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Corporate Board Structure and Corporate Performance:Empirical Analysis of Listed Companies in China
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作者 Le Wang Qun Liu Masaharu Hanazaki 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第1期137-175,共39页
Using cross section data of 3 years 2000,2007,and 2014 for non-financial listed firms in China,this study quantitatively analyzes the relationship between government-affiliated corporate executives and corporate perfo... Using cross section data of 3 years 2000,2007,and 2014 for non-financial listed firms in China,this study quantitatively analyzes the relationship between government-affiliated corporate executives and corporate performance.We classify the sample firms into two groups,based on whether their chief executive officers(CEOs)and independent directors are prior government officials or not.Then,we empirically examine the difference in corporate performance between the two groups.We find that the appointment of CEOs and directors of listed companies in China is significantly affected by government shareholders.The results also suggest that prior to 2000 government-affiliated CEOs impaired corporate performance.But with the establishment of State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Committee and the completion of the Split-Share Structure Reform in 2006,government as a shareholder began to give priority to corporate value maximization,and government-affiliated CEOs began to help improve corporate performance.However,due to the slowdown of economic growth after 2012,problems such as inefficiency and corruption brought by government-affiliated executives manifested again,and therefore,corporate performance deteriorated.Meanwhile,government-affiliated independent directors have limited influence on these factors. 展开更多
关键词 CORPORATE GOVERNANCE SOCIALIST market economy Board of directors GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS
Does it Make Sense to Try Reconciling the National Interest and Global Justice Agendas?
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作者 Jean-Marc Coicaud 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第2期211-231,共21页
The article will address this question and will attempt to give it sound answers.In order to do so,the article will tackle the following issues:What are national interest and global justice,and what have been their re... The article will address this question and will attempt to give it sound answers.In order to do so,the article will tackle the following issues:What are national interest and global justice,and what have been their relations so far?What are the challenges concerning their reconciliation,in general and today?In the current situation,what are the benefits that could be generated by such a reconciliation?How could it happen and what the chances for this to happen? 展开更多
关键词 National INTEREST JUSTICE INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE Global JUSTICE INTERDEPENDENCE Future Status quo INTERNATIONAL distribution of power RECONCILIATION
The National Interest and Global Justice:Contradictory Terms,Incomparable and Non-commensurable Goods,Yet Compatible?
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作者 Ariel Colonomos 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第2期233-253,共21页
Prima facie,the pursuit of national interest stands in contradiction with the rules of global justice.Indeed,the former relies upon selfishness and the maximization of national utility,while the latter presupposes dis... Prima facie,the pursuit of national interest stands in contradiction with the rules of global justice.Indeed,the former relies upon selfishness and the maximization of national utility,while the latter presupposes distributive measures at the global level that exercise some constrain on state behavior.However,these two notions are open to interpretation and,sometimes,even lack clarity.This paper will look for clarification and will ask whether it is possible to go beyond the radical difference between those two logics.I will start by underlining the reasons why the national interest and global justice are in contradiction with each other.Although they are not commensurable,the paper will then argue the two can be compatible in specific equilibriums of international politics,I will refer to as the“rationalist”and the“revolutionist”modes.Finally,the paper will discuss whether,in the best of all possible worlds,we should strive for this compatibility. 展开更多
关键词 INTERNATIONAL POLITICS INTERNATIONAL relations theory Global JUSTICE National INTEREST Commensurability REALISM
Global Justice,Luck,and Human Needs:Reflections on Gu and Liu
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作者 Kok-Chor Tan 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第2期255-261,共7页
In his paper“Nationalism,Egalitarianism and Global Justice”,Su Gu extends luck egalitarianism to the debate on global justice in an unconventional way.He invokes luck egalitarianism not to support global egalitarian... In his paper“Nationalism,Egalitarianism and Global Justice”,Su Gu extends luck egalitarianism to the debate on global justice in an unconventional way.He invokes luck egalitarianism not to support global egalitarianism,as is commonly the case,but to push back against it.Qingping Liu’s paper,“Global Justice as the Bottom Line:Equal Needs or Equal Rights?”,is also unorthodox[both papers are published in this journal(forthcoming)].Running against one current in global justice,Liu argues that there is no duty of global justice to meet basic needs and that,moreover,global redistributive policies for the purpose of satisfying needs are generally unjust.Although Liu and Gu provide different arguments for their conclusions,they both believe that global redistributive demands unfairly impose on those who are expected to contribute.My aim in this brief commentary is to try to situate these papers within the global justice literature and to raise some questions that they provoke. 展开更多
关键词 Basic needs DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE Global JUSTICE LUCK EGALITARIANISM
Nationalism,Egalitarianism and Global Justice
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作者 Su Gu 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第2期263-273,共11页
Global distributive justice requires that universal standards and values be recognized and|respected to avoid moral relativism.Egalitarianism in domestic context demands equal treatment of all persons,whereas in globa... Global distributive justice requires that universal standards and values be recognized and|respected to avoid moral relativism.Egalitarianism in domestic context demands equal treatment of all persons,whereas in global context,egalitarianism means equal treatment of all nations or peoples.Nationalist appeal quite often neglects universal values and standards in dealing with global justice.Although Rawls rejected global egalitarianism in his late works,the main idea developed by his A Theory of Justice is still important for global justice.The reason why just arrangements should benefit the least advantaged domestically is parallel to that why they should benefit the poorest nations in global justice.Equality of opportunities in global context means that equal respect and treatment of all people,and nationality and religious beliefs should not obstruct anyone from getting a job or position.One of the moral arguments for benefiting the least advantaged is luck egalitarianism,and the luck/choice distinction is used for explaining personal responsibility in social and economic differences.It is bad when one person is worse off than another through no fault or choice of her own.But it is unjust when someone does better than others only because of her social class or family background.And social institutions that discriminate against persons based on arbitrary traits like nationality,gender,origin of country or region,religious beliefs,etc.,are a bad example of unjust distribution.Rawls’difference principle does not make a distinction between two reasons that cause disadvantage.Therefore,the requirement to benefit the least advantaged should embody the luck/choice distinction;people should be responsible for the cost of their choice and not for their natural assets.This principle may be extended to global justice.For those who live in poverty because of their lack of natural resources and gifts,compensation should be made to let them lead a decent life,and to those who voluntarily choose their lifestyle that causes t 展开更多
关键词 DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE EGALITARIANISM NATIONALISM LUCK EGALITARIANISM Luck/choice DISTINCTION
Equal Rights Versus Equal Needs:Global Justice or Global Virtues?
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作者 Qingping Liu 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第2期275-291,共17页
According to the analytically semantic linkage of“good-right-rights-justice”formed in the real conflicts among goods and especially among people,we should not confuse the global justice principle of“equal respect f... According to the analytically semantic linkage of“good-right-rights-justice”formed in the real conflicts among goods and especially among people,we should not confuse the global justice principle of“equal respect for everyone’s basic rights”with the global virtue principle of“equal satisfaction of everyone’s basic needs.”Correspondingly,while global virtues and the national interest may and can be reconciled with each other,global justice should not make compromises to the national interest precisely because of its ultimate priority. 展开更多
关键词 GLOBAL JUSTICE GLOBAL virtues Needs RIGHTS EQUALITY National INTEREST
Institutions for a World of Climate Injustice
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作者 Robert O.Keohane 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第2期293-307,共15页
We live in a world of climate injustice.People in wealthy countries emit large amounts of greenhouse gasses,whose effects will be particularly adverse to people in poor countries who have not received the benefits of ... We live in a world of climate injustice.People in wealthy countries emit large amounts of greenhouse gasses,whose effects will be particularly adverse to people in poor countries who have not received the benefits of past emissions.Although these injustices are deeply embedded in power asymmetries,they could be ameliorated if wealthy societies were to take broad views of their own self-interests.To do so would require,in some instances,changes in the default rules,embedded in sovereignty,that have inhibited positive changes.To ensure that such positive changes ensue will require new and well-designed institutions,two of which are proposed.An Institute for Climate Finance would facilitate offset arrangements by which rich countries pay for emissions reductions in poorer countries.An Institute for Climate Innovation would facilitate the transfer of innovative low-or z|ero-emission energy technology to developing countries. 展开更多
关键词 CLIMATE JUSTICE Multilateral institutions INTERNATIONAL POLITICS CLIMATE FINANCE INTERNATIONAL institutions CLIMATE policy Global JUSTICE
Aligning National Interests and Global Climate Justice:The Role of Human Rights in Enhancing the Ambition of Nationally Determined Contributions to Combat Climate Change
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作者 Yannick Glemarec 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第2期309-327,共19页
The Paris Agreement on climate change revolves around nationally determined contributions(NDC)and acknowledges that the ambition of the global climate response will be determined by Parties’understanding of their nat... The Paris Agreement on climate change revolves around nationally determined contributions(NDC)and acknowledges that the ambition of the global climate response will be determined by Parties’understanding of their national interests.Initiatives currently envisaged in NDCs are insufficient to avoid disastrous climate change.Debates about the impact of climate action on economic development and national interests have abated the climate ambition of some governments.Conflicting modeling approaches have contributed to these debates.To scale up global climate efforts,it will be essential to convince Parties that the short-term benefits of robust national climate action outweigh its immediate costs.Innovation is driving progress to address climate change and can deliver substantial development co-benefits,particularly by reducing costs of renewable energy technologies and enabling new business models.However,innovation can take many years to reach deployment stage,can create unforeseen problems of its own,and does not benefit all equally.Climate justice links human rights,development and climate regimes.A climate justice perspective provides a normative,analytical and procedural framework to identify barriers to innovation diffusion,optimize development co-benefits of climate action and help build public support for the adoption of more ambitious NDC pledges. 展开更多
关键词 Climate change Development co-benefits-Innovation Human RIGHTS
Fifty Years of Global Justice:Five Theses
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作者 Charles R.Beitz 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第2期177-192,共16页
The subject of"global justice"did not exist in the literature of transatlantic political philosophy 50 years ago.Today,it is a focus of vigorous philosophical discussion.The paper offers five theses about th... The subject of"global justice"did not exist in the literature of transatlantic political philosophy 50 years ago.Today,it is a focus of vigorous philosophical discussion.The paper offers five theses about the linkage between the origins of the literature in the political and philosophical ferment of the late 1960s and the state of the philosophical literature today. 展开更多
关键词 GLOBAL JUSTICE osmopolitanism tatism awls alzer
What is‘Global’About Global Justice?
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作者 Mathias Risse 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第2期193-210,共18页
Global justice has become an important part of recent political philosophy across traditions.But most of it inevitably is local thought projected onto the world stage,the globe as seen from somewhere.But how can there... Global justice has become an important part of recent political philosophy across traditions.But most of it inevitably is local thought projected onto the world stage,the globe as seen from somewhere.But how can there be a genuinely global philosophy?What do different traditions of political thought have in common,and how can we think of them as contributing to the same agenda in a shared space of ideas,rather than different traditions taking note of each other in comparative spirit?This paper explores these questions,enlisting sociological world society theory for intellectual assistance. 展开更多
关键词 JUSTICE GLOBAL JUSTICE World SOCIETY theory Human web IMPERIALISM COLONIALISM
An Indian Quasi-Fregean Theory of Number
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作者 Eberhard Guhe 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第3期329-351,共23页
A very interesting account of the reference of number words in classical Indian philosophy was given by Mahesa Chandra (1836 -1906) in his Brief Notes on the Modern Nyaya System of Philosophy and its Technical Terms (... A very interesting account of the reference of number words in classical Indian philosophy was given by Mahesa Chandra (1836 -1906) in his Brief Notes on the Modern Nyaya System of Philosophy and its Technical Terms (BN), a primer on NavyaNyaya terminology and doctrines. Despite its English title, BN is a Sanskrit work. The section on"number"(samkhya) provides an exposition of a theory of number which can account for both the adjectival and the substantival use of number words in Sanskrit. According to D. H. H. Ingalls (19161999), some ideas about the reference of number words in BN are close to the FregeRussell theory of natural number. Ingalls's comparison refers to a concept of number in Navya-Nyaya which is related to the things numbered via the SO called"circumtaining relation"(paryapti). Although there is no theory of sets in Navya-Nyaya, Navya-Naiyayikas do have a realist theory of properties (dharma) and their theory of number is a theory of properties as constituents of empirical reality, anchored to their system of ontological categories. As shown by George Bealer, properties can serve the same purpose as sets in the Frege -Russell theory of natural number. In the present paper, we attempt a formal reconstruction of Mahesa Chandra's exposition of the Navya-Nyaya theory of number, which accounts for its affinity to George Bealer's neo-Fregean analysis. As part of our appraisal of the momentousness and robustness of the"circumtaining"concept of number, we show that it can be cast into a precise recursive definition of natural number and we prove property versions of Peano's axioms from this definition. 展开更多
关键词 Navya-Nyaya Natural NUMBERS FREGE Property theories Peano's AXIOMS
Intellectual Humility and Owning One's Limitations
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作者 Ju Wang Xinrong Yang 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第3期353-369,共17页
Intellectual humility is a worthwhile virtue. Whitcomb et al.(Philos Phenomenol Res 94(3):520, 2017) recently propose a novel account of intellectual humility. According to this account, intellectual humility consists... Intellectual humility is a worthwhile virtue. Whitcomb et al.(Philos Phenomenol Res 94(3):520, 2017) recently propose a novel account of intellectual humility. According to this account, intellectual humility consists of proper attentiveness to and owning o f one's intellectual limitations. We argue that this account is in accordance with empirical work on intellectual humility, but it has two problems. It leaves open the possibility that one can be both intellectually humble and arrogant and that it does not adequately explain the strangeness associated with self-attribution of intellectual humility. Subsequently, we explore an interesting connection between intellectual humility and ignorance. Our view is that intellectual humility can lead to ignorance in the internalist sense, but this is acceptable, in that intellectual humility also gives rise to valuable epistemic standings, such as understanding and wisdom. 展开更多
关键词 INTELLECTUAL HUMILITY Proper PRIDE Internal RATIONALITY INTELLECTUAL LIMITATIONS IGNORANCE
Singular Terms for Numbers?
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作者 Robert Schwartzkopff 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第3期371-383,共13页
In natural language, number-words can be used in two different syntactic ways: adjectivally, i.e., with the syntactic status of an adjective, as in (1) 4Mars has two moons/ and nominally, i.e., with the syntactic stat... In natural language, number-words can be used in two different syntactic ways: adjectivally, i.e., with the syntactic status of an adjective, as in (1) 4Mars has two moons/ and nominally, i.e., with the syntactic status of a noun phrase, as in (2)‘Two is even.’ This syntactic difference is often taken to correspond to a difference in semantic function: adjectival number-words function as predicables, whereas nominal number-words function as singular terms. The view that nominal number-words function as singular terms is typically supported by appeal to certain tests for singular-termhood, tests that stem from the (neo-)Fregean tradition. In this paper, I argue that these tests do not support the view of nominal number-words as singular terms. 展开更多
关键词 NUMBERS Number-words (neo-)Fregeanism PHILOSOPHY of mathematics SINGULAR TERMS
Freedom of Indifference: Its Metaphysical Credentials According to Crusius
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作者 Sonja Schierbaum 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第3期385-405,共21页
In the history of philosophy, voluntarists-that is, philosophers committed to some version of the freedom of indifference-have worried about its metaphysical credentials, but only a few, at least to my knowledge, have... In the history of philosophy, voluntarists-that is, philosophers committed to some version of the freedom of indifference-have worried about its metaphysical credentials, but only a few, at least to my knowledge, have attempted to argue for more than its mere existence. Freedom of indifference is the option to choose between opposites in a given situation. In this paper, I present the ambitious attempt of the German pre-Kantian philosopher Christian August Crusius (1715-1775) to argue for the claim that we have freedom of indifference as a matter of hypothetical necessity. The point is that, in his view, there can be no actual world without freedom of indifference. This is not a logical but a metaphysical truth. I argue that a possible (motivational) reason for CrusiusJs choice to tread this slippery path is that he attempts to bestow some metaphysical dignity on the freedom of indifference. As a consequence, this metaphysical value of freedom of indifference shapes the relation between the divine and free, rational agents in a way that is completely different from a rationalist’s conception such as Leibniz’s. In this paper, I give a plausible interpretation of a metaphysical argument that has been neglected in the relevant literature. 展开更多
关键词 FREEDOM of INDIFFERENCE Voluntarism Hypothetical NECESSITY Crusius LEIBNIZ
There are no Justified True Beliefs in Gettier Cases
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作者 Yingjin Xu 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第3期407-421,共15页
According to the standard interpretation of Gettier cases, they can be used to form significant challenges to the tradition of defining knowledge as justified true beliefs (hereafter "JTB").This position nat... According to the standard interpretation of Gettier cases, they can be used to form significant challenges to the tradition of defining knowledge as justified true beliefs (hereafter "JTB").This position naturally assumes that varieties of target beliefs involved in typical Gettier cases are all JTBs, namely, unified beliefs which are simultaneously justified and true. But I do not think this is true. Conversely, every target belief in typical Gettier cases should be cashed out as one or more beliefs, none of which is a genuine JTB. In short, there is no JTB in Gettier's JTB-hostile vignettes at all. Hence, no matter whether the JTB account of knowledge is correct or not, Gettier cases are not really relevant to it. In addition, although I agree to Mizrahi's(Logos Episteme 7(1):31-44, 2016) general observation that face-values of target beliefs cannot be taken for granted in all Gettier cases, I have made a further claim that there is no cross-board methodology to disambiguate the target beliefs in all Gettier cases. 展开更多
关键词 Gettier CASES JUSTIFICATION Attributive USE REFERENTIAL USE Mental HEURISTICS
Land Reclamation in the Rhine and Yangzi Deltas: An Explorative Comparison, 1600-1800
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作者 徐冠勉 Leonard Blusse 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第3期423-455,共33页
In the early sixteenth century, the deltas of Rhine and Yangzi faced comparable ecological crises, but neither of these riverine societies was deterred by the mounting challenges. They independently developed divergen... In the early sixteenth century, the deltas of Rhine and Yangzi faced comparable ecological crises, but neither of these riverine societies was deterred by the mounting challenges. They independently developed divergent ways to not only defend against the encroaching water, but also reclaim new land from the water.This paper aims to examine the factors in the making of that transformation in these two riverine societies and to ask how they took different paths, why, and what were the implications of that divergence. In asking these questions, particular attention will be paid to the significance of technological and institutional breakthroughs in the Dutch case, such as highly efficient windmills for pumping water, the mapping of cadastral surveys with triangulation, the centralization of power in the local water boards (heem raden), and the involvement of the financial market. In the Chinese case, we focus on the importance of the developing domestic market, the relationship between state and society in local water management, and the formation of unique local land reclamation organizations. 展开更多
关键词 China DUTCH REPUBLIC Water management GREAT DIVERGENCE Jiangnan
River Cultures in World History——Rescuing a Neglected Resource
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作者 Lincoln Paine 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第3期457-472,共16页
This paper argues that historians have all but ignored the study of rivers and their impact on the development of human society. Apart from a somewhat terse acknowledgment of the importance of rivers in the developmen... This paper argues that historians have all but ignored the study of rivers and their impact on the development of human society. Apart from a somewhat terse acknowledgment of the importance of rivers in the development of ancient civilizations, from the Huang He to the Ganges, the Nile, and the Amazon, historians have by and large limited themselves to studying individual rivers, while ignoring the potential of comparative analysis of rivers. I call for a broader engagement by historians of all aspects of rivers, including their role in transportation, fishing, agriculture, industry, recreation, and the environment, peopled cultural response to rivers, and the legal regimes that have grown up around them, with special reference to the role of rivers as political boundaries. 展开更多
关键词 RIVERS RIVER boundaries Environment RIVER people CANALS
People’s Justice: Socialist Law and Equity in China, 1921-1945
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作者 Xi Lin 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第3期473-491,共19页
When people’s justice was conceived in Republican China, it brought with it a socialist conceptualisation of law and equity, by which the prefix of ‘people’ was not merely a superfluous addition to the term of ‘ju... When people’s justice was conceived in Republican China, it brought with it a socialist conceptualisation of law and equity, by which the prefix of ‘people’ was not merely a superfluous addition to the term of ‘justice’. On the contrary, it emphasised a people-oriented approach in as much practising the law as correcting the law where arose a rigidity during its application. Such elements as class inequality and the supremacy of state interests were found therein, alongside with Mao*s emphasis on the mass line policy. By dividing the period from 1921 to 1945 into three sections, namely 1921-1927, 1927-1934 and 1935-1945, this article aims to give a brief discussion of the evolution of people's justice, both as a concept and as a system of laws, in China, which may help us to better appreciate the socialist notions and traditions of law and equity. 展开更多
关键词 Peopled JUSTICE SOCIALIST EQUITY MASS line MASS TRIAL MASS MOBILISATION
American Roth
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作者 Ira Nadel 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第3期493-510,共18页
An analysis of the Philip Roth's sustained pursuit of his American identity mixed with his engagement with the trope of the American Adam is the center of this paper. From the outset of his career, Roth has sought... An analysis of the Philip Roth's sustained pursuit of his American identity mixed with his engagement with the trope of the American Adam is the center of this paper. From the outset of his career, Roth has sought to be understood as an American, not Jewish, writer. But as his career unfolded, the challenges of sustaining his American identity grew, whether in Portnoy's Complaint, Sabbath's Theatre or the American Trilogy. The confrontation between American and Judaic identities increasingly became his subject as his Jewish roots threatened his American identity stemming from a Protestant, if not Puritan, literary heritage. Coleman Silk and Swede Levov from The Human Stain and American Pastoral represent the challenge best summarized by Abe Ravelstein in Bellow's eponymous novel when he remarks that “as a Jew you are also an American, but somehow you are not.” The paradox of Roth’s entanglement with the trope of the American Adam is that he both pursues and denies this identity, accepting its heroism but acknowledging its impossibility. One moment he publically declares “if I’m not an American, I am nothing,” but on the other, to be Roth he knows he must violate the Adamic ideal, prepared to renounce neither his American nor Jewish identities. 展开更多
关键词 AMERICAN ADAM Philip Roth IDENTITY HEROISM CAPTAIN AMERICA
The Rise of Posthumanism:Challenge to and Prospect for Mankind
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作者 Ning Wang 复旦人文社会科学论丛:英文版 2019年第1期1-13,共13页
Posthumanism has in the past few years been one of the most cutting-edge theoretical topics increasingly attracting the critical attention of scholars of both humanities and social sciences.The author holds that the r... Posthumanism has in the past few years been one of the most cutting-edge theoretical topics increasingly attracting the critical attention of scholars of both humanities and social sciences.The author holds that the rise of"posthumanism”in the West during the past decades indicates that in the present era,man,like those living animals and plants on the earth,is nothing but one of the species in nature,whose existence and development to a large extent depend on natural law.It is true that posthumanism came after the crisis of humanism,but it has continuity with and transcends over the latter.It informs us that over-evaluating the role of man is by no means adequate,for man has entered into a"posthuman"stage,in which man is no longer viewed as the only species that has rational thought,nor is he the head of all the species on the earth.But man can create various wonders,some of which are even beyond man's control.Although the rise of posthumanism has raised a severe challenge and even threat to traditional humanism and human existence,the author still hopefully finds some prospects for mankind,especially in current China where a sort of ecocivilization should be built up and digital humanities may well bridge up the gap between science and humanities. 展开更多
关键词 HUMANISM Posthumanism ECOCRITICISM Science and technology Digital HUMANITIES
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