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HIV Testing Decision and Determining Factors in Ghana 预览
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作者 Abdul-Karim Iddrisu Kwaku Opoku-Ameyaw +2 位作者 Francis Kwame Bukari Bashiru Mahama Jerry John Amaasende Akooti 《艾滋病(英文)》 2019年第2期85-104,共20页
Knowledge on individual’s HIV/AIDS status provides a tool to reduce or avoid HIV transmission, spread and mortalities due to HIV-related illness. However, most people still do not know their HIV status because they a... Knowledge on individual’s HIV/AIDS status provides a tool to reduce or avoid HIV transmission, spread and mortalities due to HIV-related illness. However, most people still do not know their HIV status because they are not willing to test for HIV/AIDS due to various reasons. Hence the aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of various risk factors that are likely to influence decision to ever test for HIV/AIDS. The data used in this paper were obtained from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (n = 1828 observations and 32 risk factors). We applied the Chi-Square test statistic and the logistic regression model to the data in order to study the effects of these risk factors on one’s decision to ever test for HIV. STATA version 14.1 and R version 3.5.2 were used to carry out the statistical analyses. Generally, the results show that education, especially higher education significantly (OR = 0.53, 95% = 0.230, 0.837) increases the likelihood to ever test for HIV. Also, the younger the age groups the higher the effect and significance in the likelihood to ever test for HIV. We found that HIV-TB co-infection (OR = 0.53, 95% = 0.165, 0.893), use of condom anytime one has sex (OR = 0.31, 95% = 0.054, 0.573), wealth index (OR = 0.46, 95% = 0.137, 0.791), awareness of HIV transmission during child-delivery, number of partners significantly affect HIV testing. Those with many partners are less likely (OR = -0.26, 95% = -0.504, -0.007) to ever test for HIV and those who know that healthy person may have HIV are more likely (OR = 0.41, 95% = 0.137, 0.679) to ever test for HIV. Age is the common significant risk factor of ever tested for HIV across the 10 regions in Ghana. Resources should be allocated for more education on these significant risk factors in order to help in the fight against HIV-Health related issues. 展开更多
关键词 AIDS CHI-SQUARE Test Statistic Ghana DEMOGRAPHIC and Health Survey HIV HIV-TB CO-INFECTION LOGISTIC Regression Model Risk Factors
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Investigating the Determinants of Maternal Care Services Utilization in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana 预览
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作者 Abdul-Karim Iddrisu Dominic Otoo Bashiru Mahama 《统计学期刊(英文)》 2019年第3期309-326,共18页
Ghanaian governments have made some social interventions in order to reduce risks associated with pregnancy and child delivery. However, most pregnant women do not seek maternal care. Previous studies have examined fa... Ghanaian governments have made some social interventions in order to reduce risks associated with pregnancy and child delivery. However, most pregnant women do not seek maternal care. Previous studies have examined factors contributing to maternal care services utilization in Ghana using national data which limit such study applicability in some areas with specific background characteristics. These studies have mostly limited it to rural areas where the utilization is very low. This study seeks to bridge the gaps identified by exploring the factors which influence maternal care utilization in urban and rural communities in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. The Chi-Square test of association and the logistic regression models are used to analyze data obtained from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The data analyses were carried out using R and STATA softwares. The results revealed that women with at least 5 children were less likely (OR = 0.374, 95% CI: 0.173 - 0.796) to utilize antenatal care compared to those who had less than five live births. Educated women are three times likely (95% CI: 1.929 - 5.257) to deliver at a health facility compared to uneducated women. Women from the rich wealth quintile were nearly 16.9 times more likely (95% CI: 4.816 - 107.124) to deliver in a health facility compared to those from the poor wealth quintile. On the other hand, residing in rural communities makes it less likely (OR = 0.569, 95% CI: 0.350 - 0.913) for women to receive postnatal care within 2 months of delivery compared to living in urban communities. This study has demonstrated that maternal educational level plays a crucial role in maternal health care service utilization in the region. Therefore, government policies and programs aimed at providing more educational opportunities for girls in the region should be reinforced. 展开更多
关键词 ANTENATAL CARE CHI-SQUARE INSTITUTIONAL Delivery Logistic Regression POSTNATAL CARE MATERNAL Health
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Investigating Spatio-Temporal Pattern of Relative Risk of Tuberculosis in Kenya Using Bayesian Hierarchical Approaches 预览
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作者 Abdul-Karim Iddrisu Abukari Alhassan Nafiu Amidu 《结核病研究(英文)》 2018年第2期175-197,共23页
Proper understanding of global distribution of infectious diseases is an important part of disease management and policy making. However, data are subject to complexities caused by heterogeneities across host classes ... Proper understanding of global distribution of infectious diseases is an important part of disease management and policy making. However, data are subject to complexities caused by heterogeneities across host classes and space-time epidemic processes. This paper seeks to suggest or propose Bayesian spatio-temporal model for modeling and mapping tuberculosis relative risks in space and time as well identify risks factors associated with the tuberculosis and counties in Kenya with high tuberculosis relative risks. In this paper, we used spatio-temporal Bayesian hierarchical models to study the pattern of tuberculosis relative risks in Kenya. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo method via WinBUGS and R packages were used for simulations and estimation of the parameter estimates. The best fitting model is selected using the Deviance Information Criterion proposed by Spiegelhalter and colleagues. Among the spatio-temporal models used, the Knorr-Held model with space-time interaction type III and IV fit the data well but type IV appears better than type III. Variation in tuberculosis risk is observed among Kenya counties and clustering among counties with high tuberculosis relative risks. The prevalence of HIV is identified as the determinant of TB. We found clustering and heterogeneity of TB risk among high rate counties and the overall tuberculosis risk is slightly decreasing from 2002-2009. We proposed that the Knorr-Held model with interaction type IV should be used to model and map Kenyan tuberculosis relative risks. Interaction of TB relative risk in space and time increases among rural counties that share boundaries with urban counties with high tuberculosis risk. This is due to the ability of models to borrow strength from neighboring counties, such that nearby counties have similar risk. Although the approaches are less than ideal, we hope that our study provide a useful stepping stone in the development of spatial and spatio-temporal methodology for the statistical analysis of risk from tuberculosis in Kenya. 展开更多
关键词 BAYESIAN Hierarchical Deviance Information CRITERION Hot Classes HETEROGENEITY MARKOV Chain Monte Carlo Relative Risk Spatial and SPATIO-TEMPORAL
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