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芦笋种植对冷凉沙化区土壤改良的效果研究

The Improved Effects of Planting Asparagus on Soil in Cold Desertification Area
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摘要 为探索芦笋种植对冷凉沙化区土壤的改良效果,在山西省朔州市右玉县,以未种植芦笋裸沙地为对照(CK),设置种植芦笋1、2、3和4年共4个处理,通过田间试验测定不同种植年限芦笋田土壤理化特性和芦笋生长发育情况。结果表明,与CK相比,随种植年限增加,土壤黏粒和粉砂粒含量递增,砂粒含量递减,土壤容重递减,土壤田间持水量递增;土壤pH和可溶性盐浓度(EC)递减;土壤有机质、全氮、有效磷和速效钾含量逐年递增。种植芦笋3年的土壤粒级、土壤容重、田间持水量、pH、EC值、土壤肥力发生显著变化;连续种植芦笋4年的土壤黏粒含量较CK增加到29.8%,粉砂粒含量增加到12.6%,砂粒含量降低到57.6%,田间土壤持水量显著提高,土壤容重显著降低,土壤由砂质壤土向砂质黏土转变;土壤pH降低0.75,EC值降低0.08mS/cm;土壤有机质含量增加28.89%,全氮、有效磷和速效钾含量分别增加95.12%、94.92%和45.40%;芦笋产量达6 037.5kg/hm~2。综合分析,连续种植芦笋4年可改善沙化土壤的物理结构,提高土壤养分,降低盐碱程度。芦笋是冷凉沙化区土壤改良的先锋作物之一,可实现生态效益与经济效益并举。 In order to evaluate the effect of soil improvement by planting asparagus on soil in cold and sandy area,a field experiment was carried out in Youyu, Shuozhou, Shanxi Province. Four different planting year treatments ofAsparagus as 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd, and 4 th year since planting were set up and naked sandy soil before planting was used asthe CK. Soil physical and chemical properties and Asparagus growth indexes were determined. Results were as follow:compared with CK, with the increase of planting years, soil clay and silt content increased, sand content decreased,soil bulk density decreased, soil water holding capacity increased. The values of pH and EC in soil decreased, organicmatter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium content increased. In the 4 th year of plantingAsparagus, compared with CK, four aspects changed significantly:(1) soil clay content increased to 29.8%, powdersand content increased to 12.6%, and the sand content reduced to 57.6%, bulk density reduced, water holding capacityincreased, and soil transformed from loam type to clay type;(2) the pH of soil decreased by 0.75 units and the ECdecreased by 0.08 mS/cm;(3) soil organic matter content increased by 28.89%, total nitrogen content increasedby 95.12%, available phosphorus content increased by 94.92%, available potassium content increased by 45.40%,soil fertility was significantly enhanced;(4) production of Asparagus reached 6 037.5 kg/hm2 under this condition.Therefore, cultivation of Asparagus for 4 years continuously can improve the physical structure of soil, improve soilnutrients, reduce the degree of salinity, and can be used as one of the pioneer crops to improvement soil condition incold desertification area, and achieve ecological benefits and economic benefits simultaneously.
作者 毛丽萍 巫东堂 郭伟民 任君 Mao Liping;Wu Dongtang;Guo Weimin;Ren Jun(Vegetable Research Institute,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Taiyuan 030031,Shanxi,China;Institute of Crop Sciences,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Taiyuan 030031,Shanxi,China)
出处 《作物杂志》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第1期180-185,共6页 Crops
基金 山西省农业科学院博士基金(YBSJJ1412) 山西省专利推广实施资助专项(20171023).
关键词 冷凉沙化区 芦笋 土壤肥力 土壤质地 盐碱度 土壤改良 Cold desertification area Asparagus Soil fertility Soil texture Salinity Soil improvement
作者简介 毛丽萍,副研究员,主要从事蔬菜栽培技术研究;通信作者:任君,副研究员,主要从事作物栽培生理研究
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