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Remedies for loss and damage caused by climate change from the dimension of climate justice 预览
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作者 Mingde Cao Qi Wang Yu Cheng 《中国人口资源与环境:英文版》 2016年第4期253-261,共9页
Adverse consequences to the ecological system and human health caused by impacts potentially attributable to climate change have already drawn great and widespread concern of many scientists and international organiza... Adverse consequences to the ecological system and human health caused by impacts potentially attributable to climate change have already drawn great and widespread concern of many scientists and international organizations.However,we still have a hard time determining exactly the impact of climate change on the environment or the damage that climate change inflicts on countries comprising small islands or low-lying lands in light of today's science and technology.The progress for dealing with the issue of loss and damage has been struggling for a long time from the beginning to the present.In this paper,the author begins by summarizing talks on the concept and the positions of commentators.The author is proposing that the development of future climate negotiations and rule-making process be based on global climate justice as a standard for measuring value.Also,the author proposes that a holistic view of climate justice be established.Generally,three aspects of climate justice can be derived.First,the dimension of human rights protection shows that protection of fundamental human rights is a logical precondition if small-island and low-lying countries are able to achieve climate justice.Second,the definite and traditional concepts of distributive justice and corrective justice hold the view that the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities should be upheld as a basic standard of allocating rights and duties associated with climate change.Third,climate justice requires that any state follow the 'no-harm principle,' which is regarded as an international customary rule.According to the principle,the obligation of states to prevent the use of their territory for causing trans-boundary harm to the environment shall be a violation of state responsibility,which incurs international punishment.Then we put forward three remedial approaches in light of climate justice,including the approach of State Responsibility(SR) based on the principles and rules of international human rights law and international enviro 展开更多
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气候正义视域下的气候变化损失与损害救济路径分析 预览 被引量:1
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作者 王琪 《中国人口资源与环境》 CSSCI CSCD 北大核心 2016年第12期31-38,共8页
气候变化对生态环境和人类健康造成的影响一直受科学家和国际组织的广泛关注。在现有的科学技术无法确切论证气候变化对环境的总体影响及对小岛和低地国家带来损害情况下.该议题自提出至今的进展都举步维艰。本文对议题谈判进展及各方... 气候变化对生态环境和人类健康造成的影响一直受科学家和国际组织的广泛关注。在现有的科学技术无法确切论证气候变化对环境的总体影响及对小岛和低地国家带来损害情况下.该议题自提出至今的进展都举步维艰。本文对议题谈判进展及各方立场进行梳理,提出未来谈判和规则的制定应以全球气候正义为价值衡量标准,树立整体观上的气候正义理念。并对气候正义内涵进行具体解读:一是以人权保护为维度。指出保护小岛和低地国家的基本人权是实现气候正义的逻辑前提;二是指出应当基于分配正义与矫正正义的传统分析视角。将共同但有区别责任原则作为设定权利与义务分配机制时的基础标准;三是气候正义要求一国在行使权利时应遵循领土无害使用原则,负有不污染和破坏他国环境和生态的义务,如违反便可能引发国家责任或惩戒。本文进而以气候正义为价值指引提出三种救济路径:一是国家责任路径。以国际人权法、国际环境法的规则或原则为法律依据。根据一定的规则,来判断当事国的损害行为或结果是否构成国际法上的国家责任;二是国际环境规制路径。即在《联合国气候变化框架公约》(以下简称《公约》)所确立的遵约与履约机制下解决问题,利用市场机制和激励手段如基金和保险支持制度来救济或补偿损失与损害;三是国际环境争端解决路径。主要以磋商、协商、和解、谈判等非强制性方式及国际仲裁、国际司法的法律手段解决气候争端。在救济路径上,应以全球规制路径为主。以国家责任路径为补充,以环境争端解决方式为程序性保障。中国基于全球气候治理的积极推动者。应表明立场。以共同但有区别责任原则为谈判基础,加强南南合作,履行国际气候承诺。发展低碳经济,积极推进该议题的国� 展开更多
关键词 损失与损害 气候正义 共同但有区别责任 国家责任 环境规制
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