and 55.9%,potassium accumulation improved by 35.8%,41.6%and 51.9%,respectively,under cattle dung,chicken manure and pig manure treatments.The quality of watermelon was better in pig manure treatment among all the treatments.The central and edge sugar content of watermelon increased by 5.5%and 11.6%,respectively,and Vc content increased by 19.9%,compared with the chemical fertilizer treatment.There was no significant difference between sheep manure and chemical fertilizer treatments.In conclusion,chicken manure and pig manure were optimal organic fertilizers for watermelon planting in gravel-mulched field.The application of sheep manure should be avoided or reduced.
作者 杜少平 马忠明 薛亮 DU Shao-ping;MA Zhong-ming;XUE Liang(Institute of Vegetables,Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Lanzhou 730070,China;Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Lanzhou 730070,China;Institute of Soil,Fertilizer and Water-saving Agriculture,Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Lanzhou 730070,China)
出处 《应用生态学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第4期1269-1277,共9页 Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology
基金 国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFD0201300) 甘肃省农业科学院中青年基金项目(2018GAAS05) 国家西甜瓜产业技术体系项目(CARS-26-20)资助.
关键词 有机肥 砂田 西瓜 产量 品质 养分吸收 organic fertilizer gravel-mulched field watermelon yield quality nutrient uptake
作者简介 通讯作者:马忠明,E-mail:mazhming@163.com。
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