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Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction into Housing Development in Keko Machungwa 预览
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作者 Tumpale Sakijege 《环境保护(英文)》 2019年第2期315-336,共22页
In Tanzania 80% of the population live in informal settlements. Most of these settlements are built in areas that are susceptible to extreme weather conditions such as flooding. Such conditions have significantly cont... In Tanzania 80% of the population live in informal settlements. Most of these settlements are built in areas that are susceptible to extreme weather conditions such as flooding. Such conditions have significantly contributed to the destruction of housing stock and other valuable properties. There is considerable awareness amongst people living in the informal settlements, government representatives and other key stakeholders about the various flood risks affecting informal settlements. Based on this understanding, several attempts to minimize flood risks have been initiated in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, yet these initiatives have largely failed to deliver the desired impacts. This article aims to investigate core reasons for this through a case study of Keko Machungwa Informal settlement in Dar es Salaam City. The study explores the extent to which mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction (DRR) in housing development in informal settlements has been considered and implemented, and recommends measures for improvement. Key methods employed for the research included physical observation, household interviews, mapping, photographing, and in-depth interviews. Overall, the study found that mainstreaming of DRR in housing development was hardly practiced at the household level, as houses were predominantly being built without resistant building materials and supervision of relevant professionals. In order to mainstream DRR in housing development in informal settlements, it is recommended that mainstreaming DRR be embedded in laws and policies, highly vulnerable parts of the settlement be declared protected wetland and that the government direct its efforts towards regulating, controlling and monitoring the housing development sector. That letter can be achieved by emphasizing the use of flood resistant building materials and establishing resilient infrastructures for flood mitigation in every flood prone informal settlement. 展开更多
关键词 DISASTER DISASTER RISK REDUCTION FLOODING HOUSING HOUSING Development MAINSTREAMING
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Early Warning Systems: Lost in Translation or Late by Definition? A FORIN Approach
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作者 Irasema Alcántara-Ayala Anthony Oliver-Smith 《国际灾害风险科学学报:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第3期317-331,共15页
Early warning systems(EWSs) are widely considered to be one of the most important mechanisms to prevent disasters around the globe. But as disasters continue to affect countries where EWSs have already been implemente... Early warning systems(EWSs) are widely considered to be one of the most important mechanisms to prevent disasters around the globe. But as disasters continue to affect countries where EWSs have already been implemented, the striking disaster consequences have led us to reflect on the focus, architecture, and function of the warning systems. Since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami there has been a rapid rise in the promotion and use of EWSs to minimize disaster losses and damage. However,few researchers have addressed the question of their acceptability as an adaptive measure to the existing exposure conditions. EWSs are far more linked to emergency response and humanitarian crises and accepted technological interventions as solutions than they are to explicitly advance integrated analysis, disaster risk reduction, and policy making. A major flaw of EWSs is that the term‘‘early’’ has been essentially used in reference to the speed of hazard onset, founded on a physicalist perspective that has encouraged a considerable dependence on technology.In this article we address the need for a clear understanding of the root causes and risk drivers of disaster risk creation,as advanced in the FORIN(forensic investigation of disasters) approach, as a prerequisite for the development of more articulated EWSs that could contribute to disaster risk reduction through policy making and practice, based on integrated and transdisciplinary management, in the interest of sustainable development, and human welfare and well-being. 展开更多
关键词 DISASTER risk DRIVERS DISASTER root CAUSES Early WARNING systems Forensic DISASTER investigations FORIN
灾害背景下新生儿重症监护病房的应急准备方案解读
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作者 范娟 张先红 +1 位作者 李雪 史源 《中华实用儿科临床杂志》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第9期641-645,共5页
2017年中华医学会儿科学分会灾害儿科学学组、中国人民解放军儿科学专业委员会发布灾害背景下NICU应急准备方案,现对该方案进行解读。需提前制定灾害应急计划,作为灾害条件下医疗机构提供医疗救援的原则和指南。灾害救援的实施是一个系... 2017年中华医学会儿科学分会灾害儿科学学组、中国人民解放军儿科学专业委员会发布灾害背景下NICU应急准备方案,现对该方案进行解读。需提前制定灾害应急计划,作为灾害条件下医疗机构提供医疗救援的原则和指南。灾害救援的实施是一个系统工程,包括满足灾害救援的各种条件、保证医疗救治措施的施行、建立高效的转运/撤离机制和家庭成员在灾害救援中的参与。在灾害救援过程中,要重视伦理问题的解决。在灾后重建过程中,要注重对新生儿家属及医务人员的心理疏导。NICU医务人员需通过不断学习和演练,提高对灾害的应对能力。 展开更多
关键词 灾害 新生儿重症监护病房 应急准备
A Case Study,May 2016:A Snapshot of Psychosocial Issues in Camp Living-A Sri Lankan Landslide in the Kegalle District 预览
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作者 Broadway-Horner M Koreshi Khan S +6 位作者 Perera K Ariyabandu S Hettiarachchi D Munasinghe M Amarathunga K Nimaladasa S Vishwalingam A 《环境社会心理学》 2019年第1期17-24,共8页
This paper seeks to explore the aspects of being made homeless or internally displaced person(IDP)and how the team attempted to assess this.The team of 10 psychological researchers and statisticians spent a day at fiv... This paper seeks to explore the aspects of being made homeless or internally displaced person(IDP)and how the team attempted to assess this.The team of 10 psychological researchers and statisticians spent a day at five camps in four locations within Kegalle,Sri Lanka.The languages within the team are Tamil,English,and Sinhalese.The aim to find out if depression,anxiety,and trauma symptoms are evident within child,adolescents,and adults categories,3 months after the landslide triggered by the Storm Roanu,May 2016.The participants volunteered to be interviewed using self-report measures.The psychological researchers did have undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in psychology.While the project lead had clinical experience,the researchers did not and so this was their first field trip.The research was granted ethical clearance by the ethics board at the Cooperative Institutional Research Program(CIRP),Colombo.Unfortunately,due to low numbers,a significance is problematic and so this paper addresses the experience and lessons learned by implication for professional growth and future research with IDP.However,the impact on men’s health becomes clear as the team discovers the psychosocial aspects of being homeless.Purpose–This paper seeks to explore the aspects of being made homeless or internally displaced person(IDP)and how the team attempted to assess this.Design/methodology/approach–The team of 10 psychosocial researchers headed up by Matt Broadway-Horner,Consultant Nurse in Mental Health and Learning Disabilities,spent a day at five camps in four locations within Kegalle,Sri Lanka.The languages within the team are Tamil,English,and Sinhalese.The aim was to find out if depression,anxiety,and trauma symptoms are evident within child,adolescent,and adult categories,3 months after the landslide triggered by the Storm Roanu,May 2016.The participants volunteered to be interviewed using self-report measures.The research was granted ethical clearance by the ethics board at CIRP,Colombo.Findings–unfortunately,due 展开更多
关键词 Human RIGHTS DISASTER Management Internal Displacement HOMELESS DISASTER RELIEF MASCULINITY
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基于灾害全过程的公众对于气象防灾减灾信息的需求分析——基于78287份调查问卷的实证 预览
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作者 谭玲 叶汶华 +1 位作者 吴先华 刘亮 《灾害学》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第4期195-202,共8页
利用统计和计量方法对78287份网络问卷数据进行定量分析。研究结论表明:①在灾害管理全过程中,对气象灾害不利影响担忧程度较高的公众主要关注防灾、减灾、避灾的具体建议和措施;②年均损失值较高的公众主要关注灾害对区域、基础设施的... 利用统计和计量方法对78287份网络问卷数据进行定量分析。研究结论表明:①在灾害管理全过程中,对气象灾害不利影响担忧程度较高的公众主要关注防灾、减灾、避灾的具体建议和措施;②年均损失值较高的公众主要关注灾害对区域、基础设施的影响;③认为预报预警信息能减少灾害经济损失的公众主要关注灾害等级、强度等信息。最后,结合四川凉州森林火灾的灾害管理,提出对策建议。认为:①公众和专业救援人员应该掌握灾害的基本常识,专业救援人员应对复杂气候条件下的灾害演化规律有充分的认识。②政府和社会有关部门应为公众提供多样化的防灾减灾知识,不断提高公众的防灾减灾意识及能力。③构建完善的灾害保险制度和灾害风险转移机制,分散灾害造成的风险。 展开更多
关键词 灾害 防灾减灾 信息需求 调研
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Decision-Aiding Transit-Tracker Methodology for Bus Scheduling Using Real Time Information to Ameliorate Traffic Congestion in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal 预览
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作者 Keshav Bhattarai Mahmoud Yousef +1 位作者 Alice Greife Sunil Lama 《地理信息系统(英文)》 2019年第2期239-291,共53页
The bustling urban environment of Kathmandu Valley is characterized by unprecedented traffic congestion. Due to its bowel-shaped geography, gusty winds rarely remove vehicular emissions from the urban atmosphere, maki... The bustling urban environment of Kathmandu Valley is characterized by unprecedented traffic congestion. Due to its bowel-shaped geography, gusty winds rarely remove vehicular emissions from the urban atmosphere, making Kathmandu one of Asia’s most polluted cities, 100th city in global pollution index. Over 500,000 vehicles travel daily on over 1600 km of roads covering over 675 sq&middot;km urban area. Thousands of low occupancy vehicles are added each year to the urban public transit system (UPTS). Kathmandu faces worse and unreliable traffic from the current UPTS mostly with low occupancy vehicles. Around 4.5 million urban denizens, both permanent and transient residents, suffer from unreliable UPTS. Traffic rules and daily transportation schedules are rarely followed, resulting in frequent traffic jams and accidents. Once experienced, visitors try avoiding the UPTS. Tourism, annually contributing almost 8 percent to Nepal’s total annual GDP, also suffers from poor UPTS. Planners, policy makers, and politicians (P-actors) are seeking ways to improve sustainable UPTS to ameliorate stresses to family life and working hours for the urban majority. Aiming to help P-actors, we propose a transit-tracker model that uses real time information (RTI) in mobile phones and web-embedded devices to inform travelers, drivers, government authorities, and sub-admins. We argue that unreliability in the UPTS motivates urban elites to add more low occupancy vehicles, which in turn reduces already shrunken urban spaces and contributes more per capita air pollution than multi-occupancy vehicles. Since mobile and smart phones are capable of processing RTI to generate meaningful information and inform various stakeholders in communicable languages, we argue that replacing low occupancy vehicles with multi-occupancy buses within a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, on main roads with fixed schedules and strict traffic rules, would not only improve UPTS, but also reduce pollution in the Kathmandu Valley. 展开更多
关键词 Urban Public Transportation System (UPTS) P-Actors Sustainability DISASTER Pollution Accident Bus Rapid TRANSIT (BRT)
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The Nature of “Natural Disasters”: Survivors’ Explanations of Earthquake Damage
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作者 Alessandro Massazza Chris R.Brewin Helene Joffe 《国际灾害风险科学学报:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第3期293-305,共13页
The distinction between natural and human-made disasters is ingrained in everyday language. Disaster scientists have long been critical of this dichotomy. Nonetheless,virtually no attention has been paid to how disast... The distinction between natural and human-made disasters is ingrained in everyday language. Disaster scientists have long been critical of this dichotomy. Nonetheless,virtually no attention has been paid to how disaster survivors conceptualize the causes of the disasters they experience. In this mixed-methods longitudinal study, 112 survivors of the2016–2017 Central Italy earthquakes completed questionnaires 3 and 16 months following the earthquakes, with the aim of assessing attributions of blame for the earthquake damage. In-depth interviews were also conducted with 52 participants at the 3-month mark to explore representations of causation for the earthquake damage. The distinction between disasters caused by nature and disasters caused by humans was not supported by survivors of the earthquake. In the longitudinal surveys, building firms and the State were assigned as much blame as nature for the earthquake damage, at both 3 months and 16 months after the earthquakes.Corroborating this complexity, in the interviews, the causes of the earthquake damage, rather than being understood as purely natural, were perceived as a complex mosaic composed of political, technological, natural, and moral factors.This empirical work shows that disaster survivors combine both nature-based and human-based explanations of disasters, rather than subscribing to one or the other. These findings have practical implications for disaster risk reduction and response. 展开更多
关键词 Amatrice Attributions DISASTER causes DISASTER SURVIVORS Human-made DISASTERS Natural DISASTERS 2016–2017 Central ITALY earthquakes
Review of the 2018 Palu Tsunami: Disaster Behavior and Reflections on Disaster Management 预览
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作者 HU Jiupeng CHEN Yong +2 位作者 LI Wen XU Yihe CAI Huiteng 《中国地震研究:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第1期153-163,共11页
The 2018 Palu MW7. 5 earthquake and tsunami attracted geophysicists' attention for its strike slip focal mechanism and magnitude. We inspected the details of this disaster and discussed its particularity and possi... The 2018 Palu MW7. 5 earthquake and tsunami attracted geophysicists' attention for its strike slip focal mechanism and magnitude. We inspected the details of this disaster and discussed its particularity and possible causations. The submarine landslide and special terrain conditions could have contributed to the unusual size of the tsunami. The early warning system and the post disaster response is also reviewed. Efficient social warnings and broadcast systems along with good maintenance is essential. We also found that enhancing publics scientific literacy is the most important way to reduce disaster damage and casualties. Moreover, social conditions and rebuilding difficulties post tsunami are related as reference resources for future disaster management strategies. 展开更多
关键词 Palu TSUNAMI DISASTER LOSS TSUNAMI EARLY WARNING DISASTER management
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灾难经历、时间偏好与家庭储蓄行为
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作者 姚东旻 许艺煊 张鹏远 《世界经济》 CSSCI 北大核心 2019年第1期145-169,共25页
一直以来,学术界就灾难经历对个体时间偏好的影响争议不断。本文从时间偏好的心理实质出发,在理清认知判断、自我控制、时间偏好和家庭储蓄行为关系的基础上,提出灾难冲击对个体跨期选择行为影响的一般分析框架。我们认为灾难冲击至少... 一直以来,学术界就灾难经历对个体时间偏好的影响争议不断。本文从时间偏好的心理实质出发,在理清认知判断、自我控制、时间偏好和家庭储蓄行为关系的基础上,提出灾难冲击对个体跨期选择行为影响的一般分析框架。我们认为灾难冲击至少使人的自我控制能力和认知判断能力中的一种得到提升,引起时间偏好增强并最终致使储蓄增加。本文以汶川地震为例,综合使用倾向得分匹配-双重差分法、广义分位数回归法和合成控制法研究发现:地震后,灾区城镇家庭户主做事情更加集中精力,更加主动积极(暗示了认知判断能力提升),二者均对自我控制能力产生影响,但方向相反,最终结果不确定。另外,灾后户主做事更加有主见,认知判断能力提升。以上自我控制能力与认知判断能力的综合变化最终使得时间偏好增强,储蓄增加。 展开更多
关键词 灾难 时间偏好 居民储蓄
明清时期杭州地区水神信仰考略 预览
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作者 胡梦飞 《湖北职业技术学院学报》 2019年第1期53-58,共6页
杭州依山傍海,境内河流众多,水运发达,特殊的地理环境和文化传统造就了明清时期杭州水神信仰的多样性和普遍性。其中既有与水路运输密切相关的妈祖、金龙四大王、晏公等全国性水神,也有包括龙神、潮神以及各种祈雨神在内的众多区域性水... 杭州依山傍海,境内河流众多,水运发达,特殊的地理环境和文化传统造就了明清时期杭州水神信仰的多样性和普遍性。其中既有与水路运输密切相关的妈祖、金龙四大王、晏公等全国性水神,也有包括龙神、潮神以及各种祈雨神在内的众多区域性水神。水神信仰与所在区域的地理和社会环境有着密切关系,地理环境和文化传统的不同,导致了不同的生产方式和生活方式,也形成了不同的水神信仰文化。水神信仰始终植根于杭州地域社会的文化传统中,并在其发展和变迁中融入了中国传统社会的伦理观念和价值理念,最终形成了具有浓厚地域特色的水神信仰文化。 展开更多
关键词 明清 杭州 环境 灾害 水神信仰
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泥石流灾害经济损失研究综述 预览
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作者 何树红 姜毅 计晓林 《灾害学》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第4期153-158,共6页
在泥石流灾害研究中,针对泥石流灾害经济损失的研究是预防、应对和管理泥石流灾害风险的基础。结合已有泥石流灾害经济损失研究成果,首先梳理当前泥石流灾害经济损失研究发展近况,对不同经济损失研究方法进行分类和归纳。其次,在简要介... 在泥石流灾害研究中,针对泥石流灾害经济损失的研究是预防、应对和管理泥石流灾害风险的基础。结合已有泥石流灾害经济损失研究成果,首先梳理当前泥石流灾害经济损失研究发展近况,对不同经济损失研究方法进行分类和归纳。其次,在简要介绍已有研究方法的基础上,对不同种类研究方法进行评述,分析各类研究方法具有的优势和存在的问题。最后,结合当前泥石流灾害研究的发展趋势和本文研究结果,提出泥石流灾害经济损失研究的启示和展望。 展开更多
关键词 泥石流 灾害 经济损失 综述
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Quality control of marine big data——a case study of real-time observation station data in Qingdao 预览
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作者 QIAN Chengcheng LIU Aichao +4 位作者 HUANG Rui LIU Qingrong XU Wenkun ZHONG Shan YU Le 《海洋湖沼学报(英文)》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第6期1983-1993,共11页
Offshore waters provide resources for human beings,while on the other hand,threaten them because of marine disasters.Ocean stations are part of offshore observation networks,and the quality of their data is of great s... Offshore waters provide resources for human beings,while on the other hand,threaten them because of marine disasters.Ocean stations are part of offshore observation networks,and the quality of their data is of great significance for exploiting and protecting the ocean.We used hourly mean wave height,temperature,and pressure real-time observation data taken in the Xiaomaidao station(in Qingdao,China)from June 1,2017,to May 31,2018,to explore the data quality using eight quality control methods,and to discriminate the most effective method for Xiaomaidao station.After using the eight quality control methods,the percentages of the mean wave height,temperature,and pressure data that passed the tests were 89.6%,88.3%,and 98.6%,respectively.With the marine disaster(wave alarm report)data,the values failed in the test mainly due to the influence of aging observation equipment and missing data transmissions.The mean wave height is often affected by dynamic marine disasters,so the continuity test method is not effective.The correlation test with other related parameters would be more useful for the mean wave height. 展开更多
关键词 quality control REAL-TIME STATION DATA MARINE BIG DATA Xiaomaidao STATION MARINE DISASTER
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韩国灾难电影产生的背景、特征及启示 预览
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作者 郎滨 盛雨欣 《鞍山师范学院学报》 2019年第3期65-68,共4页
运用类型电影研究和个案研究的方法,探究韩国灾难类型电影,发现韩国在发展灾难类型电影的过程中既借鉴了好莱坞灾难电影模式,又融入本土文化,形成其独特的类型化手段和鲜明的本土特色。韩国在政策上给予电影很多的创作空间,这也使得韩... 运用类型电影研究和个案研究的方法,探究韩国灾难类型电影,发现韩国在发展灾难类型电影的过程中既借鉴了好莱坞灾难电影模式,又融入本土文化,形成其独特的类型化手段和鲜明的本土特色。韩国在政策上给予电影很多的创作空间,这也使得韩国灾难类型电影能够借灾难叙事反映社会现实,具有一定的社会批判性。 展开更多
关键词 灾难 韩国 类型电影 本土化
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Study on Frost Prevention and Drought Resistance Effect of Potato under Different Planting Methods 预览
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作者 Sun Jun Chen Yongxu +2 位作者 Guo Junwei Li Shuxia Yang Meilan 《气象与环境研究:英文版》 CAS 2019年第1期76-80,共5页
According to different planting test data, meteorological data, field planting survey and expert interview data in recent years, frost prevention and drought resistance effect of potato under different planting method... According to different planting test data, meteorological data, field planting survey and expert interview data in recent years, frost prevention and drought resistance effect of potato under different planting methods were studied using agro-meteorological disaster risk index analysis method. The results showed that the risk index of potato with the full-film planting was small due to good thermal insulation and soil moisture conservation performance. The risk index of potato with half-film planting (flat mulching, ridging planting and furrow planting) was moderate, while that of ridge tillage without mulching, double rows, full of stars and flat planting was large, and their frost prevention and drought resistance effect were poor. It provides support and reference for understanding the frost and drought conditions of potatoes under different planting methods and carrying out insurance weather services for farmers and production managers. 展开更多
关键词 POTATO Plastic film covering FROST PREVENTION Drought resistance METEOROLOGICAL DISASTER risk index
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灾害环境下青少年应激障碍恢复与心理重建研究 预览
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作者 张玥 《灾害学》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第3期150-154,共5页
采用医院疗养方法恢复灾害环境下青少年的应激障碍与心理重建时,仅能使用药物治疗未能采用合适方法实行心理治疗,导致青少年心理问题治愈效果较差。为此,研究一种新的灾害环境下青少年应激障碍与心理重建方法,采用基于信息熵的应激障碍... 采用医院疗养方法恢复灾害环境下青少年的应激障碍与心理重建时,仅能使用药物治疗未能采用合适方法实行心理治疗,导致青少年心理问题治愈效果较差。为此,研究一种新的灾害环境下青少年应激障碍与心理重建方法,采用基于信息熵的应激障碍与心理疾病挖掘方法,挖掘具有应激障碍与心理疾病的青少年;在此基础上,构建基于阅读疗法的灾后青少年应激障碍恢复模型,根据青少年的兴趣点通过阅读疗法恢复青少年应激障碍;采用基于体育干预的灾区青少年心理重建方法,将拓展训练的方法运用到校园体育教学里,以拓展训练的方式提高青少年抗挫折的意志力,实现灾区青少年心理重建。实验结果表明,该方法对灾区青少年进行应激障碍恢复以及心理重建的恢复率高达100%,P值小于0. 01,具有显著差异性,青少年、家长以及政府三方面的整体满意率高达90%,具有一定使用价值。 展开更多
关键词 灾害 应激障碍 恢复 心理重建 阅读疗法 体育干预
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近代西北赈灾中的制度效能与国家能力审视 预览
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作者 谢亮 《井冈山大学学报:社会科学版》 2019年第5期60-70,共11页
近代西北赈灾实践凸显了转型期国家在社会危机时期的救济、动员、管控和行政伦理维护能力不足。此类能力缺陷既加剧国家的政治合法性危机,又与社会危机互动,社会危机的不确定性还加速降低政治权力管理社会的实际能力。事实上,通过对社... 近代西北赈灾实践凸显了转型期国家在社会危机时期的救济、动员、管控和行政伦理维护能力不足。此类能力缺陷既加剧国家的政治合法性危机,又与社会危机互动,社会危机的不确定性还加速降低政治权力管理社会的实际能力。事实上,通过对社会危机进行有机控制并实现社会秩序的再建构或维护,本是"荒政"的主要政治统治功能。但是,此种政治行为的有效性依赖于其相应制度的效能的充分展现。这更表明,国家有效实施对社会的统治与管理的能力皆依赖于国家体制、生产方式、文化传统间能否形成互动性的支撑结构。因为,政策供给或制度供给的有效性与政治有效性和国家能力及其政治合法性的提升密切关联,三者在实现社会管理总体目标的进程中是交织在一起发挥作用的。 展开更多
关键词 灾荒 荒政 制度体系 国家能力 社会危机
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三峡库首区在不同库水位条件下滑坡危险性分析 预览
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作者 邱丹丹 秦孙巍 《防灾科技学院学报》 2019年第1期30-38,共9页
长江三峡库区地质条件复杂,是我国滑坡灾害的多发区之一,其库水位变化对库区内的斜坡体稳定性有直接关系。针对不同库水位条件下的区域性滑坡危险性分析展开研究,在构建滑坡危险性定量计算模型的基础上分析比较了三峡库首区两个典型时... 长江三峡库区地质条件复杂,是我国滑坡灾害的多发区之一,其库水位变化对库区内的斜坡体稳定性有直接关系。针对不同库水位条件下的区域性滑坡危险性分析展开研究,在构建滑坡危险性定量计算模型的基础上分析比较了三峡库首区两个典型时期的滑坡危险性变化。首先利用地理信息系统和遥感软件平台分析处理滑坡及危险性因子数据,再结合程序软件完成基于模型的定量计算。具体包括基于相关向量机的数据耦合模型计算滑坡易发性,利用诱发因子数据推理拟合模型并推算滑坡时间频率,结合滑坡特征计算滑坡强度,最后将三者综合得到危险性定量结果并制作危险分区图。研究结果表明,基于危险性模型计算的滑坡危险性结果与实际情况相符,且库水位提升增加了滑坡的危险性,水位对土质滑坡的影响大于岩质滑坡。 展开更多
关键词 三峡库区 水位 滑坡 危险性 灾害
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灾难地居民集体记忆、地方认同、地方保护意愿关系研究——以汶川地震北川老县城为例
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作者 钱莉莉 张捷 +2 位作者 郑春晖 张宏磊 郭永锐 《地理研究》 CSSCI CSCD 北大核心 2019年第4期988-1002,共15页
从记忆地理和地方感角度,探讨2008年汶川地震重灾区北川老县城的人地关系。通过定性与定量相结合的方法,研究了灾后居民集体记忆的维度,探讨了灾后集体记忆、地方认同、地方保护意愿的特征。运用结构方程模型,揭示了灾后集体记忆(灾难... 从记忆地理和地方感角度,探讨2008年汶川地震重灾区北川老县城的人地关系。通过定性与定量相结合的方法,研究了灾后居民集体记忆的维度,探讨了灾后集体记忆、地方认同、地方保护意愿的特征。运用结构方程模型,揭示了灾后集体记忆(灾难记忆、创伤情感、抗灾记忆、观念启示、怀旧记忆)、地方认同、地方保护之间的关系。研究显示,灾后积极的抗灾记忆、观念启示、怀旧记忆对于提升地方认同具有显著影响,而地方认同对于提升地方保护意愿具有显著影响。结果对于了解居民灾难心理、地方感、灾后行为有一定帮助,对于灾后遗址保护有一定借鉴意义。 展开更多
关键词 集体记忆 地方认同 灾难 创伤 怀旧 汶川地震
基于知识图谱的灾害场景信息融合技术 预览
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作者 李泽荃 徐淑华 +1 位作者 李碧霄 李靖 《华北科技学院学报》 2019年第2期1-5,共5页
在灾害场景下,信息来源广泛、体量巨大、种类繁多且数据格式多样,阻碍决策人员快速收集信息、理解场景态势及制定相应处置方案。灾害场景信息的实时融合,则是实现灾害场景态势感知的基础。本文探讨了本体构建和知识图谱构建的关键技术,... 在灾害场景下,信息来源广泛、体量巨大、种类繁多且数据格式多样,阻碍决策人员快速收集信息、理解场景态势及制定相应处置方案。灾害场景信息的实时融合,则是实现灾害场景态势感知的基础。本文探讨了本体构建和知识图谱构建的关键技术,提出了基于知识图谱的灾害场景信息融合方法,并给出了应用案例。本研究有助于提升灾害场景的态势感知能力,实现灾害应急的智能化水平。 展开更多
关键词 知识图谱 态势感知 信息融合 灾害
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Revisiting Emergency Food Reserve Policy and Practiceunder Disaster and Extreme Climate Events
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作者 Jonatan A.Lassa Paul Teng +1 位作者 Mely Caballero-Anthony Maxim Shrestha 《国际灾害风险科学学报:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第1期1-13,共13页
All food systems will continue to be affected by disasters and extreme climate events. Triggered by recent food crises around the world and climate change concerns,some governments have been trying to develop more rob... All food systems will continue to be affected by disasters and extreme climate events. Triggered by recent food crises around the world and climate change concerns,some governments have been trying to develop more robust and resilient food systems. One of the oldest options for many governments is to stockpile emergency food reserves for the purpose of food security and disaster preparedness. In the aftermath of the world food price crises in2007–2008 and 2011, some governments in Asia have been maintaining emergency food reserves to ensure greater supply and price stability. Disasters and extreme climate events help governments to justify emergency food reserves. This research examined emergency food reserve policies in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Malaysia.Emergency food reserves emerged as a practice where the shared objectives of development, disaster risk reduction,and climate change adaptation have been demonstrated by governments. The findings suggest that most governments maintain the strong view that adequate emergency food reserves can buffer national food price shocks and shocks from disasters and climate change, and soften disruptions in trade due to export bans during times of disasters and climate emergencies.Under global climate change scenarios, food security is at risk and volatile(Porter et al. 2014). The expected increase in climate extremes has generated anticipatory actions from governments, including a new push for EFR policy adoption. Triggered by recent disasters and climate change concerns, some governments have been trying to develop more robust and resilient food systems(Fan and Brzeska 2014;Porter et al. 2014). For many countries in Asia, this means the renewed adoption of EFR. Unfortunately, we argue that this is not well understood in climate change adaptation studies as well as contemporary disaster studies.The Association of Southeast Asian Nations(ASEAN)first initiated a Food Security Reserve Agreement in 1979,with the purpose of meeting emergency requirements(ASEAN 1979). Po 展开更多
关键词 Climate change adaptation DISASTER PREPAREDNESS EMERGENCY FOOD RESERVES FOOD security FOOD stockpiling SOUTHEAST Asia
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