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Dietary approach and gut microbiota modulation for chronic hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis 预览
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作者 Daniela Campion Ilaria Giovo +3 位作者 Paola Ponzo Giorgio M Saracco Federico Balzola Carlo Alessandria 《世界肝病学杂志:英文版(电子版)》 2019年第6期489-512,共24页
Hepatic encephalopathy(HE)is a common and serious neuropsychiatric complication of cirrhosis,acute liver failure,and porto-systemic shunting.HE largely contributes to the morbidity of patients with liver disease,sever... Hepatic encephalopathy(HE)is a common and serious neuropsychiatric complication of cirrhosis,acute liver failure,and porto-systemic shunting.HE largely contributes to the morbidity of patients with liver disease,severely affecting the quality of life of both patients and their relatives and being associated with poor prognosis.Its presentation is largely variable,manifesting with a broad spectrum of cognitive abnormalities ranging from subtle cognitive impairment to coma.The pathogenesis of HE is complex and has historically been linked with hyperammonemia.However,in the last years,it has become evident that the interplay of multiple actors,such as intestinal dysbiosis,gut hyperpermeability,and neuroinflammation,is of crucial importance in its genesis.Therefore,HE can be considered a result of a dysregulated gut-liverbrain axis function,where cognitive impairment can be reversed or prevented by the beneficial effects induced by“gut-centric”therapies,such as non-absorbable disaccharides,non-absorbable antibiotics,probiotics,prebiotics,and fecal microbiota transplantation.In this context dietary modifications,by modulating the intestinal milieu,can also provide significant benefit to cirrhotic patients with HE.This review will provide a comprehensive insight into the mechanisms responsible for gut-liver-brain axis dysregulation leading to HE in cirrhosis.Furthermore,it will explore the currently available therapies and the most promising future treatments for the management of patients with HE,with a special focus on the dietary approach. 展开更多
关键词 CIRRHOSIS Hepatic encephalopathy DIET therapy GUT MICROBIOTA Leaky GUT HYPERAMMONEMIA Prebiotics Probiotics Gluten-casein free DIET GUT MICROBIOTA transplantation
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Intestinal Microbiota in Early Life and Its Implications on Childhood Health
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作者 Lu Zhuang Haihua Chen +3 位作者 Sheng Zhang Jiahui Zhuang Qiuping Li Zhichun Feng 《基因组蛋白质组与生物信息学报:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第1期13-25,共13页
Trillions of microbes reside in the human body and participate in multiple physiological and pathophysiological processes that affect host health throughout the life cycle.The microbiome is hallmarked by distinctive c... Trillions of microbes reside in the human body and participate in multiple physiological and pathophysiological processes that affect host health throughout the life cycle.The microbiome is hallmarked by distinctive compositional and functional features across different life periods.Accumulating evidence has shown that microbes residing in the human body may play fundamental roles in infant development and the maturation of the immune system.Gut microbes are thought to be essential for the facilitation of infantile and childhood development and immunity by assisting in breaking down food substances to liberate nutrients,protecting against pathogens,stimulating or modulating the immune system,and exerting control over the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.This review aims to summarize the current understanding of the colonization and development of the gut microbiota in early life,highlighting the recent findings regarding the role of intestinal microbes in pediatric diseases.Furthermore,we also discuss the microbiota-mediated therapeutics that can reconfigure bacterial communities to treat dysbiosis. 展开更多
关键词 INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA Immunity Gut-brain axis Early life Diseases MICROBIOTA MANIPULATION
肠道微生态的基本概念 预览
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作者 向毅 巫贵成 《现代医药卫生》 2019年第1期5-7,共3页
人体是由自身细胞和微生物组成的超级生物体.在人体肠道、口腔、皮肤、泌尿生殖道和上呼吸道均存在大量微生物,这些微生物在相应部位寄居,形成相对稳定的群落并与人体相互影响、相互作用,成为具有共生关系的统一体,称为微生态系统.上述... 人体是由自身细胞和微生物组成的超级生物体.在人体肠道、口腔、皮肤、泌尿生殖道和上呼吸道均存在大量微生物,这些微生物在相应部位寄居,形成相对稳定的群落并与人体相互影响、相互作用,成为具有共生关系的统一体,称为微生态系统.上述部位的微生态系统被称为人体的五大微生态系统.其中,肠道的微生物含量最大、最复杂,并在肠道功能调节、免疫系统成熟、病原体防御和物质代谢等中起核心作用[1],除了与肠道健康密切相关外,肠道微生物还与肝脏疾病、神经系统疾病、皮肤疾病、心血管疾病、呼吸系统疾病、骨骼和肾脏疾病等多器官、多系统有密切联系. 展开更多
关键词 微生态 肠道 肠道微生态 组成 功能 检测方法 综述
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Linkage of microbiota and osteoporosis:A mini literature review 预览
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作者 David Yatsonsky II Karen Pan +2 位作者 Vithal B Shendge Jiayong Liu Nabil A Ebraheim 《世界骨科杂志(英文版)》 2019年第3期123-127,共5页
The gut microbiota(GM)has become a recent topic of interest in the role of many disease states.Assessing patients with osteoporosis(OP),there is a strong correlation between gut microbe dysregulation and decreased bon... The gut microbiota(GM)has become a recent topic of interest in the role of many disease states.Assessing patients with osteoporosis(OP),there is a strong correlation between gut microbe dysregulation and decreased bone density.Gut dysbiosis may lead to inflammation,dysregulation of nutrient and calcium transport across the intestine into circulation and systemic inflammation.Investigation of microbial profile relative to normal gut microbiomes,assessment of inflammatory markers such as interleukin-1(IL-1),IL-6,and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.Therapies to normalize GM in patients with OP or prevent occurrence of OP to be investigated include:High fiber prebiotic diets to promote growth of normal gut bacteria and short chain fatty acid production,Probiotics to encourage growth of normal gut microbes, and antibiotic treatment followed byfecal matter transplant. 展开更多
关键词 OSTEOPOROSIS MICROBIOTA LINKAGE BONE density GUT MICROBIOTA
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Hair regrowth following fecal microbiota transplantation in an elderly patient with alopecia areata: A case report and review of the literature 预览
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作者 Wen-Rui Xie Xiao-Ya Yang +2 位作者 Harry Hua-Xiang Xia Li-Hao Wu Xing-Xiang He 《世界临床病例杂志》 2019年第19期3074-3081,共8页
BACKGROUND Alopecia areata is a hair loss disease associated with genetics,autoimmunity,and other factors.There is an intriguing link between alopecia areata and gut dysbiosis.Fecal microbiota transplantation(FMT)has ... BACKGROUND Alopecia areata is a hair loss disease associated with genetics,autoimmunity,and other factors.There is an intriguing link between alopecia areata and gut dysbiosis.Fecal microbiota transplantation(FMT)has been recommended to treat Clostridium difficile(previously known as Clostridioides difficile)infection,and has also shown potentials in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease,irritable bowel syndrome,and non-alcohol fatty liver disease.CASE SUMMARY An 86-year-old man,with a history of sigmoid colon carcinoma,suffered from recurrent abdominal pain and distension,and diarrhea for six months,with inappetence.At admission,he was also diagnosed with depression.Upon physical examination,the patient presented with a 1.5 cm×2.0 cm alopecia areata on his right occiput.Due to the negative results of laboratory testing,capsule endoscopy,and colonoscopy,the patient was diagnosed with noninfectious diarrhea,depressive disorder,and patchy alopecia areata.Considering that noninfectious diarrhea in the elderly patient was mainly caused by gut dysbiosis,he was given six rounds of FMT.His diarrhea improved remarkably one month after FMT,with improved appetite and disappearance of abdominal pain,distension,and depressive symptoms.Surprisingly,he reported new hair growth on the affected region of his scalp,with some of his white hair gradually turning to black,without taking any other therapies for alopecia areata before and after FMT.CONCLUSION FMT might act as a potential therapy for patients who suffer from alopecia areata.Large and well-designed studies are required to confirm the role of FMT in alopecia areata. 展开更多
关键词 FECAL MICROBIOTA TRANSPLANTATION ALOPECIA areata Gut MICROBIOTA AUTOIMMUNE disease Psychopathogenesis Case report
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Influences of immersion bathing in Bacillus velezensis DY-6 on growth performance, non-specific immune enzyme activities and gut microbiota of Apostichopus japonicus 预览
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作者 WANG Jinyan LI Bin +3 位作者 WANG Yingeng LIAO Meijie RONG Xiaojun ZHANG Zheng 《海洋湖沼学报(英文)》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第4期1449-1459,共11页
In this study, the influences of immersion bathing in different concentrations of Bacillus velezensis DY-6 on the body weight gain rate and non-specific immune enzyme activities of the coelom fluid of sea cucumber (Ap... In this study, the influences of immersion bathing in different concentrations of Bacillus velezensis DY-6 on the body weight gain rate and non-specific immune enzyme activities of the coelom fluid of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) were determined in order to obtain the optimum bacterial concentration. The gut microbiota change in A. japonicus was then analyzed through high-throughput sequencing during the immersion bathing in B. velezensis DY-6 at the optimum concentration for 49 d. The results illustrate that the body weight growth rate of all bathing groups was higher than that of the control. The highest growth rate (25.3%) was achieved when the bacterial concentration was 1×10^3 CFU/mL. The activities of non-specific immune enzymes (ACP, AKP, SOD and LZM) of all bathing groups increased, and the activities of the enzymes of groups bathed with the bacterium at 1×10^3 and 1×10^4 CFU/mL reached the highest on day 21 and day 28. Taking the growth rate and economic cost into consideration, the optimum concentration of B. velezensis DY-6 was 1×10^3 CFU/mL. The influences of immersion bathing in B. velezensis DY-6 at 1×10^3 CFU/mL on the gut microbiota of A. japonicus were then evaluated through 16S rDNA sequencing analysis. Results showed that the gut microbiota changed with the addition of B. velezensis DY-6, and the richness and diversity of the gut microbiota peaked twice on day 14 and day 21, respectively. In association with the non-specific immune enzyme activities and if day 28 was selected as the dividing point, the community structure of the gut microbiota could be obviously divided into two types. The correlation analysis revealed that the non-specific immune enzyme activities were correlated significantly to some gut bacteria (in the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) after immersion bathing in B. velezensis DY-6. Our findings will provide the theoretical foundation for probiotic application in sea cucumber farming. 展开更多
关键词 Apostichopus JAPONICUS BACILLUS velezensis non-specific immune enzyme gut microbiota correlation
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An overview of energy and metabolic regulation
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作者 Song Wen Chaoxun Wang +1 位作者 Min Gong Ligang Zhou 《中国科学:生命科学英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第6期771-790,共20页
The physiology and behaviors related to energy balance are monitored by the nervous and humoral systems. Because of the difficulty in treating diabetes and obesity, elucidating the energy balance mechanism and identif... The physiology and behaviors related to energy balance are monitored by the nervous and humoral systems. Because of the difficulty in treating diabetes and obesity, elucidating the energy balance mechanism and identifying critical targets for treatment are important research goals. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to describe energy regulation by the central nervous system(CNS) and peripheral humoral pathway. Homeostasis and rewarding are the basis of CNS regulation. Anorexigenic or orexigenic effects reflect the activities of the POMC/CART or NPY/AgRP neurons within the hypothalamus. Neurotransmitters have roles in food intake, and responsive brain nuclei have different functions related to food intake, glucose monitoring, reward processing. Peripheral gut-or adipose-derived hormones are the major source of peripheral humoral regulation systems. Nutrients or metabolites and gut microbiota affect metabolism via a discrete pathway. We also review the role of peripheral organs, the liver,adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle in peripheral regulation. We discuss these topics and how the body regulates metabolism. 展开更多
关键词 HEDONIC POMC/CART NPY/AgRP NEUROTRANSMITTER brain NUCLEI gut-derived HORMONE GUT MICROBIOTA BAT
肠道和肺部微生物群落与慢性阻塞性肺疾病相关性的研究进展 预览
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作者 李晓俊 李亚 李素云 《中国全科医学》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第35期4353-4357,共5页
本文通过回顾文献,介绍了慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)的发病机制,阐述了肠道和肺部微生物群落与机体的关系,分析了肠道和肺部微生物群落失衡对COPD及其急性加重事件的相关性。由于缺乏纵向或干预性研究,很难确定肠道或肺部微生物群落的改变... 本文通过回顾文献,介绍了慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)的发病机制,阐述了肠道和肺部微生物群落与机体的关系,分析了肠道和肺部微生物群落失衡对COPD及其急性加重事件的相关性。由于缺乏纵向或干预性研究,很难确定肠道或肺部微生物群落的改变是否与COPD的发生发展存在因果关系。围绕急性加重期和稳定期肠道和肺部微生物群落变化的研究,将有利于揭示COPD的动态变化规律,为其治疗提出新的策略。 展开更多
关键词 肺疾病 慢性阻塞性 微生物群落 胃肠道 综述
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涎腺导管菌群和口腔菌群多样性与涎石病的相关性研究 预览
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作者 陈慧娟 曾飞跃 胡凤玲 《口腔医学》 CAS 2019年第6期505-509,共5页
目的探究涎腺导管结石患者是否存在导管内或口腔菌群失调,探讨细菌与涎石病发生的相关性。方法收集20例涎腺导管结石(1例腮腺结石,19例下颌下腺结石)患者的导管结石样本、导管内唾液及口腔内唾液样本作为实验组,收集20例健康志愿者导管... 目的探究涎腺导管结石患者是否存在导管内或口腔菌群失调,探讨细菌与涎石病发生的相关性。方法收集20例涎腺导管结石(1例腮腺结石,19例下颌下腺结石)患者的导管结石样本、导管内唾液及口腔内唾液样本作为实验组,收集20例健康志愿者导管内唾液及口腔内唾液样本作为对照组。提取样品的细菌DNA采用酶链聚合反应进行扩增。采用Roche高通量454焦磷酸测序技术对细菌16S rRNA V1~V3可变区的PCR扩增子进行测序,进一步利用生物信息学分析方法对测序数据进行挖掘,明确样本中细菌组分、群落结构,比较实验组与对照组间差异性。结果成功对唾液及结石样本进行了DNA测序分析,样本稀疏曲线显示测序深度充分,测序覆盖深度(Coverage指数)满足实验要求。实验组与对照组的导管内唾液及口腔内菌群的生物多样性无差异,结石样本与导管内菌群生物多样性无差异(P>0.05)。唾液腺导管内菌群的生物多样性指标香农指数、Chao指数、ACE指数均大于口腔内菌群(P<0.05)。导管内菌群结构比较显示:细菌门水平,梭杆菌门在实验组中显著高于对照组(P<0.05);细菌属水平,普氏菌属、卟啉单胞菌属及奈瑟氏菌属在实验组中均显著减少(P<0.05)。口腔内菌群结构比较显示:在细菌门水平,变形菌门在实验组中显著高于对照组(P<0.05);细菌属水平,普氏菌属、链球菌属及韦永氏球菌属在实验组中均显著低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论结石样本中的微生物菌群结构及多样性与唾液腺导管内相似,唾液腺导管内微生物多样性显著高于口腔内。涎石病患者与健康对照人群的口腔及唾液腺导管微生物群落结构存在显著差异。涎石病患者的口腔及唾液腺导管内存在菌群失调情况。 展开更多
关键词 涎石病 菌群 16s RRNA 焦磷酸测序
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Recently duplicated sesterterpene(C25) gene clusters in Arabidopsis thaliana modulate root microbiota
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作者 Qingwen Chen Ting Jiang +14 位作者 Yong-Xin Liu Haili Liu Tao Zhao Zhixi Liu Xiangchao Gan Asis Hallab Xuemei Wang Juan He Yihua Ma Fengxia Zhang Tao Jin M. Eric Schranz Yong Wang Yang Bai Guodong Wang 《中国科学:生命科学英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第7期947-958,共12页
Land plants co-speciate with a diversity of continually expanding plant specialized metabolites(PSMs) and root microbial communities(microbiota).Homeostatic interactions between plants and root microbiota are essentia... Land plants co-speciate with a diversity of continually expanding plant specialized metabolites(PSMs) and root microbial communities(microbiota).Homeostatic interactions between plants and root microbiota are essential for plant survival in natural environments.A growing appreciation of microbiota for plant health is fuelling rapid advances in genetic mechanisms of controlling microbiota by host plants.PSMs have long been proposed to mediate plant and single microbe interactions.However,the effects of PSMs,especially those evolutionarily new PSMs,on root microbiota at community level remain to be elucidated.Here,we discovered sesterterpenes in Arabidopsis thaliana,produced by recently duplicated prenyltransferase-terpene synthase(PT-TPS) gene clusters,with neo-functionalization.A single-residue substitution played a critical role in the acquisition of sesterterpene synthase(sesterTPS) activity in Brassicaceae plants.Moreover,we found that the absence of two root-specific sesterterpenoids,with similar chemical structure,significantly affected root microbiota assembly in similar patterns.Our results not only demonstrate the sensitivity of plant microbiota to PSMs but also establish a complete framework of host plants to control root microbiota composition through evolutionarily dynamic PSMs. 展开更多
关键词 plant specialized METABOLITES MICROBIOTA sesterterpene TERPENE SYNTHASE
肠道黏膜免疫与炎症小体的研究进展 预览
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作者 黄佳铭 杨冬雪 +1 位作者 李晓曦 杨硕 《微生物与感染》 2019年第2期113-123,共11页
肠道是机体消化器官,为机体生命活动提供所需要的营养。肠道免疫系统有独特的功能,在抵抗潜在病原体侵入机体过程中发挥至关重要的作用。炎症小体是机体天然免疫系统中重要的蛋白复合体感受器,参与病原体引起的宿主防御反应,并在维持肠... 肠道是机体消化器官,为机体生命活动提供所需要的营养。肠道免疫系统有独特的功能,在抵抗潜在病原体侵入机体过程中发挥至关重要的作用。炎症小体是机体天然免疫系统中重要的蛋白复合体感受器,参与病原体引起的宿主防御反应,并在维持肠道免疫稳态中发挥关键作用。本文综述了肠道黏膜免疫系统及炎症小体在肠道免疫中的作用。 展开更多
关键词 肠道上皮细胞 微生物 肠道黏膜免疫 炎症小体
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Metabolic characteristics and nutrient utilization in high-feedefficiency pigs selected using different feed conversion ratio models
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作者 Beibei He Tiantian Li +6 位作者 Wei Wang Hang Gao Yu Bai Shuai Zhang Jianjun Zang Defa Li Junjun Wang 《中国科学:生命科学英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第7期959-970,共12页
An understanding of the nutrient utilization characteristics of pigs with different feed efficiencies(FEs) will help us to develop new strategies to reduce the costs of pig production.In this study,we selected pigs wi... An understanding of the nutrient utilization characteristics of pigs with different feed efficiencies(FEs) will help us to develop new strategies to reduce the costs of pig production.In this study,we selected pigs with a range of FEs according to two feed conversion ratio models: the feed intake(FI) model,where pigs had the same average daily gains(ADGs) but different FIs,and the ADG model,where pigs had the same FIs but different ADGs.High-FE pigs had a higher abundance of short chain fatty acid(SCFA)-producing bacteria(Lachnospiraceae,Clostridiaceae1,and Coriobacteriaceae) in their caecum in the FI model,and low-FE pigs had a higher abundance of two families(BacteroidalesS247group and Peptococcaceae) and two genera(Anaerotruncus and CandidatusSoleaferrea) in both models.By contrast,high-FE pigs had more goblet cells and higher m RNA expression of insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-1) in the FI model,and higher mRNA expression of occludin but lower expressions of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase(AMPK)-α2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha(PGC1α) in the ADG model.These findings suggest that the presence of SCFA-producing bacteria in the caecum and increased muscular growth may contribute to the high FE of low-FI pigs,while improved intestinal functions and decreased mitochondrial activity in the skeletal muscle are related to the high FE of high-ADG pigs. 展开更多
关键词 feed efficiency CAECUM MICROBIOTA INTESTINAL functions muscle growth and MITOCHONDRIAL activity GROWING PIGS
Antibiotics and immunotherapy in gastrointestinal tumors: Friend or foe? 预览
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作者 Cong Yan Xiao-Xuan Tu +7 位作者 Wei Wu Zhou Tong Lu-Lu Liu Yi Zheng Wei-Qin Jiang Peng Zhao Wei-Jia Fang Hang-Yu Zhang 《世界临床病例杂志》 2019年第11期1253-1261,共9页
The incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) tumors is increasing year by year, and its pathogenesis is closely related to the intestinal flora. At present, the use of antibiotics is very common in the clinic. And cancer pa... The incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) tumors is increasing year by year, and its pathogenesis is closely related to the intestinal flora. At present, the use of antibiotics is very common in the clinic. And cancer patients with low immunity are vulnerable to all sorts of infections, such as respiratory tract infections and urinary tract infections. Moreover, cancer patients easily run into fever and neutropenia induced by myelosuppression. Therefore, antibiotics are used extensively and even overused in many conditions. However, because of the special anatomical location of the gastrointestinal tract, the antibiotic usage will bring changes to the intestinal flora. Besides, with the expanding popularity of immunotherapy, various factors affecting the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been extensively explored, including cancer-associated inflammation and the local and systemic factors that lead to immunosuppression. Some biomarkers for ICIs, including the expression of PD-L1, tumor mutation load, and microbiota, also have been investigated, and many studies have confirmed that gut microbiota can affect the efficacy of immunotherapy. But further studies on the influence of antibiotics directly on immunotherapy are rare. In this review, we discuss the relationship between GI tumors and antibiotics, the current status of immunotherapy in GI tumors, and the influence of antibiotics on immunotherapy. 展开更多
关键词 ANTIBIOTICS IMMUNOTHERAPY Gastrointestinal tumor MICROBIOTA Immune CHECKPOINT inhibitors
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Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors on the Gastrointestinal Microbiota in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
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作者 Yi-Chao Shi Shun-Tian Cai +8 位作者 Ya-Ping Tian Hui-Jun Zhao Yan-Bing Zhang Jing Chen Rong-Rong Ren Xi Luo Li-Hua Peng Gang Sun Yun-Sheng Yang 《基因组蛋白质组与生物信息学报:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第1期52-63,共12页
Proton pump inhibitors(PPIs)are commonly used to lessen symptoms in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease(GERD).However,the effects of PPI therapy on the gastrointestinal microbiota in GERD patients remain unc... Proton pump inhibitors(PPIs)are commonly used to lessen symptoms in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease(GERD).However,the effects of PPI therapy on the gastrointestinal microbiota in GERD patients remain unclear.We examined the association between the PPI usage and the microbiota present in gastric mucosal and fecal samples from GERD patients and healthy controls(HCs)using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.GERD patients taking PPIs were further divided into short-term and long-term PPI user groups.We showed that PPI administration lowered the relative bacterial diversity of the gastric microbiota in GERD patients.Compared to the non?PPIuser and HC groups,higher abundances of Planococcaceae,Oxalobacteraceae,and Sphingomonadaceae were found in the gastric microbiota from the PPI-user group.In addition,the Methylophilus genus was more highly abundant in the long-term PPI user group than in the short-term PPI-user group.Despite the absence of differences in alpha diversity,there were significant differences in the fecal bacterial composition of between GERD patients taking PPIs and those not taking PPIs.There was a higher abundance of Streptococcaceae,Veillonellaceae,Acidaminococcaceae,Micrococcaceae,and Flavobacteriaceae present in the fecal microbiota from the PPI-user group than those from the non-PPI-user and HC groups.Additionally,a significantly higher abundance of Ruminococcus was found in GERD patients on long-term PPI medication than that on shortterm PPI medication.Our study indicates that PPI administration in patients with GERD has a significant effect on the abundance and structure of the gastric mucosal microbiota but only on the composition of the fecal microbiota. 展开更多
关键词 MICROBIOTA GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX disease Proton pump inhibitors Gastric MUCOSAL FECAL
Inulin Can Alleviate Metabolism Disorders in ob/ob Mice by Partially Restoring Leptin-related Pathways Mediated by Gut Microbiota
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作者 Xiaofeng Song Liang Zhong +9 位作者 Na Lyu Fei Liu Boxing Li Yanan Hao Yong Xue Jing Li Yuqing Feng Yue Ma Yongfei Hu Baoli Zhu 《基因组蛋白质组与生物信息学报:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第1期64-75,共12页
Inulin has been used as a prebiotic to alleviate glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in mice and humans by modulating the gut microbiota.However,the mechanism underlying the alleviation of metabolic disorders by in... Inulin has been used as a prebiotic to alleviate glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in mice and humans by modulating the gut microbiota.However,the mechanism underlying the alleviation of metabolic disorders by inulin through interactions between the gut microbiota and host cells is unclear.We use ob/ob mice as a model to study the effect of inulin on the cecal microbiota by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and its interaction with host cells by transcriptomics.The inulin-supplemented diet improved glucose and lipid metabolism disorder parameters in ob/ob mice,alleviating fat accumulation and glucose intolerance.The a diversity of gut microbial community of oblob mice was reduced after inulin treatment,while the p diversity tended to return to the level of wild type mice.Interestingly,Prevotellaceae UCG 001(family Prevotellaceae)was obviously enriched after inulin treatment.A comparative analysis of the gene expression profile showed that the cecal transcriptome was changed in leptin gene deficiency mice,whereas the inulin-supplemented diet partially reversed the changes in leptin gene-related signaling pathways,especially AMPK signaling pathway,where the levels of gene expression became comparable to those in wild type mice.Further analysis indicated that Prevotellaceae UCG 001 was positively correlated with the AMPK signaling pathway,which was negatively correlated with markers of glycolipid metabolism disorders.Our results suggest that the inulin-supplemented diet alleviates glucose and lipid metabolism disorders by partially restoring leptin related pathways mediated by gut microbiota. 展开更多
关键词 PREBIOTICS Gut MICROBIOTA Obesity TRANSCRIPTOME Metabolic DISORDERS
How Microbes Shape Their Communities? A Microbial Community Model Based on Functional Genes
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作者 Xiaoqing Jiang Xin Li +4 位作者 Longshu Yang Chunhong Liu Qi Wang Weilai Chi Huaiqiu Zhu 《基因组蛋白质组与生物信息学报:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第1期91-105,共15页
Exploring the mechanisms of maintaining microbial community structure is important to understand biofilm development or microbiota dysbiosis.In this paper,we propose a functional gene-based composition prediction(FCP)... Exploring the mechanisms of maintaining microbial community structure is important to understand biofilm development or microbiota dysbiosis.In this paper,we propose a functional gene-based composition prediction(FCP)model to predict the population structure composition within a microbial community.The model predicts the community composition well in both a low-complexity community as acid mine drainage(AMD)microbiota,and a complex community as human gut microbiota.Furthermore,we define community structure shaping(CSS)genes as functional genes crucial for shaping the microbial community.We have identified CSS genes in AMD and human gut microbiota samples with FCP model and find that CSS genes change with the conditions.Compared to essential genes for microbes,CSS genes are significantly enriched in the genes involved in mobile genetic elements,cell motility,and defense mechanisms,indicating that the functions of CSS genes are focused on communication and strategies in response to the environment factors.We further find that it is the minority,rather than the majority,which contributes to maintaining community structure.Compared to health control samples,we find that some functional genes associated with metabolism of amino acids,nucleotides,and lipopolysaccharide are more likely to be CSS genes in the disease group.CSS genes may help us to understand critical cellular processes and be useful in seeking addable gene circuitries to maintain artificial self^sustainable communities.Our study suggests that functional genes are important to the assembly of microbial communities. 展开更多
关键词 METAGENOMICS Dynamics MODEL Community structure Acid mine drainage Human GUT MICROBIOTA
Evaluation and comparison of short chain fatty acids composition in gut diseases 预览
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作者 Elena Niccolai Simone Baldi +9 位作者 Federica Ricci Edda Russo Giulia Nannini Marta Menicatti Giovanni Poli Antonio Taddei Gianluca Bartolucci Antonino Salvatore Calabrò Francesco Claudio Stingo Amedeo Amedei 《世界胃肠病学杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS 2019年第36期5543-5558,共16页
BACKGROUND An altered (dysbiosis) and unhealthy status of the gut microbiota is usually responsible for a reduction of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration. SCFAs obtained from the carbohydrate fermentation p... BACKGROUND An altered (dysbiosis) and unhealthy status of the gut microbiota is usually responsible for a reduction of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration. SCFAs obtained from the carbohydrate fermentation processes are crucial in maintaining gut homeostasis and their determination in stool samples could provide a faster, reliable and cheaper method to highlight the presence of an intestinal dysbiosis and a biomarker for various gut diseases. We hypothesize that different intestinal diseases, such as celiac disease (CD), adenomatous polyposis (AP) and colorectal cancer (CRC) could display a particular fecal SCFAs’ signature. AIM To compare the fecal SCFAs’ profiles of CD, AP, CRC patients and healthy controls, using the same analytical method. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we defined and compared the SCFAs’ concentration in fecal samples of 9 AP, 16 CD, 19 CRC patients and 16 healthy controls (HC). The SCFAs’ analysis were performed using a gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry method. Data analysis was carried out using Wilcoxon ranksum test to assess pairwise differences of SCFAs’ profiles, partial least squaresdiscriminate analysis (PLS-DA) to determine the status membership based on distinct SCFAs’ profiles, and Dirichlet regression to determine factors influencing concentration levels of SCFAs. RESULTS We have not observed any difference in the SCFAs’ amount and composition between CD and healthy control. On the contrary, the total amount of SCFAs was significantly lower in CRC patients compared to HC (P = 0.044) and CD (P = 0.005). Moreover, the SCFAs’ percentage composition was different in CRC and AP compared to HC. In detail, HC displayed higher percentage of acetic acid (P value = 1.3 × 10-6) and a lower amount of butyric (P value = 0.02192), isobutyric (P value = 7.4 × 10-5), isovaleric (P value = 0.00012) and valeric (P value = 0.00014) acids compared to CRC patients. AP showed a lower abundance of acetic acid (P value = 0.00062) and higher percentages 展开更多
关键词 Short chain FATTY ACIDS MICROBIOTA Colorectal cancer ADENOMA CELIAC disease
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Fermentation characteristics of resistant starch, arabinoxylan, andβ-glucan and their effects on the gut microbial ecology of pigs:A review
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作者 Utsav P.Tiwari Amit K.Singh Rajesh Jha 《动物营养:英文版》 2019年第3期217-226,共10页
Dietary fibers(DF)contain an abundant amount of energy,although the mammalian genome does not encode most of the enzymes required to degrade them.However,a mutual dependence is developed between the host and symbiotic... Dietary fibers(DF)contain an abundant amount of energy,although the mammalian genome does not encode most of the enzymes required to degrade them.However,a mutual dependence is developed between the host and symbiotic microbes,which has the potential to extract the energy present in these DF.Dietary fibers escape digestion in the foregut and are fermented in the hindgut,producing shortchain fatty acids(SCFA)that after the microbial ecology in the gastrointestinal tract(GIT)of pigs.Most of the carbohydrates are fermented in the proximal part,allowing protein fermentation in the distal part,resulting in colonic diseases.The structures of resistant starch(RS),arabinoxylan(AX),and β-glucan(βG)are complex;hence,makes their way into the hindgut where these are fermented and provide energy substrates for the colonic epithelial cells.Different microbes have different preferences of binding to different substrates.The RS,AX and βG act as a unique substrate for the microbes and modify the relative composition of the gut microbial community.The granule dimension and surface area of each substrate are different,which influences the penetration capacity of microbes.Arabinose and xylan are 2 different hemicelluloses,but arabinose is substituted on the xylan backbone and occurs in the form of AX.Fermentation of xylan produces butyrate primarily in the small intestine,whereas arabinose produces butyrate in the large intestine.Types of RS and forms of βG also exert beneficial effects by producing different metabolites and modulating the intestinal microbiota.Therefore,it is important to have information of different types of RS,AX and(3 G and their roles in microbial modulation to get the optimum benefits of fiber fermentation in the gut.This review provides relevant information on the similarities and differences that exist in the way RS,AX,and βG are fermented,and their positive and negative effects on SCFA production and gut microbial ecology of pigs.These insights will help nutritionists to develop dietary strategies tha 展开更多
关键词 BUTYRATE Fermentation GUT ecology MICROBIOTA Short-chain fatty acids SWINE
Dysbiosis of gut microbiota was closely associated with psoriasis
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作者 Linsheng Huang Renyuan Gao +3 位作者 Ning Yu Yefei Zhu Yangfeng Ding Huanlong Qin 《中国科学:生命科学英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第6期807-815,共9页
Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease and gut microbiota participate in the establishment of intestinal immunity. This study was performed to identify the fecal microbial composition of psoriasis patients, and investigat... Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease and gut microbiota participate in the establishment of intestinal immunity. This study was performed to identify the fecal microbial composition of psoriasis patients, and investigated the influence of subgroup(type and severity) on the fecal microbial composition, and to define the key microbiota in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Fecal samples from 35 psoriasis patients and 27 healthy controls were sequenced by 16 S rRNA and then analyzed by informatics methods. We found that the microbiota of the psoriasis group differed from that of the heathy group. The relative abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were inverted at the phylum level, and 16 kinds of phylotype at the genus level were found with significant difference. No microbial diversity and composition alteration were observed among the four types of psoriasis. The microbiota of psoriasis patients in the severe state differs from those of psoriasis patients with more mild conditions and also the healthy controls. The veillonella in fecal microbiota showed a positive relationship with h-CRP in blood. This research proved that psoriasis patients have a significant disturbed microbiota profiles. Further study of psoriasis based on microbiota may provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of psoriasis and more evidence for the prevention and treatment of psoriasis. 展开更多
关键词 DYSBIOSIS GUT MICROBIOTA PSORIASIS SEVERITY
胃肠道微生物种群与人类消化系统疾病相关性研究进展 预览
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作者 刘德华 孙宝林 《生物学杂志》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第4期1-6,共6页
人体胃肠(GI)道附着有复杂且动态变化的微生物种群,即肠道菌群,它们对宿主的健康和疾病有着显著的影响。胃肠道细菌在维持人体免疫、代谢稳态以及预防病原体感染中发挥着至关重要的作用,其组成的改变与许多炎症和感染性疾病的发生有关... 人体胃肠(GI)道附着有复杂且动态变化的微生物种群,即肠道菌群,它们对宿主的健康和疾病有着显著的影响。胃肠道细菌在维持人体免疫、代谢稳态以及预防病原体感染中发挥着至关重要的作用,其组成的改变与许多炎症和感染性疾病的发生有关。目前,大量研究揭示了不同微生物组对人类消化系统疾病的影响,如胃炎、炎症性肠病和癌症等。人体胃肠道微生物及其相关代谢产物也被认为是多种疾病的潜在治疗靶标。总结目前对人类胃肠道微生物群的组成和发展的理解,以及胃肠道微生物对胃肠道完整性和宿主健康与疾病的影响,这是人体-微生物相互作用的相关性研究的基础。 展开更多
关键词 胃肠道 微生物群 代谢产物 消化系统疾病
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