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Assessing the Effects of Land-Use and Land Cover Change and Topography on Soil Fertility in Melka Wakena Catchment of Sub-Upper Wabe-Shebelle Watershed, South Eastern Ethiopia 预览
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作者 Hussein Hayicho Mersha Alemu Haji Kedir 《环境保护(英文)》 2019年第5期672-693,共22页
This study was conducted in Melka Wakena catchment;south eastern Ethiopia to assess land use/cover change (LULCC) and topographic elevation effect on selected soil quality/fertility parameters. 144 soil samples collec... This study was conducted in Melka Wakena catchment;south eastern Ethiopia to assess land use/cover change (LULCC) and topographic elevation effect on selected soil quality/fertility parameters. 144 soil samples collected from 0 - 30 cm depth under three land cover types across three elevation gradients were analysed for selected soil quality/fertility parameters. Data were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and mean comparisons were made using Least Significant Difference (LSD). The soil properties examined generally showed significant variations with respect to land-use/land cover changes and elevation. Soil particles, soil organic carbon, total N, pH, available phosphorus, potassium and calcium content significantly decreased as forestland is converted into cropland/grassland. Heaviest soil deterioration was recorded in soils under cropland and followed by grassland soils. The conversion of natural forest to different land uses without proper soil conservation and management practices resulted in the overall decline of soil fertility quality. Thus, integrated land resource management approach is indispensable for sustaining agricultural productivity and the environmental health of the Melka Waken a catchment. 展开更多
关键词 Land Use/Cover Resource Management SOIL QUALITY Spatial Variation Topographic ELEVATION SOIL QUALITY Parameters
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Soil Erodibility and Physicochemical Properties of Collapsing Gully Alluvial Fans in Southern China
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作者 DENG Yusong SHEN Xue +3 位作者 XIA Dong CAI Chongfa DING Shuwen WANG Tianwei 《土壤圈:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第1期102-113,共12页
In southern China, collapsing gully erosion produces massive deposits of sediment on the plough layer of alluvial fan farmland,leading to reduced nutrients, increased erodibility, and even desertification. The aim of ... In southern China, collapsing gully erosion produces massive deposits of sediment on the plough layer of alluvial fan farmland,leading to reduced nutrients, increased erodibility, and even desertification. The aim of this study was to investigate soil erodibility(the factor K in the Universal Soil Loss Equation, USLE) and physicochemical properties of the alluvial fans of the most severe collapsing gully erosion areas(Hubei, Jiangxi, Fujian, and Guangdong provinces) in southern China. The soils of the collapsing gully alluvial fans had a higher bulk density, but a lower total porosity, saturated water content, and silt and clay fractions than the control(CK) soils from the farmland without desertification. Soil quality gradually decreased from fan edge to fanhead. Significant decreases were found in soil p H, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and total potassium, nitrogen, and phosphorus, as well as available nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, resulting in a gradual decrease in soil nutrients from the fanedge to the fanhead. Soil erodibility was greatest in the fanhead, and soil erodibility K values of the alluvial fans were 53.71%, 66.28%, 67.53%, and 71.68% greater than that in those of the CK soils of Hubei, Jiangxi, Fujian, and Guangdong, respectively, indicating a significant correlation between the soil erodibility K values and physicochemical properties, particularly sand fraction and organic matter content. The results provide new insights into the relationship between soil physicochemical properties and erodibility of alluvial fans, and suggest that improving soil structure might increase soil fertility in the collapsing gully alluvial fan farmland. 展开更多
关键词 SOIL erosion SOIL FERTILITY SOIL property SOIL quality SOIL structure
Quality Control and Evaluation of the Observed Daily Data in the North American Soil Moisture Database
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作者 Weilin LIAO Dagang WANG +2 位作者 Guiling WANG Youlong XIA Xiaoping LIU 《气象学报:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第3期501-518,共18页
The North American Soil Moisture Database (NASMD) was initiated in 2011 to assemble and homogenize in situ soil moisture measurements from 32 observational networks in the United States and Canada encompassing more th... The North American Soil Moisture Database (NASMD) was initiated in 2011 to assemble and homogenize in situ soil moisture measurements from 32 observational networks in the United States and Canada encompassing more than 1800 stations. Although statistical quality control (QC) procedures have been applied in the NASMD, the soil moisture content tends to be systematically underestimated by in situ sensors in frozen soils, and using a single maximum threshold (i.e., 0.6 m3 m-3) may not be sufficient for robust QC because of the diverse soil textures in North America. In this study, based on the in situ soil porosity and North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2) Noah soil temperature, the simple automated QC method is revised to supplement the existing QC approach. This revised QC method is first validated based on the assessment at 78 of the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) stations where the manually checked data are available, and is then applied to all stations in the NASMD to produce a more strict quality-controlled dataset. The results show that the revised automated QC procedure can flag the spurious and erroneous soil moisture measurements for the SCAN stations, especially for those located in high altitudes and latitudes. Relative to station measurements in the original NASMD, the quality-controlled data show a slightly better agreement with the manually checked soil moisture content. It should be noted that this quality-controlled dataset may be over-flagged for some valid soil moisture measurements due to potential errors of the soil temperature and soil porosity data, and validation in this study is limited by the availability of benchmark soil moisture data. The updated QC and additional validation will be desirable to boost confidence in the product when high-quality data become available in the future. 展开更多
关键词 NORTH AMERICAN SOIL MOISTURE DATABASE (NASMD) quality control SOIL MOISTURE NORTH AMERICAN Land DATA Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2) SOIL temperature SOIL porosity
Long-Term Effects of Different Passages of Vehicular Traffic on Soil Properties and Carbon Storage of a Crosby Silt Loam in USA
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作者 Gulab Singh YADAV Rattan LAL +1 位作者 Ram Swaroop MEENA Basant RIMAL 《土壤圈:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第2期150-160,共11页
The passage of vehicles with heavy axle loads causes soil compaction, and this adversely affects soil properties and crop yield.The adverse effects can persist for several years due to significant changes in key soil ... The passage of vehicles with heavy axle loads causes soil compaction, and this adversely affects soil properties and crop yield.The adverse effects can persist for several years due to significant changes in key soil properties. However, the mechanisms of the aforementioned effects are not well understood for conservation agriculture(CA)(e.g., no-till(NT)) wherein the use of heavy machinery is considerably common. Therefore, known compaction forces(0 Mg load for compaction(NT-0, control), two passages of 2.5 Mg water wagon axle load(NT-2), and four passages of 2.5 Mg water wagon axle load(NT-4)) were applied to all the plots annually for 20 consecutive years. The experiment was established in 1997 at the Waterman Agricultural and Natural Resources Laboratory(WANRL), Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Each treatment was replicated thrice. Soil samples were obtained in November2016 to determine the effects of variations in the axle load and vehicular passages on carbon(C) and nitrogen(N) storage and selected soil properties of a Crosby silt loam soil under NT-based corn-soybean rotation with residue retention in Central Ohio, USA. Three locations were also randomly selected in an adjoining natural woodlot(WL) soil plot and sampled(30 m away from the compaction field) to compare the effects of vehicular traffic on soil under NT with WL soil. Results revealed that soil bulk density(ρb) and total porosity at 0–10 and 10–20 cm depths were not affected by the passages of vehicular traffic for 20 years under the NT system.The penetration resistance(PR)(1.86 and 2.03 MPa at 0–10 and 10–20 cm soil depths, respectively) was significantly higher under NT-4 compared with that under other treatments. Saturated hydraulic conductivity at 0–10 and 10–20 cm soil depths ranged from19.7 to 31.4 and 18.5 to 29.5 mm d-1, respectively, across all the treatments. The proportion of macroaggregates(> 0.25 mm) and microaggregates(< 0.25 mm), mean weight diameter and geometric mean diameter of aggregates, pH, electrical con 展开更多
关键词 carbon stock heavy machinery NO-TILL residue retention SOIL aggregates SOIL COMPACTION SOIL quality well-drained SOIL
厌氧消毒对植烟土壤质量及细菌群落结构的影响 预览
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作者 刘亚男 贺广生 +6 位作者 韦建玉 贾海江 黄崇峻 蔡一霞 蔡昆争 潘伯桂 王维 《中国烟草科学》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第3期39-46,共8页
为了解添加不同有机物料的土壤厌氧消毒(Anaerobic soil disinfection,ASD)对土壤质量及细菌群落结构的影响,设置了烟梗、水稻秸秆、菜粕、米糠、甘蔗渣5种有机物料和不添加物料(CK1)的ASD处理,以原始土壤为对照(CK),分析了不同处理的... 为了解添加不同有机物料的土壤厌氧消毒(Anaerobic soil disinfection,ASD)对土壤质量及细菌群落结构的影响,设置了烟梗、水稻秸秆、菜粕、米糠、甘蔗渣5种有机物料和不添加物料(CK1)的ASD处理,以原始土壤为对照(CK),分析了不同处理的土壤质量和细菌群落结构。结果表明,与CK相比,ASD处理均可显著提高土壤pH,降低土壤EC和Eh,改善土壤养分,其中添加烟梗显著提高了速效钾、有机质的含量,菜粕显著提高了全氮、有机质、速效氮含量及过氧化氢酶以及脲酶的活性。利用16SrDNA对土壤细菌测序表明,ASD显著改变了细菌门类水平上各种群的比例,其中添加菜粕和烟梗的ASD处理微生物构成与CK、CK1差异较大,厚壁菌门及其门下厌氧型细菌梭菌科、瘤胃菌科和耐受性细菌芽孢杆菌科的相对丰度显著增加,而其土壤青枯菌数量却显著降低。总的来看,添加不同有机物料的ASD对植烟土壤的理化性状和细菌群落结构可产生显著不同的影响,其中添加菜粕和烟梗的ASD明显改善土壤养分,影响了土壤细菌群落结构组成及其多样性,厌氧和耐受型细菌丰度大幅增加,青枯菌数量减少。 展开更多
关键词 土壤厌氧消毒 土壤质量 土壤细菌多样性
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不同耕作方式对枣园土壤温度、养分和果实品质的影响 预览
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作者 程丽 赵通 +5 位作者 黄华梨 张露荷 朱燕芳 贾旭梅 郭爱霞 王延秀 《干旱地区农业研究》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第3期200-207,共8页
为了探明甘肃中部沿黄灌区枣园不同耕作方式对土壤温度、养分状况和果实品质的影响,连续2年设置清耕(CK)、覆盖玉米秸秆(YMG)、覆黑膜(HM)和种植黑麦草(HMC)等耕作方式,测定不同土层(0、20、40、60 cm)土壤温度、养分以及果实品质等指标... 为了探明甘肃中部沿黄灌区枣园不同耕作方式对土壤温度、养分状况和果实品质的影响,连续2年设置清耕(CK)、覆盖玉米秸秆(YMG)、覆黑膜(HM)和种植黑麦草(HMC)等耕作方式,测定不同土层(0、20、40、60 cm)土壤温度、养分以及果实品质等指标;并采用主成分分析综合评价,筛选最佳土壤管理模式。结果表明: 8月份HMC对不同土层土壤温度均具有明显的降温作用,在20 cm土层,分别较CK、HM、YMG降低了5.93%、5.93%、 2.86%。与对照相比,YMG、HM和HMC均能显著提高各土层的土壤速效K、N、P以及硝态氮和有机质含量,其中HMC效果最显著,在20 cm土层处,与CK相比分别提高了12.35%、10.11%、15.48%、23.11%、19.00%。随着土层深度的增加,速效养分含量均呈先上升后下降的趋势,地表0~20 cm处的含量最高,在20 cm土层处,HMC土壤速效K、N、P含量分别为122.24 mg·kg ^-1 、32.67 g·kg ^-1 、0.76 mg·kg ^-1 。与对照相比,YMG、HM和HMC均能不同程度地提高枣果品质,其中HMC对Vc含量、蛋白质含量、可溶性糖含量、枣果横径、枣果纵径、单果重、含水量、可食率的影响显著大于YMG和HM,HMC的Vc含量、蛋白质含量、可溶性糖含量、枣果横径、含水量较YMG分别增加了 10.18%、25.23%、9.06%、6.04%、3.73%,较HM分别增加了1.28%、23.01%、1.07%、2.50%、1.71%。主成分分析将16个指标综合分析,提取3个主成分因子6.614、5.485、3.901,代表4种不同耕作方式100%的原始数据信息量。综上所述,不同土壤耕作方式的效果由高到低依次为HMC、HM、YMG和CK,种植黑麦草(HMC)是甘肃中部沿黄灌区枣园土壤管理的推荐模式。 展开更多
关键词 枣园 土壤耕作方式 土壤温度 土壤养分 枣果品质
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Assessment of Seasonal and Site-Specific Variations in Soil Physical, Chemical and Biological Proper ties Around Opencas t Coal Mines
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作者 Bhanu PANDEY Arideep MUKHERJEE +1 位作者 Madhoolika AGRAWAL Siddharth SINGH 《土壤圈:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第5期642-655,共14页
Coal mining adversely affects soil quality around opencast mines. Therefore, a study was conducted in 2010 and 2011 to assess seasonal and site-specific variations in physical, chemical, and biological properties of s... Coal mining adversely affects soil quality around opencast mines. Therefore, a study was conducted in 2010 and 2011 to assess seasonal and site-specific variations in physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil collected at different distances from mining areas in the Jharia coalfield, India. Throughout the year, the soil in sites near coal mines had a significantly higher bulk density, temperature, elec trical conductivity, and sulfate and heavy metal contents and a significantly lower water-holding capacity, porosity, moisture content, pH, and total nitrogen and available phosphorus contents, compared with the soil collected far from the mines. However, biological properties were site-specific and seasonal. Soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), MBC/MBN, and soil respiration were the highest during the rainy season and the lowest in summer, with the minimum values in the soil near coal mines. A soil quality index revealed a significant effect of heavy metal content on soil biological properties in the coal mining areas. 展开更多
关键词 heavy metal MICROBIAL biomass mining area SOIL property SOIL quality index SOIL RESPIRATION
土壤酸化的防护与治理研究进展 预览
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作者 黄武 牟海燕 +1 位作者 梁煊 陈文清 《四川化工》 CAS 2019年第5期9-13,共5页
随着工业化和城市化的不断发展,土壤酸化加剧的问题愈演愈烈,本文就土壤酸化的成因、所造成的影响以及所采取的措施三个主要方面,对近几十年来国内外的相关研究进行了对比与总结,旨在为解决土壤酸化加剧趋势和进一步的土壤酸化研究提供... 随着工业化和城市化的不断发展,土壤酸化加剧的问题愈演愈烈,本文就土壤酸化的成因、所造成的影响以及所采取的措施三个主要方面,对近几十年来国内外的相关研究进行了对比与总结,旨在为解决土壤酸化加剧趋势和进一步的土壤酸化研究提供参考和理论依据。 展开更多
关键词 土壤酸化 酸化成因 人为因素 土壤质量 防护与治理 土壤改良
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Soil Health Assessment Methods and Relationship with Wheat Yield 预览
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作者 Jatish C. Biswas Naveen Kalra +2 位作者 M. Maniruzzaman U. A. Naher M. M. Haque 《土壤科学期刊(英文)》 2019年第9期189-205,共17页
Soil quality assessment methods, based on different attributes, are available but not well calibrated/validated for subsequent operational applications. We have developed a method for soil quality index assessment by ... Soil quality assessment methods, based on different attributes, are available but not well calibrated/validated for subsequent operational applications. We have developed a method for soil quality index assessment by considering soil texture, organic carbon, pH, available water, cation exchange capacity, bulk density, total porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, salinity, aggregate stability, slope and soil depth. The scoring was done on 0 - 100 scale and the lowest score was assigned to the most limiting factor of crop growth and development. Attribute-wise rating was made by using Macros developed in MS-Excel and IDRISI3.2 was used to delineate the rating maps. About 64.6% soils scored more than 60 and the best soil group (score > 70) was only about 15%. Soil health score, as determined through our method, showed good relationship with wheat yield. Multiplicative response function was more sensitive than simple regression model. The correlation analyses with one or two attributes with most severe stress and relatively with lower rating values showed better predictability of wheat yields. The soil quality index as estimated from principal component analysis having strongly loaded (>0.75) factors showed inferior correlation with grain yields of wheat than geometric mean approach. It is concluded that geometric mean approach for soil health scoring can be utilized in similar environments around the globe with or without further improvement. 展开更多
关键词 SOIL QUALITY ADDITIVE and MULTIPLICATIVE FUNCTION PCA Minimum Data
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Soil quality assessment across different stands in tropical moist deciduous forests of Nagaland,India 预览
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作者 Gaurav Mishra Rossana Marzaioli +1 位作者 Krishna Giri Shailesh Pandey 《林业研究:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第4期1479-1485,共7页
To analyze the relationship between the management of three forest stand plantations and soil quality in the Dimapur district of the Northeastern Himalayan region,India,three forest soil profiles,covered by different ... To analyze the relationship between the management of three forest stand plantations and soil quality in the Dimapur district of the Northeastern Himalayan region,India,three forest soil profiles,covered by different species stands,at three depths were tested for 13 physical and chemical variables.Only four of these variables(electric conductivity,bulk density exchangeable Mg and available P)were included in a minimum data set,after using a varimax rotation algorithm in a principal component analysis,and subsequently used to calculate a soil quality index(SQI).Results showed higher SQIs in the surface layers(0–20 cm depth)than in the deeper ones.Average weighed SQI varied significantly(P<0.05)through the three considered forest sites,with the lowest value at site FS3.These findings reveal that the approach used here is suitable for preliminary screening of the impact of a forestry species on soil,to aid in species selection and improve soil health for afforestation and reforestation projects. 展开更多
关键词 Forest STAND Nagaland SOIL QUALITY INDICATORS SOIL QUALITY index
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Tillage, <i>Desmodium intortum</i>, Fertilizer Rates for Carbon Stock, Soil Quality and Grain Yield in Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria 预览
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作者 Odunze Azubuike Chidowe Asholo David Blessing +2 位作者 Ogunwole Joshua Olalekan Oyinlola Eunice Yetunde Chinke Nkechi Mary 《美国气候变化期刊(英文)》 2019年第2期325-341,共17页
Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria soils are continuously and intensively cultivated, resulting in soil quality degradation, carbon stock depletion, accelerated soil erosion and soil nutrient depletion. Effects of lan... Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria soils are continuously and intensively cultivated, resulting in soil quality degradation, carbon stock depletion, accelerated soil erosion and soil nutrient depletion. Effects of land use change on soil carbon stocks (SOC) are of concern regarding greenhouse gas emissions mitigation and sustainable crop production, because there is a need for food sufficiency while conserving the environment. Also, managing soils under intensive use and restoring degraded soils are top priorities for a sustained agronomic production while conserving soil and water resources. Hence, this study;“Tillage, Desmodium intortum, fertilizer rates for carbon stock, soil quality and grain yield in Northern Guinea Savanna” is aimed at devising possible mitigating measures for soil quality degradation, carbon stock depletion and impoverished crop yields using Zea mays as test crop. The study was a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in split-split plot arrangement with four replicates. The four main tillage and Desmodium intortum combination treatments were: 1) Maize &#8722;without Desmodium + Conventional tillage (MC), 2) Maize + Desmodium live-mulch incorporated and relayed + Conservation tillage (MDIC), 3) Maize + Desmodium in no-tillage system (MDNT), 4) Maize + Desmodium in strip tillage (MDST). The main treatment plots were each divided to accommodate four (4) rates of N (60, 80, 100 and 120 kg·ha&#8722;1) as sub plots, while the N rate plots were further divided to accommodate three (3) rates of P (6.6, 13.2, and 26.4 kg·ha&#8722;1) as sub-subplots. Findings support that Desmodium intercrops with Maize treatments (MDIC, MDNT, and MDST) resulted in increased organic carbon contents in 2013, with MDNT resulting in significantly higher organic carbon content (7.37 g·kg&#8722;1 in 2012 and 8.37 g·kg&#8722;1 in 2013) than the other treatments. Also, zero tillage practice (MDNT) sequestered significantly higher carbon stock (18.06 t C ha&#8722;1), followed by minimum tillage (MDIC) that sequest 展开更多
关键词 Carbon STOCK TILLAGE Soil Quality Grain Yield Climate Change MITIGATION
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八角林下肿节风药材种植基地环境质量评价 预览
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作者 梁加荣 黄彩眉 +3 位作者 雷利堂 黄宝优 韦颖文 蓝祖栽 《绿色科技》 2019年第6期110-112,共3页
为弄清八角林下肿节风药材种植基地环境及原生药材的质量状况,参照国家环保局环境监测分析方法,对广西国有派阳山林场鸿鸪分场肿节风种植基地的土壤、灌溉水进行了抽样检测。结果表明:肿节风种植基地的土壤质量指标达到GB 15618-1995土... 为弄清八角林下肿节风药材种植基地环境及原生药材的质量状况,参照国家环保局环境监测分析方法,对广西国有派阳山林场鸿鸪分场肿节风种植基地的土壤、灌溉水进行了抽样检测。结果表明:肿节风种植基地的土壤质量指标达到GB 15618-1995土壤环境质量一级标准,灌溉水质量达到GB 5084-2005农田灌溉水质标准,基地空气质量符合免检要求,基地原生药材检测指标符合WM/T 2-2004药用植物及制剂外经贸绿色行业标准要求。种植基地环境质量良好,符合GAP相关要求,适合作为肿节风药材种植基地。 展开更多
关键词 肿节风 空气质量 土壤质量 灌溉水质
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我国葡萄园土壤质量评价的研究进展 预览
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作者 范晓晖 翁琳琳 +2 位作者 雷丽丽 钟爱清 林鸾芳 《中外葡萄与葡萄酒》 2019年第3期61-65,共5页
随着葡萄产业的蓬勃发展,葡萄种植产生的各种农业生态问题也日益突出,其中由于葡萄连作、不合理的施肥以及不科学田间管理等引发葡萄园土壤质量退化,已成为限制葡萄产业可持续健康发展的主要问题之一。葡萄园土壤质量评价已成为当下研... 随着葡萄产业的蓬勃发展,葡萄种植产生的各种农业生态问题也日益突出,其中由于葡萄连作、不合理的施肥以及不科学田间管理等引发葡萄园土壤质量退化,已成为限制葡萄产业可持续健康发展的主要问题之一。葡萄园土壤质量评价已成为当下研究的热点。根据我国近15年的研究,本文综述了我国葡萄园土壤质量评价指标体系、土层深度及评价方法。在总结、分析现阶段我国主要葡萄园土壤质量评价的最新进展和研究不足的基础上,提出未来我国葡萄园土壤质量评价研究工作的建议。 展开更多
关键词 土壤质量 评价指标 土层深度 评价方法
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基于耕作指数评价耕作措施对东北风沙土耕层土壤质量的影响 预览
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作者 苗淑杰 赵红飞 +2 位作者 乔云发 陆欣春 李琪 《中国土壤与肥料》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第4期9-15,共7页
为准确评价构建风沙土合理耕层的土壤质量特征,采用聚类分析方法建立了东北风沙土耕层质量诊断最小数据集(MDS),利用最小数据集的耕作指数(TI-MDS)定量评价了耕作措施对东北风沙土农田耕层土壤质量的影响,旨在为科学选择风沙土区耕作措... 为准确评价构建风沙土合理耕层的土壤质量特征,采用聚类分析方法建立了东北风沙土耕层质量诊断最小数据集(MDS),利用最小数据集的耕作指数(TI-MDS)定量评价了耕作措施对东北风沙土农田耕层土壤质量的影响,旨在为科学选择风沙土区耕作措施提供依据。试验始于2017年,在黑龙江省杜尔伯特蒙古族自治县第一粮种场,设化肥、秸秆还田和有机肥3种施肥模式,常规、旋耕、翻耕、深翻和超深翻5种耕作方式,共15个处理。测定了玉米收获期0~20 cm耕层土壤pH值、有机质、碱解氮、有效磷、速效钾、全氮、全磷、全钾、阳离子交换量(CEC)、团聚体平均重量直径(MWD)、容重、硬度、含水量、田间持水量、孔隙度和渗透速率16项评价指标。结果表明,全量耕作指数(TI-TDS)与TI-MDS的相关系数r为0.928,Nash有效系数Ef为0.761,偏差系数Er为0.079,TI-MDS取值范围为0.26~0.85,与玉米产量呈显著正相关(r=0.767),故TI-MDS可作为定量评价土壤质量的指标。施有机肥处理土壤耕作指数达到Ⅱ级水平;秸秆还田耕作指数达到Ⅲ级水平;施化肥耕作指数达到Ⅲ级水平,这表明风沙土区施用有机肥是构建合理耕层有效培肥方式,秸秆还田对合理耕层构建效果不明显。翻耕施用有机肥耕作指数最大,为0.85,达到I级;深翻+秸秆还田和超深翻+化肥措施土壤质量严重下降,降为Ⅳ级。在风沙土区应用翻耕+有机肥措施是构建合理耕层的有效措施。 展开更多
关键词 风沙土 耕作指数 耕作措施 土壤质量 最小数据集
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小冰期结束以来贡嘎山海螺沟冰川退缩区土壤化学风化与发育过程
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作者 王小芳 邴海健 +2 位作者 吴艳宏 祝贺 周俊 《第四纪研究》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第5期1191-1202,共12页
选择海螺沟冰川退缩区,对冰川退缩年龄分别为0年、30年、40年、52年、80年、120年的样点按土壤发生层分层采集样品,通过分析样品的化学风化速率及理化性质变化,探讨小冰期结束以来土壤发育过程及影响因素,并评估不同阶段土壤质量。结果... 选择海螺沟冰川退缩区,对冰川退缩年龄分别为0年、30年、40年、52年、80年、120年的样点按土壤发生层分层采集样品,通过分析样品的化学风化速率及理化性质变化,探讨小冰期结束以来土壤发育过程及影响因素,并评估不同阶段土壤质量。结果表明,退缩区前40年样点中主要以碳酸盐风化为主,80年后硅酸盐风化作用增强。土壤长期风化速率随土壤年龄呈现升高-降低-升高的趋势,52年样点长期风化速率最低,为48.06cmol/(m^2·a),矿物组成和气候是影响土壤风化速率的重要原因。土壤的粒度组成以砂粒为主,多数样点占比约为80%~90%。随着土壤年龄增加,容重值和pH减小,pH从8.54减小到5左右;土层厚度、土壤有机质(SOC)及总氮(TN)含量增加,这些土壤理化指标的快速变化表明冰川退缩区土壤发育迅速。适宜的温度、充足的降水以及快速的植被演替可能是退缩区土壤快速发育的原因。模糊数学法计算土壤质量的结果显示,除了0年样点,其余样点土壤质量指数(SQI)均大于0.4,说明退缩区土壤质量状况整体属于中等水平,土壤肥力状况较好。研究结果有助于揭示土壤矿物风化过程和土壤发育的影响因素,理解土壤发育机制。 展开更多
关键词 土壤发育 土壤矿物风化 土壤质量 冰川退缩区 贡嘎山
生物有机肥对不同连作年限设施黄瓜土壤微生物数量和酶活性的影响 预览
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作者 王燕云 赵龙杰 +1 位作者 郝春莉 蔡尽忠 《浙江农业学报》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第4期631-638,共8页
以木霉菌、北虫草废弃培养基、古龙酸母液为材料制备生物有机肥,将其以低(7.5t·hm^-2)、中(15t·hm^-2)、高(30t·hm^-2)3种用量施于未连作以及连作3、7、11 a的设施黄瓜土壤中,测定生物有机肥对连作土壤的改良效果。结果... 以木霉菌、北虫草废弃培养基、古龙酸母液为材料制备生物有机肥,将其以低(7.5t·hm^-2)、中(15t·hm^-2)、高(30t·hm^-2)3种用量施于未连作以及连作3、7、11 a的设施黄瓜土壤中,测定生物有机肥对连作土壤的改良效果。结果显示,在相同生物有机肥用量下,土壤细菌、放线菌、木霉菌数量,土壤蔗糖酶、脲酶、磷酸酶、过氧化氢酶活性,土壤质量隶属度,以及黄瓜产量和品质指标(维生素C、可溶性糖含量)随连作年限的延长整体表现为先升高后降低,土壤真菌、尖孢镰刀菌数量则随着连作年限延长呈现不断增加的趋势。相同连作年限下,土壤微生物数量、酶活性、黄瓜产量和品质整体随生物有机肥用量的增加而提高。本研究表明,该生物有机肥能够改善连作土壤的生态质量以及作物的产量和品质,用量越高对连作年限越久土壤的改良效果越好。 展开更多
关键词 连作障碍 生物有机肥 土壤微生物 土壤酶 黄瓜品质
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土地整治对土壤微生物多样性的影响分析 被引量:1
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作者 林耀奔 叶艳妹 +2 位作者 杨建辉 胡一鸣 施昊坤 《环境科学学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第8期2644-2653,共10页
为了研究土地整治对土壤微生物的影响,通过田野调查和样品实验,对土地整治区内外土壤中的微生物多样性与种群结构进行了对比分析.结果表明:从微生物多样性来看,土地整治区内土壤细菌和真菌多样性显著提高;从微生物种群结构来看,土地整... 为了研究土地整治对土壤微生物的影响,通过田野调查和样品实验,对土地整治区内外土壤中的微生物多样性与种群结构进行了对比分析.结果表明:从微生物多样性来看,土地整治区内土壤细菌和真菌多样性显著提高;从微生物种群结构来看,土地整治区内细菌丰度较高的属有变形菌、绿弯菌、酸杆菌和放线菌,真菌丰度较高的属有被孢霉菌、青霉菌和曲霉菌;有机肥的使用显著提高了微生物多样性及鞘脂单胞菌和地杆菌等土壤有益菌的丰度;通过相关性分析可得,土壤理化性质和重金属污染水平是影响土壤微生物多样性与结构的重要因素.该研究证实了土地整治对提高土壤微生物多样性和改善土壤质量的重要作用,也为土地整治工作的开展提供了科学依据. 展开更多
关键词 土地整治 土壤微生物 有机肥 土壤质量
宁夏农牧交错带土地利用变化对土壤质量的影响 预览
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作者 张静 刘任涛 +4 位作者 赵娟 常海涛 刘佳楠 罗雅曦 马继 《生态科学》 CSCD 2019年第2期94-104,共11页
在宁夏盐池县分别选取农田、弃耕地、天然草地、人工柠条林地和杨树林地5种土地利用类型作为研究样地,测定土壤理化性质指标,采用土壤质量综合技术指标,阐明中国北方典型农牧交错带土地利用变化对土壤质量的影响规律。结果表明:(1)土壤... 在宁夏盐池县分别选取农田、弃耕地、天然草地、人工柠条林地和杨树林地5种土地利用类型作为研究样地,测定土壤理化性质指标,采用土壤质量综合技术指标,阐明中国北方典型农牧交错带土地利用变化对土壤质量的影响规律。结果表明:(1)土壤粗砂粒表现为弃耕地和天然草地显著高于农田、人工柠条林地和杨树林地(P<0.05),土壤细砂粒表现为杨树林地显著高于农田、弃耕地、天然草地和人工柠条林地(P<0.05),土壤极细砂粒和土壤黏粉粒均表现为农田和人工柠条林地显著高于弃耕地、天然草地和杨树林地(P<0.05)。土壤含水量、土壤pH值和土壤电导率表现为农田显著高于弃耕地、天然草地、人工柠条林地和杨树林地(P<0.05)。土壤有机碳含量表现为弃耕地和柠条林地显著高于农田、天然草地和杨树林地(P<0.05)。土壤全氮含量表现为农田显著高于弃耕地、天然草地、柠条林地和杨树林地(P<0.05)。(2)不同土地利用类型的土壤质量指标之间存在显著相关性(P<0.05)。其中,杨树林地各评价指标之间的相关系数最高,天然草地次之,农田、柠条林地较低,而弃耕地最低。(3)土壤质量综合得分大小顺序为:农田>弃耕地>0>草地>柠条林地>杨树林地。研究表明,对水浇农田实行保护性耕作和精细管理,并且农田弃耕后自然恢复成草地,有利于宁夏农牧交错带沙地土壤质量改善,但天然草地和人工林建设样地土壤质量较差。 展开更多
关键词 宁夏 农牧交错带 土地利用 土壤质量 土壤理化性质
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华北引黄灌区粮食产量与农业土壤资源质量时空分布特征
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作者 陶雯 张旭博 +5 位作者 孙志刚 李仕冀 刘晓洁 张崇玉 欧阳竹 成升魁 《自然资源学报》 CSSCI CSCD 北大核心 2019年第4期829-838,共10页
明确作物产量和土壤养分时空变异可以更好地掌握农田生产力和土壤质量情况,对农业资源合理配置以及提高生产力可持续性有着非常重要的意义。利用华北平原引黄灌区下游农田作物产量数据和耕地质量监测数据,对华北平原引黄灌区下游作物产... 明确作物产量和土壤养分时空变异可以更好地掌握农田生产力和土壤质量情况,对农业资源合理配置以及提高生产力可持续性有着非常重要的意义。利用华北平原引黄灌区下游农田作物产量数据和耕地质量监测数据,对华北平原引黄灌区下游作物产量的演变以及有机质和养分的空间分布进行分析,阐明该地区作物产量、土壤养分的空间分布特征。结果表明:灌区的农田生产力水平存在显著的空间和时空差异。20世纪80年代末以来,农田生产力水平整体呈上升趋势,冬小麦高产田分布在黄河下游北岸中部地区的齐河县和下游南岸三个县,范围是6084.0~6861.0 kg/hm~2,夏玉米产量空间分布整体上呈现出中间高两端低的特征,其中齐河县的产量最高,为7524.0 kg/hm~2。灌区农田土壤有机质、氮、磷、钾养分具有明显的时空分布差异,有机质和速效钾含量最高的德州市分别为16.30 g/kg和202.40 mg/kg,全氮含量最高的淄博市为1.17 g/kg,有效磷含量最高的泰安市为34.56 mg/kg。研究表明,灌区的生产力水平一直不断在提升,仍有很大的增长空间。掌握养分分布特征和土壤肥力的空间差异来制定合理的施肥措施,可为今后该地区实现精准农业和高产稳产提供科学依据。 展开更多
关键词 引黄灌区 粮食产量 土壤质量 有机质 土壤养分
太岳山油松人工林土壤质量随林龄的演变特征 预览
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作者 梁洋 邵森 马冰倩 《浙江农林大学学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第3期581-589,共9页
为探讨土壤质量随林龄的演变特征,以山西太岳山40,60,80年生油松Pinus tabuliformis人工林为研究对象,采用综合指数评估相关的土壤质量状况。结果表明:随着油松人工林龄增加,土壤含水率显著增加,而土壤容重则显著减小;而0~10 cm土层的... 为探讨土壤质量随林龄的演变特征,以山西太岳山40,60,80年生油松Pinus tabuliformis人工林为研究对象,采用综合指数评估相关的土壤质量状况。结果表明:随着油松人工林龄增加,土壤含水率显著增加,而土壤容重则显著减小;而0~10 cm土层的有机质、全氮、速效钾、铵态氮、硝态氮、有效磷质量分数增加最为显著;80年生油松林的土壤微生物碳氮质量分数分别在10~30 cm和0~20 cm土层显著大于60年生和40年生油松林,而不同林龄油松人工林的土壤质量综合指数为0.568(80年生油松纯林)>0.500(60年生油松纯林)>0.363(40年生油松纯林)。说明随着林龄的不断增加,土壤微生物量碳氮质量分数和理化性状得到了提高和改善,太岳山油松人工林的土壤综合质量也不断提升。图3表4参28。 展开更多
关键词 土壤学 土壤质量 综合指数 林龄 油松人工林
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