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胆结石发生的膳食危险因素分析 认领
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作者 张微竹 何凤 +1 位作者 付莉 邓力 《川北医学院学报》 CAS 2020年第4期668-671,共4页
目的:探讨胆结石发生的膳食危险因素。方法:采用匹配病例-对照的方法,以本院2018年10月至2018年12月收治的胆结石患者为病例组;选择性别及居住地相同且年龄相差≤5岁在普外科住院的非胆结石患者为对照组。收集两组患者的一般资料、膳食... 目的:探讨胆结石发生的膳食危险因素。方法:采用匹配病例-对照的方法,以本院2018年10月至2018年12月收治的胆结石患者为病例组;选择性别及居住地相同且年龄相差≤5岁在普外科住院的非胆结石患者为对照组。收集两组患者的一般资料、膳食摄入情况及体格检查指标,并对采集的数据进行统计分析。结果:病例组和对照组在年龄、性别、体质指数(BMI)、居住地等方面比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在家族史、吸烟方面比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。膳食调查结果显示,病例组在谷薯类、蔬菜类、水果类的日均摄入量分别为(308.19±166.67)g/d、(313.33±227.43)g/d和(248.76±231.46)g/d,均低于对照组的(345.44±192.84)g/d、(456.71±289.98)g/d和(325±261.31)g/d,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而在畜禽肉类及油类的日均摄入量分别为(121.76±89.18)g/d和(39.57±15.71)g/d,均高于对照组的(92.46±76.45)g/d和(28.92±14.49)g/d,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。Logistics回归分析显示,家族史、吸烟和高脂饮食是胆结石发生的危险因素,而高膳食纤维是胆结石发生的保护因素。结论:胆结石患者与膳食结构失衡相关,是畜禽肉类及油类摄入量过高,家族史、吸烟和高脂饮食是胆结石发生的危险因素。人们应改变饮食结构,多食用高膳食纤维,实现均衡饮食,预防胆结石。 展开更多
关键词 胆结石 膳食 危险因素 高脂饮食 膳食纤维
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文章速递Households Hunger:The Key Attribute to Anthropometric Failures of Children in West Oromia(Ethiopia) 认领
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作者 Wondu Garoma Berra Nian-hong Yang 《当代医学科学(英文)》 SCIE CAS 2020年第3期580-585,共6页
Poor nutrition is the underlying cause of child death.However,comprehensive data showing the relationships between dietary-practices,food security,and nutritional status are scant.The present study aimed to examine th... Poor nutrition is the underlying cause of child death.However,comprehensive data showing the relationships between dietary-practices,food security,and nutritional status are scant.The present study aimed to examine the association of inappropriate feeding practices and household-hunger with anthropometric measures in children aged 6–23 months.A cross-sectional survey was conducted on randomly selected 525-households.Semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to gather data on socio-demographic,child health,dietary-practices and household-hunger.Weight and height/length of the children were measured and analyzed using the new World Health Organization(WHO)Growth Standards.The prevalence of stunting,wasting and underweight as well as composite index of anthropometric failure(CIFA)were used to indicate under-nutrition.The overall prevalence of inappropriate feeding practices was 22.9%,rate of moderate households-hunger was 12.4%,and the prevalence of stunting,underweight and wasting was 16.2%,6.9%and 6.3%,respectively,while the CIAF was 21.3%.The prevalence was significantly higher in young children aged 12–23 months than in infants aged 6–11 months.Children from households experiencing moderate hunger had significantly higher risk of being stunting(OR:10.20;95%CI:2.00–51.50),underweight(OR:3.89;95%CI:1.40–10.90),wasting(OR:1.97;95%CI:0.99–3.90),and CIAF(OR:1.90;95%CI:1.05–3.45),than those residing in households experiencing no or mild hunger.Multi-disciplinary approaches are required to improve household food-security and child dietary practices,thus the nutritional status among young children. 展开更多
关键词 child dietary practices household hunger anthropometric failures West Oromia(Ethiopia)
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The interaction between dietary marine components and intestinal flora 认领
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作者 Lin Li Chang-Hu Xue +1 位作者 Tian-Tian Zhang Yu-Ming Wang 《海洋生命科学与技术(英文)》 2020年第2期161-171,共11页
The intestine is the natural habitat for a large and dynamic bacterial community,which perform vital metabolic and immune functions that significantly effect the nutritional and health status of the host.The major phy... The intestine is the natural habitat for a large and dynamic bacterial community,which perform vital metabolic and immune functions that significantly effect the nutritional and health status of the host.The major physiological functions of intestinal flora include metabolic activities that lead to important trophic effects on immune structure and function as well as protection of the colonized host against invasion by transient microbes.The intestinal flora is both a target for nutritional intervention and a factor influencing the biological activity of food compounds acquired orally.Marine environments,as a source of diverse organic compounds,can supply us with a number of beneficial and health-promoting ingredients.This review focuses on the physiological functions of intestinal flora and reciprocal interactions between intestinal flora and dietary marine components including polysaccharides,lipids,protein,taurine,carotenoids,minerals,and polyphenols.This review can serve as a valuable reference regarding the consumption of seafood and marine nutraceuticals. 展开更多
关键词 Intestinal flora Physiological function Dietary marine components INTERACTION
Intestinal Ca2+ absorption revisited: A molecular and clinical approach 认领
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作者 Vanessa A Areco Romina Kohan +2 位作者 Germán Talamoni Nori G Tolosa de Talamoni María E Peralta López 《世界胃肠病学杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS 2020年第24期3344-3364,共21页
Ca2+has an important role in the maintenance of the skeleton and is involved in the main physiological processes.Its homeostasis is controlled by the intestine,kidney,bone and parathyroid glands.The intestinal Ca2+abs... Ca2+has an important role in the maintenance of the skeleton and is involved in the main physiological processes.Its homeostasis is controlled by the intestine,kidney,bone and parathyroid glands.The intestinal Ca2+absorption occurs mainly via the paracellular and the transcellular pathways.The proteins involved in both ways are regulated by calcitriol and other hormones as well as dietary factors.Fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF-23)is a strong antagonist of vitamin D action.Part of the intestinal Ca2+movement seems to be vitamin D independent.Intestinal Ca2+absorption changes according to different physiological conditions.It is promoted under high Ca2+demands such as growth,pregnancy,lactation,dietary Ca2+deficiency and high physical activity.In contrast,the intestinal Ca2+transport decreases with aging.Oxidative stress inhibits the intestinal Ca2+absorption whereas the antioxidants counteract the effects of prooxidants leading to the normalization of this physiological process.Several pathologies such as celiac disease,inflammatory bowel diseases,Turner syndrome and others occur with inhibition of intestinal Ca2+absorption,some hypercalciurias show Ca2+hyperabsorption,most of these alterations are related to the vitamin D endocrine system.Further research work should be accomplished in order not only to know more molecular details but also to detect possible therapeutic targets to ameliorate or avoid the consequences of altered intestinal Ca2+absorption. 展开更多
关键词 Ca2+absorption Transcellular pathway Paracellular pathway HORMONES Dietary calcium Physiological conditions Pathological alterations
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广西18岁及以上居民血脂异常现况及其膳食影响多因素logistic回归分析 认领
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作者 岑鸿蕾 杨虹 +4 位作者 罗水英 毛玮 陆伟江 许晶晶 蔡剑锋 《应用预防医学》 2020年第1期8-12,共5页
目的分析膳食摄入水平与血脂异常的关系,为血脂异常的膳食防治提供参考依据。方法数据来源于2013年中国慢性病及其危险因素监测广西项目点调查。该调查选取调查前12个月内在监测点居住6个月以上,且年龄≥18岁的居民作为调查对象。采用... 目的分析膳食摄入水平与血脂异常的关系,为血脂异常的膳食防治提供参考依据。方法数据来源于2013年中国慢性病及其危险因素监测广西项目点调查。该调查选取调查前12个月内在监测点居住6个月以上,且年龄≥18岁的居民作为调查对象。采用多阶段整群随机抽样方法,在广西10个监测县(区)每县随机抽取3个乡镇(街道),每个乡镇(街)随机抽取3个村(居委会),每个村(居委会)随机抽取50户,每户随机抽取1名18岁及以上居民进行调查。利用χ^2检验及多因素logistic回归分析方法分析膳食与血脂异常的关系。结果在5 963名有效调查对象中,主要以女性(58.40%)、45~59岁(37.16%)、小学及以下(53.23%)和超重(27.03%)为主。血脂异常总检出率为31.81%,其中,城市居民(39.15%)高于农村居民(28.73%),男性(36.21%)高于女性(27.53%)。45~59岁年龄组血脂异常检出率(38.32%)最高,超重人群和肥胖人群血脂异常检出率(分别为39.49%和42.36%)明显高于正常体重人群(26.77%)。血脂异常类型以低高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)血症为主(检出率为18.24%)。单因素分析结果显示,居民不同血脂异常检出率在不同地区、年龄、性别、教育程度、BMI差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。多因素logistic回归分析结果显示,蔬菜、水果与血脂异常检出呈负相关,是保护因素,OR值(95%CI)分别为0.057(0.032-0.063)和0.090 (0.842-0.962);红肉、食用油与血脂异常检出呈正相关,是危险因素,OR值(95%CI)为1.027(1.275-1.595)和1.004 (1.001-1.102)。结论 2013年广西18岁及以上居民血脂异常检出率低于全国平均水平,适量摄入新鲜蔬菜、水果,减少红肉及食用油的摄入,可以有效预防血脂异常的发生。 展开更多
关键词 血脂异常 检出率 膳食 影响因素
Study on Functional and Structure Properties of Soluble Dietary Fiber Modified by Extrusion-expansion Technology from Peanut Shells 认领
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作者 Xishuang XING Lixin QIANG +8 位作者 Shuling SUN Xin ZHOU Ruihuan DU Yang LIU Zhe MENG Miaoshu WANG Weili ZHENG Lei WANG Xueying TANG 《农业生物技术:英文版》 CAS 2020年第3期137-139,145,共4页
[Objectives] This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using modified peanut dietary fiber as a functional food ingredient. [Methods]Using peanut shells as a test material,the process parameters of so... [Objectives] This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using modified peanut dietary fiber as a functional food ingredient. [Methods]Using peanut shells as a test material,the process parameters of soluble dietary fiber( SDF) modified by extrusion and expansion were studied,and the functional and structural characteristics of SDF before and after modification were discussed. [Results] The optimum conditions were as follows: screw speed 200 rpm,temperature 130 ℃ and moisture content 20 %,and the SDF extraction yield was 22. 3%. The modified SDF showed BCmax values of( 378. 5 ± 5. 3),( 278. 3 ± 3. 2)and( 167. 2 ± 2. 5) μmol/g and BCmin of( 30. 4 ± 1. 3),( 63. 4 ± 3. 7) and( 71. 3 ± 4. 2) μmol/L,for Pb,As and Cu,respectively,indicating that the adsorption to the three heavy metals was enhanced. The modified SDF had a porous network like honeycomb and swelled structure. [Conclusions]Therefore,it is feasible to modify SDF by extrusion and expansion. 展开更多
关键词 Peanut shell Soluble dietary fiber MODIFICATION Heavy metal adsorption Structure property
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饮食和环境因素与儿童特应性皮炎的相关性研究进展 认领
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作者 陈仲祥 沈征宇 《中国麻风皮肤病杂志》 2020年第1期53-57,共5页
特应性皮炎(AD)是一种慢性复发性炎症性皮肤病,遗传因素的作用已被证实,近年研究发现饮食、环境因素也可影响AD的发病,孕期和产后母亲饮食及儿童自身对食物的过敏情况可影响AD发病。环境因素如空气污染和紫外线照射在AD发生、发展中也... 特应性皮炎(AD)是一种慢性复发性炎症性皮肤病,遗传因素的作用已被证实,近年研究发现饮食、环境因素也可影响AD的发病,孕期和产后母亲饮食及儿童自身对食物的过敏情况可影响AD发病。环境因素如空气污染和紫外线照射在AD发生、发展中也起着重要作用。本文对不同饮食、环境因素与儿童AD发病间的相关性作一综述。 展开更多
关键词 特应性皮炎 饮食 环境
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低磷饮食对慢性肾脏疾病进展影响的Meta分析 认领
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作者 江秋丹 黄丽华 《护理与康复》 2020年第1期1-9,共9页
目的分析低磷饮食对慢性肾脏疾病进展相关指标的影响。方法通过Pubmed、Proquest、Cochrane、Medline、Cinahl、中国生物医学期刊数据库、万方数据知识服务平台、中国期刊全文数据库、维普数据库检索低磷饮食或低磷饮食同时口服磷结合... 目的分析低磷饮食对慢性肾脏疾病进展相关指标的影响。方法通过Pubmed、Proquest、Cochrane、Medline、Cinahl、中国生物医学期刊数据库、万方数据知识服务平台、中国期刊全文数据库、维普数据库检索低磷饮食或低磷饮食同时口服磷结合剂干预对慢性肾脏疾病进展的所有随机对照研究。对所得文献依据纳入与排除标准进行筛查,提取资料,评价文献质量,采用Review Manager 5.3软件进行Meta分析。结果最终共纳入8篇文献,均为随机对照实验,累计样本量464例,其中干预组261例、对照组203例,经Meta分析显示:单纯低磷饮食对血液透析阶段干预时间≥60 d可以降低血磷水平,差异有统计学意义,MD=-0.19,95%CI(-0.25,-0.13),P<0.00001;低磷饮食对非血液透析阶段干预时间<60 d或≥60 d的血磷、血钙、甲状旁腺激素、肾小球滤过率水平的影响,差异无统计学意义。结论单纯低磷饮食可以降低血液透析阶段患者的血磷水平。 展开更多
关键词 低磷 饮食 肾病 META分析
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Drug and herbal/dietary supplements-induced liver injury:A tertiary care center experience 认领
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作者 Ayesha S Siddique Osama Siddique +2 位作者 Michael Einstein Eva Urtasun-Sotil Saverio Ligato 《世界肝病学杂志:英文版(电子版)》 CAS 2020年第5期207-219,共13页
BACKGROUND Drug-induced liver injury(DILI)and herbal/dietary supplements(HDS)related liver injury present unique diagnostic challenges.Collaboration between the clinician and the pathologist is required for an accurat... BACKGROUND Drug-induced liver injury(DILI)and herbal/dietary supplements(HDS)related liver injury present unique diagnostic challenges.Collaboration between the clinician and the pathologist is required for an accurate diagnosis and management.AIM To report our experience on the clinical-pathological findings of hepatic injury caused by drugs/HDS.METHODS A retrospective review of clinically proven cases of DILI/HDS who presented to our institution from January 1,2013 to December 31,2017 was performed.Slides were reviewed for histopathological patterns of injury and correlated with the causative agent.Out of 600 patients presenting with unexplained rise in liver enzymes undergoing biopsy,107 were suspected to have DILI/HDS.Of these,53 had a directly linked exposure to drug/herbal supplements.Fifteen patients were excluded for concurrent known liver disease.Thirty-eight patients with clinically proven DILI/HDS were finally included.RESULTS Thirty-eight cases of DILI/HDS with a male:female of 1:1.5 and mean age of 51±3 years were identified.DILI was identified in 84.2%cases while HDS injury in 15.8%.Acute hepatitis(42.1%)was the most common pattern of injury while granulomatous hepatitis(2.6%)was the least common.We found one case of acute-cholestasis due to rivaroxaban and two cases of cholestatic-hepatitis due to rizatriptan and trimethobenzamide-hydrochloride that,to the best of our knowledge,have not been previously reported.One case of steatohepatitis due to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and three unusual cases of cholestatic-hepatitis with bile duct injury and steatosis due to dronedarone,C4-Extreme and hydroxycut,were also seen.Of our cohort,81.6%of the patients fared well with discontinuation of drug and 18.4%underwent transplant;of which 42.9%were deceased.CONCLUSION We describe the clinical findings,histopathological patterns of injury and clinical outcomes caused by drugs.In particular,we report a few previously unreported/rarely observed clinical and histopathological patterns of hepatic injury. 展开更多
关键词 Drug-induced liver injury HERBALS Dietary supplements Liver enzymes BIOPSY SUPPLEMENTS
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Comparison of dietary intakes of Canadian Armed Forces personnel consuming field rations in acute hot, cold, and temperate conditions with standardized infantry 认领
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作者 Mavra Ahmed Iva Mandic +3 位作者 Wendy Lou Len Goodman Ira Jacobs Mary R.L’Abbé 《军事医学研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第1期77-92,共16页
Background:Dietary Reference Intakes are used to guide the energy intake of the Canadian Armed Forces(CAF)field rations provided to military personnel deployed for training or operations.However,the high energy expend... Background:Dietary Reference Intakes are used to guide the energy intake of the Canadian Armed Forces(CAF)field rations provided to military personnel deployed for training or operations.However,the high energy expenditures likely to occur under harsh environmental/metabolically challenging deployment conditions may not be adequately considered.This study examined the Ad libitum energy and nutrient intakes of CAF personnel(n=18)consuming field rations in a resting thermoneutral environment and during a day of standardized strenuous infantry activities at varying environmental temperatures.Methods:Dietary intake was assessed using a measured food intake/food waste method during the experimental treatment and for 6 h after treatment.Four treatments were administered in a randomized counterbalanced design:exercise(as standardized infantry activities)in the heat(30℃),exercise in the cold(–10℃),exercise in temperate thermoneutral(21℃)air temperatures and a resting(sedentary)trial(21℃).Results:The average Ad libitum consumption of field rations was 70%of the provided total energy(2776±99 kcal/8 h)during all treatments.Even with an acute challenge of increased energy expenditure and temperature stress in the simulated field conditions,participants’energy intakes(1985±747 kcal/8 h)under hot,cold and temperate treatments did not differ from energy intake during the sedentary condition(1920±640 kcal/8 h).Participants’energy intakes(1009±527 kcal/6 h)did not increase during the 6 h posttreatment period when the stresses of the strenuous physical activities and the harsh environmental temperatures had subsided.Conclusions:These results should be considered when planning the provision of field rations for CAF personnel expected to be engaged in strenuous physical activities with prolonged exposure to temperature extremes. 展开更多
关键词 Dietary assessment Nutrient intakes Military personnel Physical activity Temperature extremes Field rations
Food groups, diet quality and colorectal cancer risk in the Basque Country 认领
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作者 Iker Alegria-Lertxundi Carmelo Aguirre +11 位作者 Luis Bujanda Francisco J Fernandez Francisco Polo JoseMªOrdovas MªCarmen Etxezarraga Inaki Zabalza Mikel Larzabal Isabel Portillo Marian M de Pancorbo Koldo Garcia-Etxebarria Ana MªRocandio Marta Arroyo-Izaga 《世界胃肠病学杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS 2020年第28期4108-4125,共18页
BACKGROUND The results obtained to date concerning food groups,diet quality and colorectal cancer(CRC)risk vary according to criteria used and the study populations.AIM To study the relationships between food groups,d... BACKGROUND The results obtained to date concerning food groups,diet quality and colorectal cancer(CRC)risk vary according to criteria used and the study populations.AIM To study the relationships between food groups,diet quality and CRC risk,in an adult population of the Basque Country(North of Spain).METHODS This observational study included 308 patients diagnosed with CRC and 308 ageand sex-matched subjects as controls.During recruitment,dietary,anthropometric,lifestyle,socioeconomic,demographic and health status information was collected.Adherence to the dietary recommendations was evaluated utilizing the Healthy Eating Index for the Spanish Diet and the MedDietScore.Conditional logistic regressions were used to evaluate the associations of food group intakes,diet quality scores,categorized in tertiles,with CRC risk.RESULTS The adjusted models for potential confounding factors showed a direct association between milk and dairy products consumption,in particular high-fat cheeses[odds ratio(OR)third tertile vs first tertile=1.87,95%confidence intervals(CI):1.11-3.16],and CRC risk.While the consumption of fiber-containing foods,especially whole grains(OR third tertile vs first tertile=0.62,95%CI:0.39-0.98),and fatty fish(OR third tertile vs first tertile=0.53,95%CI:0.27-0.99)was associated with a lower risk for CRC.Moreover,higher MD adherence was associated with a reduced CRC risk in adjusted models(OR third tertile vs first tertile=0.40,95%CI:0.20-0.80).CONCLUSION Direct associations were found for high-fat cheese,whereas an inverse relation was reported for fiber-containing foods and fatty fish,as well as adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern. 展开更多
关键词 Colorectal cancer Food group Dietary quality Mediterranean diet RISKFACTORS Case-control study
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三种点尿法估算中国人群24 h尿钠排泄量的可行性评价 认领
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作者 杜晓甫 陈向宇 +4 位作者 张洁 方乐 徐建伟 白雅敏 钟节鸣 《中华预防医学杂志》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第4期420-424,共5页
目的评估Kawasaki法、INTERSALT法和Tanaka法估算中国人群24 h尿钠排泄量的可行性。方法采用多阶段分层随机抽样方法,于2017年在浙江省抽取义乌市、海宁市、泰顺县、宁波市鄞州区、丽水市莲都区的1499名18~69岁居民,采用问卷调查收集基... 目的评估Kawasaki法、INTERSALT法和Tanaka法估算中国人群24 h尿钠排泄量的可行性。方法采用多阶段分层随机抽样方法,于2017年在浙江省抽取义乌市、海宁市、泰顺县、宁波市鄞州区、丽水市莲都区的1499名18~69岁居民,采用问卷调查收集基本信息并进行体格测量,收集24 h尿液后记录尿量并检测尿钠、尿钾和尿肌酐浓度,最终共有1426名调查对象通过了尿液完整性检测。分别应用Kawasaki法、INTERSALT法和Tanaka法估算24 h尿钠排泄量,并与实测值进行比较。结果调查对象年龄为(46.71±14.04)岁,其中男性700名,占49.1%。调查对象24 h尿钠排泄量实测值为(167.10±74.70)mmol,Kawasaki法估值偏高,为(184.61±57.10)mmol,INTERSALT法和Tanaka法估值偏低,分别为(134.62±39.21)和(143.20±35.66)mmol。估算差值(95%CI)(mmol)由小及大依次为Kawasaki法[17.51(13.54,21.47)]、Tanaka法[-23.90(-27.60,-20.20)]和INTERSALT法[-32.48(-36.29,-28.67)]。随着24 h钠盐摄入量的增加,各估算方法均由高估转为低估:在24 h钠盐摄入量<9.0 g者中,INTERSALT法估算差值(95%CI)最小,在<6.0和6.0~8.9 g者中分别为[43.15(37.73,48.57)]和[1.26(-2.10,4.63)]mmol;在24 h钠盐摄入量≥9.0 g者中,Kawasaki法估算差值(95%CI)最小,在9.0~11.9和≥12.0 g者中分别为[-12.50(-18.14,-6.86)]和[-53.73(-61.25,-46.22)]。Bland-Altman法一致性分析显示,Kawasaki法估算值与实测值的一致性最好,范围外点数最少(69个,占4.84%)。结论在3种点尿法中,Kawasaki法对预测中国人群24 h尿钠排泄量具有更好的适用性。 展开更多
关键词 尿分析 氯化钠 膳食 生物学监测 可行性研究
日粮精粗比对思南杂交肉牛育肥及屠宰性能的影响 认领
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作者 雷荷仙 段俊红 +5 位作者 侯芳 任明晋 郭靖 蒲翠敏 杨帆 吴高奇 《贵州农业科学》 CAS 2020年第7期52-55,共4页
为思南杂交肉牛的提质增效及增产增收提供技术支撑,选择12头12月龄左右的西×思×安杂交肉牛随机分4组,分别饲喂精粗比为3∶7(A组)、4∶6(B组)、5∶5(C组)、6∶4(D组)的日粮,经135 d育肥后进行屠宰性能测定,探明适合思南杂交肉... 为思南杂交肉牛的提质增效及增产增收提供技术支撑,选择12头12月龄左右的西×思×安杂交肉牛随机分4组,分别饲喂精粗比为3∶7(A组)、4∶6(B组)、5∶5(C组)、6∶4(D组)的日粮,经135 d育肥后进行屠宰性能测定,探明适合思南杂交肉牛的最适日粮精粗比。结果表明:总采食量、采食率、日采食量、眼肌面积、背膘厚指标均以精粗比为5∶5的日粮处理最高,均显著高于日粮精粗比为3∶7和4∶6的处理;精粗比为5∶5的平均增重、平均日增重及屠宰性能各指标均显著高于其他处理;精粗比为5∶5的料肉比显著低于精粗比为3∶7和4∶6的处理;其肉色评分、滴水损失率、蒸煮损失率及剪切力均最低;优质以上牛肉占比最高,达68.35%。日粮精粗比按5∶5组配最适于思南杂交肉牛的生长。 展开更多
关键词 思南杂交肉牛 日粮 精粗比 育肥 屠宰性能
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饲料中脂肪水平及脂肪源对大菱鲆幼鱼生长和代谢的影响 认领
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作者 满铭叁 隋仲敏 +4 位作者 周慧慧 王旋 徐玮 麦康森 何艮 《中国海洋大学学报:自然科学版》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第10期26-36,共11页
本实验研究了饲料脂肪水平及脂肪来源对大菱鲆(Scophthalmus maximus L.)的生长、体组成及脂质代谢的影响。实验包括6组等氮实验饲料,分别以鱼油和豆油为主要脂肪源,设计3个脂肪水平(8%、12%和16%)的实验饲料(分别为F8组、F12组、F16组... 本实验研究了饲料脂肪水平及脂肪来源对大菱鲆(Scophthalmus maximus L.)的生长、体组成及脂质代谢的影响。实验包括6组等氮实验饲料,分别以鱼油和豆油为主要脂肪源,设计3个脂肪水平(8%、12%和16%)的实验饲料(分别为F8组、F12组、F16组和S8组、S12组和S16组)。选取初始体质量为(13.01±0.01)g的大菱鲆幼鱼,随机分到18个养殖桶中,每桶30尾,采用定量投喂方式进行投喂,养殖周期56 d。研究显示:随着饲料中脂肪含量上升,饲喂鱼油饲料的鱼体终末体质量、增重率、特定生长率有增高趋势,F16组鱼体生长性能显著优于F8组;而饲料中添加过高剂量豆油(S16组)对鱼体生长有明显抑制现象。饲料中脂肪水平显著影响大菱鲆肝体比和脏体比指数,而鱼体肥满度则受脂肪源影响显著。实验饲料组成对大菱鲆鱼体水分含量和粗蛋白含量无影响,但显著影响鱼体粗脂肪含量,鱼体粗脂肪含量随着饲料脂肪水平升高而上升。饲料脂肪来源显著影响大菱鲆肝脏脂肪含量,豆油组肝脏脂肪含量显著高于鱼油组,且豆油组大菱鲆肝脏脂肪含量随着脂肪水平的升高而显著提高。进一步检测大菱鲆脂代谢相关基因发现,饲料脂肪水平及来源显著影响大菱鲆肝脏脂肪合成、氧化等基因表达。综上所述,大菱鲆幼鱼饲料中脂肪水平在12%~16%时鱼体呈现最佳生长性能,饲料中添加过多豆油显著影响鱼体生长及肝脏脂肪代谢。 展开更多
关键词 饲料 大菱鲆 脂肪水平 鱼油 豆油 生长 脂代谢
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Effects of Different Drying Methods on the Functional and Structural Properties of Dietary Fiber from Peanut Shell 认领
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作者 Lei WANG Xishuang XING +6 位作者 Yang LIU Tian LIN Sining TANG Xin ZHOU Zhijun LIU Huihui CAO Yanhua YAN 《农业生物技术:英文版》 CAS 2020年第3期128-132,共5页
[Objectives] This study was conducted to investigate the drying methods,functional and structure properties of dietary fiber( DF) from peanut shells.[Methods]Peanut shells were used as a raw material to prepare peanut... [Objectives] This study was conducted to investigate the drying methods,functional and structure properties of dietary fiber( DF) from peanut shells.[Methods]Peanut shells were used as a raw material to prepare peanut shell dietary fiber( DF) by hot air drying( HA) and vacuum freeze drying( VF),respectively,and their functional and structural characteristics were compared in detail. [Results]The solubility,water holding capacity,oil holding capacity and swelling capacity of HA-DF and VF-DF were 2. 15 %,7. 63 g/g,7. 73 g/g,10. 35 ml/g and 3. 85 %,14. 98 g/g,15. 25 g/g,15. 85 ml/g,respectively. The total phenol contents were 2. 623 and 5. 173 mg GAE/g,respectively. The IC(50) values of ·OH,O2~-· and DPPH free radicals were 4. 16 and 4. 09 mg/ml,7. 90 and 3. 32 mg/ml,and 3. 19 and 3. 09 mg/ml,respectively. The molecular weight of VF-DF was smaller,and it had narrow molecular weight distribution and denser particles. Electron microscopy showed that VF-DF had a porous network like honeycomb and swelled structure. [Conclusions]This study can provide a theoretical basis for the functional modification and comprehensive utilization of peanut shell dietary fiber. 展开更多
关键词 Peanut shell Dietary fiber Drying method Functional property Structural property
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Dietary habits,lifestyle factors and neurodegenerative diseases 认领
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作者 Aurel Popa-Wagner Dinu Iuliu Dumitrascu +4 位作者 Bogdan Capitanescu Eugen Bogdan Petcu Roxana Surugiu Wen-Hui Fang Danut-Adrian Dumbrava 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第3期394-400,共7页
Worldwide stroke is increasing in parallel with modernization,changes in lifestyle,and the growing elderly population.Our review is focused on the link between diet,as part of‘modern lifestyle’,and health in the con... Worldwide stroke is increasing in parallel with modernization,changes in lifestyle,and the growing elderly population.Our review is focused on the link between diet,as part of‘modern lifestyle’,and health in the context of genetic predisposition of individuals to‘unhealthy’metabolic pathway activity.It is concluded that lifestyle including high sugar diets,alcohol and tobacco addiction or high fat diets as well as ageing,brain injury,oxidative stress and neuroinflammation,negatively influence the onset,severity and duration of neurodegenerative diseases.Fortunately,there are several healthy dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids and the anti-oxidants curcumin,resveratrol,blueberry polyphenols,sulphoraphane,salvionic acid as well as caloric restriction and physical activity,which may counteract ageing and associated neurodegenerative diseases via increased autophagy or increased neurogenesis in the adult brain. 展开更多
关键词 brain injury DIETARY HABITS LIFESTYLE metaflammation NEURODEGENERATION OXIDATIVE stress type 2 diabetes MELLITUS
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A comparison of fecal sampling and direct feeding observations for quantifying the diet of a frugivorous primate 认领
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作者 Jaya K.MATTHEWS Amanda R.IDLEY +1 位作者 Beth A.KApuN Cyril C.GRUETER 《动物学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第4期333-343,共11页
Both observational and indirect evidence are widely used to determine the diets of wild animals.Direct observations are often assumed to provide the most comprehensive reflection of diet,but many wild animals are logi... Both observational and indirect evidence are widely used to determine the diets of wild animals.Direct observations are often assumed to provide the most comprehensive reflection of diet,but many wild animals are logistically challenging to observe.Despite the regular use of observa-tional and indirect methods for inferring diet in wild animals,they have rarely been compared in detail for the same study population.Over 12 months this study assessed the congruence of methods in estimating the diet of a montane community of eastern chimpanzees Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in Nyungwe National Park,Rwanda using observational scan samples and macro-scopic fecal inspection.The assessment of the number of food species consumed each month was comparable between methods,but the estimation of the composition of items in the diet differed significantly.Most notably,the fecal samples significantly underestimated the consumption of flowers,and certain fruit species,which based on direct behavioral observations were seasonally consumed at very high rates.Conversely,direct observations underestimated the consumption of leaves and pith in comparison to results present in the fecal samples.These results suggest that combining methods where possible is most useful for accurate monitoring of dietary trends,particularly for species that experience significant seasonal shifts in their diet. 展开更多
关键词 CHIMPANZEE comparative methods dietary analysis SEASONALITY
Dietary fibre enrichment of supplemental feed modulates the development of the intestinal tract in suckling piglets 认领
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作者 H.M.J.Van Hees M.Davids +5 位作者 D.Maes S.Millet S.Possemiers L.A.den Hartog T.A.T.G.van Kempen G.P.J.Janssens 《畜牧与生物技术杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第1期183-193,共11页
Background:Commercial pre-weaning diets are formulated to be highly digestible and nutrient-dense and contain low levels of dietary fibre.In contrast,pigs in a natural setting are manipulating fibre-rich plant materia... Background:Commercial pre-weaning diets are formulated to be highly digestible and nutrient-dense and contain low levels of dietary fibre.In contrast,pigs in a natural setting are manipulating fibre-rich plant material from a young age.Moreover,dietary fibre affects gastrointestinal tract(GIT)development and health in older pigs.We hypothesised that supplemental diets that contain vegetal fibres are accelerating GIT development in suckling piglets in terms of size and functionality.From d 2 of life,sow-suckled piglets had access to a low fibre diet(CON),a diet with a fermentable long-chain arabinoxylan(lc-AXOS),a diet with a largely non-fermentable purified cellulose(CELL),or a diet containing both fibres.During the initial 2 weeks,the control diet was a high-density milk replacer,followed by a dry and highly digestible creep meal.Upon weaning at 25 d,15 piglets from each treatment group,identified as eaters and originating from six or seven litters,were sacrificed for post-mortem examination of GIT morphology,small intestinal permeability and metabolic profile of the digesta.The microbiota composition of the mid-colon was evaluated in a sub-set of ten piglets.Results:No major statistical interactions between the fibre sources were observed.Piglets consumed the fibrecontaining milk supplements and creep diets well.Stomach size and small intestinal permeability was not affected.Large intestinal fill was increased with lc-AXOS only,while relative large intestinal weight was increased with both fibre sources(P<0.050).Also,CELL decreased ileal pH and tended to increase ileal DM content compared to CON(P<0.050).Moreover,the concentration of volatile fatty acids was increased in the caecum(P<0.100)and midcolon(P<0.050)by addition of CELL.lc-AXOS only stimulated caecal propionate(P<0.050).The microbiota composition showed a high individual variation and limited dietary impact.Nonetheless,CELL induced minor shifts in specific genera,with notable reductions of Escherichia-Shigella.Conclusions:Adding dietary fibres to the 展开更多
关键词 Dietary fibre GUT MATURATION GUT MICROBIOTA SUCKLING PIGLETS
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北京市东城区3~5岁学龄前儿童膳食、身体活动和屏幕时间达到指南推荐要求情况及相关因素研究 认领
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作者 汪静 张娟 +8 位作者 闵开元 苏凤华 廖巍 孙靓 杨可欣 蔡姝雅 张佩雯 刘洋 王联君 《中国健康教育》 北大核心 2020年第3期210-214,共5页
目的研究北京市东城区3~5岁学龄前儿童膳食、身体活动和屏幕时间达到指南推荐要求的情况及相关因素,为制定预防学龄前儿童超重肥胖的干预措施提供科学依据。方法使用等比例分层整群抽样,2018年4—7月在东城区开展横断面调查。15所幼儿... 目的研究北京市东城区3~5岁学龄前儿童膳食、身体活动和屏幕时间达到指南推荐要求的情况及相关因素,为制定预防学龄前儿童超重肥胖的干预措施提供科学依据。方法使用等比例分层整群抽样,2018年4—7月在东城区开展横断面调查。15所幼儿园小班和中班的3585对儿童和家长参与了调查,应答率为84.61%。使用改编的问卷调查儿童的膳食、身体活动和屏幕时间,并从幼儿园体检数据库中获取儿童的体重和身高。使用有序Logistic回归分析儿童膳食、身体活动和屏幕时间达到推荐要求项数的相关因素。结果在被调查的儿童中,超重肥胖者占15.54%(11.05%超重、4.49%肥胖)。未发现膳食、身体活动和屏幕时间均达到推荐要求的儿童,有2项达到推荐要求的儿童31人(1.98%)。自身超重肥胖(OR=0.72,95%CI:0.59~0.89)和父母超重肥胖(OR=0.79,95%CI:0.67~0.93)的儿童达到推荐要求的项数较少,而父母社会经济地位较高的儿童达到推荐要求的项数较多(OR=1.48,95%CI:1.22~1.80)。结论东城区3~5岁儿童超重肥胖率较高,达15.54%,儿童自身和父母的超重肥胖是儿童膳食、身体活动和屏幕时间达到推荐要求的影响因素,应倡导儿童健康生活方式。 展开更多
关键词 学龄前儿童 超重肥胖 膳食 身体活动 屏幕时间
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Identification of the dietary supplement capsaicin as an inhibitor of Lassa virus entry 认领
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作者 Ke Tang Xiaoyu Zhang Ying Guo 《药学学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第5期789-798,共10页
The limited treatment options for the increasing occurrence of Lassa hemorrhagic fever in West Africa poses an urgent need for the discovery and development of novel therapeutics.Dietary supplements,especially natural... The limited treatment options for the increasing occurrence of Lassa hemorrhagic fever in West Africa poses an urgent need for the discovery and development of novel therapeutics.Dietary supplements,especially natural products that are edible and safe for human use,are a good source of drug discovery with potential for uncovering novel applications,In this study,we tested 40 natural products of dietary supplements and identified capsaicin,a common dietary supplement abundant in chili peppers,as an inhibitor of Lassa virus(LASV)entry with EC5,of 6.9-10.0μmol/L using an HIV based pseudo virus platform.Capsaicin inhibits the entry of five LASV strains but not against the Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus(LCMV),showing a preferential activity against LASV.Capsaicin inhibits LASV entry by blocking the pH dependent viral fusion through affecting the stable signal peptide(SSP)-GP2 transmembrane(GP2TM)region of the LASV surface glycoprotein.Mutational study revealed the key residues Ala25,Val431,Phe434 and Val435 in SsP-CP2TM region in capsaicin’s antiviral effect.This study for the first time reveals a direct acting antiviral effect of capsaicin against the hemorrhagic fever causing LASV,providing detailed interaction hot spots in the unique SSP-GP2TMinterface of LASV glycoprotein that is crucial in fusion inhibition,and offering a new strategy in discovering and developing antivirals from natural products that are safe for human use. 展开更多
关键词 Lassa virus Fusion inhibitor CAPSAICIN Dietary supplement Natural product antivirals Viral entry Hemorrhagic fever SSP-GP2TM region
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