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锈蚀钢筋与混凝土粘结性能研究综述 预览
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作者 孙杨 乔国富 《材料导报》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第3期116-125,共10页
钢筋与混凝土之间能够协同工作的主要原因之一是两者间具有良好的粘结性能,但钢筋混凝土结构在服役过程中,侵蚀性介质会进入混凝土中引起钢筋的锈蚀,造成钢混构件粘结性能退化,进而影响混凝土结构的承载能力及服役寿命。因此,通过试验... 钢筋与混凝土之间能够协同工作的主要原因之一是两者间具有良好的粘结性能,但钢筋混凝土结构在服役过程中,侵蚀性介质会进入混凝土中引起钢筋的锈蚀,造成钢混构件粘结性能退化,进而影响混凝土结构的承载能力及服役寿命。因此,通过试验角度科学地认识钢筋锈蚀作用下钢筋混凝土之间粘结性能的变化规律,对于钢混结构的先期设计及服役期间构件的寿命预测都有着极其重要的意义。对于锈蚀钢筋与混凝土之间的粘结性能研究主要采用试验的方式,如梁式试验、中心拉拔试验及偏心拉拔试验等,通过相关的试验手段,对锈蚀钢筋混凝土构件的粘结特性(主要包括粘结强度、粘结刚度、粘结滑移量和粘结力的分布)等进行了探究,并分析了影响锈蚀钢筋混凝土构件粘结性能的因素,主要包括箍筋、混凝土特性、钢筋特性、裂缝宽度、电加速腐蚀电流密度、腐蚀形态等,并在相关试验数据的基础上建立了钢筋混凝土的粘结滑移本构关系及锈蚀率与粘结强度的关系模型。国内外仅对锈蚀作用(不考虑外荷载作用)下的钢混构件的粘结性能开展了较为系统的研究,并取得了一定的成果。研究表明,在锈蚀率较低时钢筋混凝土构件的粘结性能有所提高,但是随着锈蚀率的继续增大,粘结强度会迅速衰减。实际工程中的钢混结构,如高铁轨道梁(杂散电流与高铁荷载)、跨海大桥(环境腐蚀与车载)等,不仅受到腐蚀的威胁,还受到外载荷等其他因素的影响。但目前对腐蚀因素与外荷载(如疲劳荷载等)作用下钢混构件的粘结性能的研究相对较少。外载荷势必会对钢混构件的粘结性能造成影响,加速粘结强度的衰减,但由于影响粘结性能的因素较多、试验操作困难等,仍然需要对钢混构件的粘结性能进行深入的研究,以推动混凝土耐久性的进一步发展。本文总结了国内外研� 展开更多
关键词 粘结性能 锈蚀 腐蚀疲劳 钢筋混凝土 电加速腐蚀电流 本构关系
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Permanent Rare-Earth Magnets—The Need to Protect Them against Corrosion 预览
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作者 Célia Aparecida Lino dos Santos Zehbour Panossian 《材料科学与应用期刊(英文)》 2019年第4期317-327,共11页
The RE-Fe-B permanent magnets have a complex microstructure and they are susceptible to corrosion process. In this paper, the commercial nickel coatings adhesion was investigated. The microstructure of the RE-Fe-B wit... The RE-Fe-B permanent magnets have a complex microstructure and they are susceptible to corrosion process. In this paper, the commercial nickel coatings adhesion was investigated. The microstructure of the RE-Fe-B without coating was analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy and electrochemical techniques. The interface magnet/coating was studied by scanning electron microscopy and the nickel-plated Nd-Fe-B commercial magnets were tested in a salt spray chamber. The ferromagnetic and RE-rich phases were observed. After the anodic polarization curve, a strong intergranular corrosion was observed and the RE-rich phase was preferentially attacked. The interface magnet/Ni coating presented inter-granular corrosion that can affect the nickel coating adherence. This attack had probably occurred during the electrodeposition process. Not all the samples suffered localized corrosion during the salt spray tests and the Ni triple-layer coating presented a few corrosion points. RE-Fe-B alloy magnets need to be protected with appropriate coatings to each environment to which they will be exposed and the protective coating must not be damaged. 展开更多
关键词 PERMANENT Magnet RARE-EARTH CORROSION Protection against CORROSION
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腐蚀损伤模型研究进展
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作者 陈子光 《固体力学学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第2期99-116,共18页
腐蚀会导致材料表面附近产生机械损伤,降低材料强度.腐蚀损伤演化过程的理解和模拟,对工程结构的剩余服役寿命预测、可靠性分析、以及材料耐腐蚀设计等至关重要.现有的腐蚀数学模型大多旨在描述单个或少数几个腐蚀点的界面演化过程.这... 腐蚀会导致材料表面附近产生机械损伤,降低材料强度.腐蚀损伤演化过程的理解和模拟,对工程结构的剩余服役寿命预测、可靠性分析、以及材料耐腐蚀设计等至关重要.现有的腐蚀数学模型大多旨在描述单个或少数几个腐蚀点的界面演化过程.这些模型通常都基于扩散理论和电化学动力学定律,用于预测腐蚀点的几何形状演化和溶液中离子的浓度分布演化.论文简述了腐蚀的电化学动力学基础,为力学工作者参与腐蚀损伤研究提供了简要的背景知识介绍.对目前发展比较完善的点腐蚀模型进行了总结分类.重点介绍了近十年来几种主要的新型腐蚀模拟方法:元胞自动机法、相场模型和近场动力学模型.并分析了各方法的优缺点.提出了电偶腐蚀和应力腐蚀开裂模型分析中亟待解决的一些问题.最后,论文总结了腐蚀模拟在实际工程应用中的难点,展望了未来研究发展方向. 展开更多
关键词 腐蚀 模型 金属 近场动力学 局部腐蚀 应力腐蚀
空气泡沫驱缓蚀剂的研制与应用 预览
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作者 曹瑛 饶天利 +5 位作者 李志坪 宋文皎 陈超灵 罗军 王硕 刘祥 《应用化工》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第1期140-144,共5页
以改性咪唑啉、有机磷羧酸、联胺(各为20%)等为原料研制的空气泡沫驱缓蚀剂可有效防止注入系统腐蚀。现场试验结果表明,使用500mg/L研制的空气泡沫驱缓蚀剂,可使管柱的腐蚀速率由不加药剂时的0.3454mm/a降低到0.0593mm/a。
关键词 空气泡沫驱 腐蚀 驱油 缓蚀剂 氧腐蚀
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含Cr钢油井套管CO2耐蚀性能研究 预览
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作者 闫亚丽 《焊管》 2019年第5期30-36,共7页
针对某油田油井套管破损严重的问题,对J55钢和3Cr、5Cr、9Cr和13Cr钢在含CO2油井模拟工况环境中的腐蚀速率进行了测试试验。结果表明:在模拟CO2腐蚀环境中,相对于J55钢,含Cr的合金钢腐蚀速率较低,且随着Cr含量的增大,腐蚀速率降低程度增... 针对某油田油井套管破损严重的问题,对J55钢和3Cr、5Cr、9Cr和13Cr钢在含CO2油井模拟工况环境中的腐蚀速率进行了测试试验。结果表明:在模拟CO2腐蚀环境中,相对于J55钢,含Cr的合金钢腐蚀速率较低,且随着Cr含量的增大,腐蚀速率降低程度增大,Cr钢表面腐蚀产物膜表面Cr的富集程度增加,尤其13Cr最为明显,Cr的腐蚀产物主要为非晶态的Cr(OH)3。评价5种材质的耐蚀性能,为含CO2油井套管的选材提供理论依据。 展开更多
关键词 腐蚀 套管破损 CO2腐蚀 J55钢 含Cr钢 耐蚀性
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Research Progress on the Corrosion Behavior of Magnesium-Lithium-Based Alloys: A Review
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作者 Bao-Jie Wang Ji-Yu Luan +3 位作者 Dao-Kui Xu Jie Sun Chuan-Qiang Li En-Hou Han 《金属学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第1期1-9,共9页
In this review paper,the research progress on corrosion behavior of hexagonal close-packed(HCP)singular phase,body cubic-centered(BCC)singular phase and(HCP+BCC)duplex-structured Mg–Li alloys has been summarized and ... In this review paper,the research progress on corrosion behavior of hexagonal close-packed(HCP)singular phase,body cubic-centered(BCC)singular phase and(HCP+BCC)duplex-structured Mg–Li alloys has been summarized and reviewed,and the future trend about the studies on corrosion behavior of Mg–Li-based alloys and possible solving methods for the improvement in corrosion resistance are discussed also. 展开更多
关键词 Magnesium–lithium ALLOYS Crystallographic structure CORROSION behavior CORROSION product film CORROSION mechanism
高温气冷堆二回路催化柠檬酸清洗可行性研究 预览
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作者 刘锋 刘永兵 +4 位作者 姚洪猛 孙雅萍 姚建涛 龙国军 赵峰 《热力发电》 CAS 北大核心 2019年第6期79-83,共5页
基于对高温气冷堆二回路化学清洗技术风险的分析,本文对高温气冷堆二回路柠檬酸清洗的可行性进行了研究。针对高温气冷堆二回路材质的多样性,进行了缓蚀剂体系的筛选;研究了Fe^3+存在对典型材质腐蚀影响,以及阀门密封面临近碳钢的电偶... 基于对高温气冷堆二回路化学清洗技术风险的分析,本文对高温气冷堆二回路柠檬酸清洗的可行性进行了研究。针对高温气冷堆二回路材质的多样性,进行了缓蚀剂体系的筛选;研究了Fe^3+存在对典型材质腐蚀影响,以及阀门密封面临近碳钢的电偶腐蚀情况。研究结果表明:复配型缓蚀剂可有效控制材料的腐蚀速率;低等级钢对Fe^3+较为敏感,实际清洗过程中应注意Fe3+的控制;阀门密封面临近碳钢的腐蚀速率满足《化学清洗缓蚀剂应用性能评价指标及试验方法》(DL/T 523—2017)要求。 展开更多
关键词 高温气冷堆 腐蚀 柠檬酸 清洗 电偶腐蚀 缓蚀剂 可行性
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卤水长输管线的腐蚀研究 预览
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作者 刘秋艳 高灏 +1 位作者 王会林 师学文 《中国井矿盐》 CAS 2019年第3期6-11,共6页
本文主要针对碳钢材质的卤水长输管道存在的腐蚀问题,经过数据采集以及原因分析,对环境因素、防腐介质、管道材质,以及工作介质控制pH值等研究,确定出更加经济合理的腐蚀防护措施。
关键词 管道 腐蚀 防腐介质 PH值 防护措施
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浅析脱盐水管道的腐蚀控制 预览
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作者 任龙 《炼油与化工》 2019年第4期44-46,共3页
脱盐水管道是石油化工企业常用管道,用于输送各级脱盐水,管道腐蚀一直是制约装置长周期运行的瓶颈,需采取有效措施得以改善,除了做好脱盐水管道的日常维护保养外,还必须加强管道的腐蚀控制。
关键词 管道 脱盐水管道 腐蚀 腐蚀管理
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原油储罐的腐蚀与防护浅析 预览
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作者 陆卫婷 崔磊 郭满平 《山东化工》 CAS 2019年第16期162-162,164共2页
本文概要介绍了原油储罐的腐蚀状况,分析和论述一系列的防腐措施,并提出了一些建议。
关键词 储罐 腐蚀 防护措施
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Effect of Acidified Aerosols on Initial Corrosion Behavior of Q235 Carbon Steel
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作者 Miao-Ran Liu Xiao Lu +3 位作者 Qi Yin Chen Pan Chuan Wang Zhen-Yao Wang 《金属学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第8期995-1006,共12页
The effect of simulated acidified marine aerosols on the corrosion morphology of carbon steel was studied using an in situ optical stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive s... The effect of simulated acidified marine aerosols on the corrosion morphology of carbon steel was studied using an in situ optical stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer and a whitelight interferometer.The morphologies of the carbon steel were identified under marine aerosols with diiferent droplet diameters,pH,and acidifications.The results showed that corrosion was initiated in tens of seconds under aerosol droplets acidified by HCl or H2SO4.Despite the differences in the acidifier and diameter,corrosion for acidified droplets with pH>2 was general corrosion.For acidified droplets with pH<1,the corrosion morphology depended on the acidifier species,the ring-like morphology for HCl and ridge-like morphology for H2SO4.The segregation of Cl^-was believed to be the main factor for the formation of the corrosion morphology under acidified droplets with pH<1.Also,the concentration of SO4^2-in the droplets had some effect on the segregation of Cl-ions when pH<1. 展开更多
关键词 Atmospheric CORROSION Aerosol ACIDIFICATION Carbon steel-pH CORROSION morphology
供热管线腐蚀原因与防护措施 预览
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作者 王巍 《全面腐蚀控制》 2019年第9期86-87,共2页
供热系统在实际的运行过程中经常会发生供热管线腐蚀穿孔问题,供热管线一旦出现腐蚀现象不仅会影响整个供热系统的正常运行,还会对用户舒适度造成严重影响。本文主要针对供热管线在运行过程中发生的内腐蚀以及外腐蚀具体原因进行了分析... 供热系统在实际的运行过程中经常会发生供热管线腐蚀穿孔问题,供热管线一旦出现腐蚀现象不仅会影响整个供热系统的正常运行,还会对用户舒适度造成严重影响。本文主要针对供热管线在运行过程中发生的内腐蚀以及外腐蚀具体原因进行了分析,并在此基础上提出了相应的防腐蚀措施,又效保证了供热管线稳定运行,为进一步提升整个供热系统运行质量发挥出了重要的作用。 展开更多
关键词 供热系统 管线 腐蚀 防腐措施
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S32750双相不锈钢六角头螺栓腐蚀失效分析 预览
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作者 徐健康 杨震炯 +2 位作者 方建飞 胡帅 王会 《理化检验:物理分册》 CAS 2019年第4期272-277,共6页
某企业水泵上的S32750双相不锈钢六角头螺栓在使用2a(年)后发生腐蚀失效。通过宏观分析、扫描电镜及能谱分析、金相分析、力学性能试验、化学成分分析以及模拟验证试验等方法对螺栓腐蚀原因进行了分析。结果表明:螺栓失效模式为点蚀;引... 某企业水泵上的S32750双相不锈钢六角头螺栓在使用2a(年)后发生腐蚀失效。通过宏观分析、扫描电镜及能谱分析、金相分析、力学性能试验、化学成分分析以及模拟验证试验等方法对螺栓腐蚀原因进行了分析。结果表明:螺栓失效模式为点蚀;引起螺栓点蚀的根本原因是热处理工艺不当导致螺栓显微组织中存在明显的金属间化合物σ相,同时服役环境中存在含Cl-的腐蚀性介质。 展开更多
关键词 双相不锈钢 六角头螺栓 腐蚀 点蚀 Σ相
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炼化俄罗斯原油对常减压塔顶油气管线腐蚀防护分析 预览
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作者 南海 姜健 +1 位作者 黄晓妮 韩圣霖 《全面腐蚀控制》 2019年第5期68-70,共3页
某石化公司常减压550装置在改炼高硫含量俄罗斯原油后,发现其塔顶油气管线出现严重腐蚀现象,经分析其腐蚀原因主要为HCl-H2S-H2O的腐蚀介质所形成腐蚀环境,通过工艺防腐和材料防腐两方面提出有效的防腐措施。
关键词 俄罗斯原油 腐蚀 防腐措施
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我国炼油装置腐蚀情况及缓蚀剂应用概述 预览
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作者 闫海龙 李文超 南粉益 《广东化工》 CAS 2019年第15期161-162,共2页
炼化企业生产装置腐蚀问题不可忽视,是制约企业长周期安全运行的一大瓶颈。本文概述了炼油主要生产装置的腐蚀介质及缓蚀剂应用情况,对炼化企业防腐工作及缓蚀剂开发生产企业具有一定的指导意义。
关键词 炼油 腐蚀 缓蚀剂
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煤气化变换单元汽提塔塔顶冷凝设备与管线损伤模式识别与分析 预览
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作者 曹逻炜 陈昇 谢国山 《煤化工》 CAS 2019年第5期57-60,80,共5页
通过对煤气化变换单元汽提塔塔顶冷凝设备与管线的材质、工艺环境和介质组分的调研,分析得出了汽提塔塔顶冷凝液中介质的最终存在形式主要为HCO3^-、NH4^+、Cl^-、HS^-,总结了汽提塔塔顶冷凝设备与管线的6种损伤模式,包括氯化铵腐蚀、... 通过对煤气化变换单元汽提塔塔顶冷凝设备与管线的材质、工艺环境和介质组分的调研,分析得出了汽提塔塔顶冷凝液中介质的最终存在形式主要为HCO3^-、NH4^+、Cl^-、HS^-,总结了汽提塔塔顶冷凝设备与管线的6种损伤模式,包括氯化铵腐蚀、硫氢化铵腐蚀、甲铵腐蚀、氯化物应力腐蚀开裂、连多硫酸应力腐蚀开裂和冲刷腐蚀,综合分析了这些损伤机理共存时汽提塔顶冷凝设备和管线环境综合损伤的分阶段主导机理。 展开更多
关键词 煤气化 变换单元 汽提塔 冷凝设备与管线 腐蚀 应力腐蚀开裂 冲刷
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Crack Prediction Model for Concrete Affected by Reinforcement Corrosion 预览
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作者 Jeb M. Stefan Luz M. Calle +4 位作者 Sven E. Eklund Mark R. Kolody Kunal Kupwade-Patil Eliza L. Montgomery Henry E. Cardenas 《材料科学与应用期刊(英文)》 2019年第6期475-495,共21页
The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical model to predict the time required for cracking of concrete due to corrosion of the iron reinforcement. The concrete and cement specimens used for this study were... The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical model to predict the time required for cracking of concrete due to corrosion of the iron reinforcement. The concrete and cement specimens used for this study were batched with cover material ranging from 0.75 to 1.3 in (1.91 to 3.30 cm). The extent of cover material was not formulated into the model under the assumption that crack initiation would tend to produce visible cracking within a relatively short time period. The model was derived using both Hooke’s Law and the volume expansion induced by the corrosion oxides. Correlation achieved with specimen cracking data from the literature was relatively good with a 95% level of confidence. This model presents a key benefit to facility and infrastructure managers by enabling them to plan the time when corrosion mitigating actions are required. It also provides a significant convenience as the condition of the concrete structure or its environment changes over time. The only parameter that needs to be updated over time is the corrosion rate measurement. This single parameter captures the most influential impact that stems from several other parameters which tend to be required in models that are more mechanistically definitive. 展开更多
关键词 CRACKING Model CONCRETE Corrosion Marine PORE Band Green RUST
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Analysis of the influence of groundwater and the stress regime on bolt behaviour in underground coal mines 预览
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作者 Jack A.Smith Hamed Lamei Ramandi +1 位作者 Chengguo Zhang Wendy Timms 《国际煤炭科学技术学报:英文版》 2019年第2期286-300,共15页
The service failure of rock bolts and cable bolts are frequently reported issues in underground coal mines. Whilst numerous experimental investigations concerned with the service failure of bolts have been conducted, ... The service failure of rock bolts and cable bolts are frequently reported issues in underground coal mines. Whilst numerous experimental investigations concerned with the service failure of bolts have been conducted, numerical modelling offers an alternative approach in evaluating the factors contributing to service failures of bolts in underground mines. In this study, analysis of the influence of groundwater and tensile stress on bolts in underground coal mines was studied through the numerical modelling of a grouted bolt in the immediate roadway roof. Bolt tensile stress and groundwater dripping rates in the immediate roadway roof were analysed using a package based on finite element method to assess the effect of coal roof thickness and claystone bands, as main contributors of known service failures of bolts in roadways of underground coal mines. Increasing coal roof thickness was found to increase bolt dripping rates. Probable location of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) occurrence was established through examining the shift and increase in maximum bolt tensile stress that was exhibited along the bolt length with increasing coal roof thickness. Claystone bands situated at the top and centre horizon of a grouted bolt produced lower bolt dripping rates compared with scenarios with no claystone bands. Intersecting claystone bands at the centre horizon of a bolt for a fully grouted bolt could increase the likelihood of SCC corrosion and bolt failure by contributing to microbial corrosion processes and grout fracturing by tensile stress. This study improves the understanding the bolt failure associated with the presence of groundwater and changing stress environments, which in turn is imperative in formulating strategies to mitigate support element failures and improve the ground support viability. 展开更多
关键词 Numerical modelling GROUNDWATER UNDERGROUND coal mine STRESS CORROSION CRACKING BOLT CORROSION BOLT STRESS
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A Study of Corrosion Behaviour of Chromium Alloyed Ductile Iron in Cassava Juice 预览
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作者 John Friday Ogbodo Raymond Taiwo Oluyori 《矿物质和材料特性和工程(英文)》 2019年第6期404-411,共8页
This paper investigated the efficiency of chromium, an alloying element in duc-tile cast iron, in inhibiting corrosion in cassava juice. Samples were prepared by adding chromium (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 wt.%) respective... This paper investigated the efficiency of chromium, an alloying element in duc-tile cast iron, in inhibiting corrosion in cassava juice. Samples were prepared by adding chromium (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 wt.%) respectively to ductile cast iron and investigating the effect of increasing the chromium content on the corrosion of the ductile iron in cassava juice. Prepared samples were immersed in fresh water and cassava juice for a period of thirty two days (32) days and weight loss measured after every four days. A control sample was also produced and tested. Results showed that the control sample had the highest corrosion rate in both fresh water and cassava juice media. The sample containing the highest weight percent of chromium was found to resist corrosion the most, probably due to the increased content of chromium which resulted in enhanced formation of chromium oxide passive layer coupled with the reduction of the concentration of the cassava juice as exposure time increased. The decrease in corrosion rate of the alloys reflected on the micrographs as the micrographs of the alloyed samples showed fewer cavities on their surfaces when compared with the control sample where corrosion was severe. Effective protection of the ductile iron was observed as the chromiun content increases. 展开更多
关键词 Corrosion DUCTILE Iron Food Manufacturing Processes
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Corrosion of High Carbon Steel by Bacteria under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions 预览
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作者 R. C. Nwokorie C. O. Nweke +7 位作者 S. I. Umeh F. C. Ihenetu O. R. Nlemolisa U. N. Kemka C. C. Obasi C. I. Nnadi K. H. Uzoho C. C. Ejide 《材料科学与应用期刊(英文)》 2019年第3期227-242,共16页
The role of microbes in the corrosion of metals is due to the chemical activities (metabolism) associated with the microbial growth and reproduction. A lot of researches have shown that enormous loss of resources and ... The role of microbes in the corrosion of metals is due to the chemical activities (metabolism) associated with the microbial growth and reproduction. A lot of researches have shown that enormous loss of resources and even lives has been experienced in many countries of the world due to corrosion. There is therefore need to device a means of combating this menace so as to save different countries of the world including Nigeria the cost encured due to corrosion. This research has helped to determine the role of bacteria in the corrosion of high carbon steel under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was investigated using sulphate reducing bacteria and other aerobes. A sample of high carbon steel grade of chemical composition: 96% iron (Fe), 1.08% carbon (C), 0.349% silicon (Si), 0.841% manganese (Mn), 0.005% phosphorus (P) and 0.005% sulphur (S), was obtained in the form of steel plate. Eighteen (18) samples of the high carbon steel were prepared. Standard microbiological methods were used to isolate aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolates. The microbes isolated from the soil included;aerobes (Bacillus species, Pseudomonas species) and anaerobes (Desulfovibrio species, Thiobacillus species). The role of bacteria in the corrosion of high carbon steel was estimated using the weight loss technique and the electrochemical potential measurement technique. Eighteen samples of a high carbon steel of known compositions were exposed to sulphate reducing bacteria under different environments (aerobic, anaerobic and control). The physical and chemical changes were examined and monitored on weekly basis for six weeks. It was observed that the coupons immersed in the media with sulphate reducing bacterium underwent fast activation and numerous corrosion sites were formed on the surfaces. The average corrosion rate for six weeks (42 days) period of time as determined by the weight loss method and electrochemical testing were found to be 0.0004595 mm/year, -0.712 mV in aerobic environment, 0.0005646 mm/year, -0728 mV in anaerobic en 展开更多
关键词 Bacillus SPECIES PSEUDOMONAS SPECIES DESULFOVIBRIO SPECIES THIOBACILLUS SPECIES CORROSION Steel
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