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Plant Defense against Necrotrophic Pathogens 认领
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作者 Mahmoud H. Ghozlan Eman EL-Argawy +2 位作者 Serkan Tokgöz Dilip K. Lakshman Amitava Mitra 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2020年第12期2122-2138,共17页
Necrotrophic pathogenic bacteria, fungi and oomycetes are widely distributed and are responsible for significant crop losses. Host plants deploy different defense mechanisms and appropriate immune responses to defend ... Necrotrophic pathogenic bacteria, fungi and oomycetes are widely distributed and are responsible for significant crop losses. Host plants deploy different defense mechanisms and appropriate immune responses to defend them against these pathogens. Regardless of the pathogen’s lifestyle, infection activates plant immune responses either through Pathogen/Microbe Associated Molecular Pattern (P/MAMP) or through Effector Triggered Immunity (ETI). However, as R-genes are not usually associated with resistance to necrotrophs, resistance is largely dependent on the balanced interplay between crucial phytohormones in complex signaling pathways involving jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). An increase in salicylic acid levels enhances susceptibility to necrotrophic pathogens but promotes resistance to hemibiotrophs, whereas a deficiency in SA or SA signaling has either no significant impact or affects resistance only at the primary infection site. The same fashion is observed for JA signaling system that appears to elicit resistance against diseases caused by necrotrophic pathogens and can trigger systemic immunity conferring resistance against them. On the other hand, ABA can play a positive or negative role in plant defense responses to necrotrophs as ABA-mediated defense responses are dependent on specific plant-pathogen interactions. Understanding plant immune response against necrotrophic pathogens may lead to the development of resistant or tolerant crop cultivars. 展开更多
关键词 EFFECTORS Host Immunity SIGNALING P/MAMP ETI Disease Resistance
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Crystallization Study of Cu56Zr7Ti37 Metallic Glass by Electrical Resistivity Measurement 认领
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作者 Ansu J. Kailath Kalpalata Dutta Thomas C. Alex Amitaw Mitra 《材料科学技术学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2011年第3期275-279,共5页
In this paper,the crystallization behaviour of amorphous Cu56Zr7Ti37 alloy using thermal electrical resistivity(TER) and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) studies has been described.Isochronal TER and DSC measure... In this paper,the crystallization behaviour of amorphous Cu56Zr7Ti37 alloy using thermal electrical resistivity(TER) and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) studies has been described.Isochronal TER and DSC measurements indicate that crystallization occurs in two stages.Isothermal crystallization studies of the alloy by TER show that the kinetics conforms to Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model.Avrami exponents derived from kinetics,between 1.1 and 1.2,imply that the crystallization processes are diffusion controlled with near zero nucleation.Activation energy has been found to increase with the transformed volume fraction.A plausible explanation has been presented by separating the contributions due to nucleation and crystal growth towards total activation energy. 展开更多
关键词 结晶行为 电阻率测量 金属玻璃 等温结晶动力学 Avrami指数 差示扫描量热法 结晶过程 体积分数
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