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不同叶龄蘖、穗氮肥组合对粳稻产量及氮素利用的影响 预览
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作者 王艳 易军 +6 位作者 高继平 张丽娜 杨继芬 赵艳泽 辛威 甄晓溪 张文忠 《作物学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第1期102-116,共15页
以主茎叶片数不同的粳稻品种吉粳88 (14片)、沈农265 (15片)和沈农1401 (16片)为试材,采用大田筒栽方式,在总施氮量225kghm^–2及轻简施肥(基肥、蘖肥、穗肥)模式基础上,设置基蘖肥∶穗肥6∶4和8∶2两种施肥比例,并分设不同源、库叶龄... 以主茎叶片数不同的粳稻品种吉粳88 (14片)、沈农265 (15片)和沈农1401 (16片)为试材,采用大田筒栽方式,在总施氮量225kghm^–2及轻简施肥(基肥、蘖肥、穗肥)模式基础上,设置基蘖肥∶穗肥6∶4和8∶2两种施肥比例,并分设不同源、库叶龄期施氮组合即不同叶龄蘖、穗肥精确施氮组合。分析了不同源库期氮肥运筹模式对水稻农艺性状、产量及氮素利用特性的影响。结果表明:(1)在有效穗数、分化颖花数、产量和氮素利用率方面,吉粳88、沈农265、沈农1401不同氮肥运筹下最佳蘖、穗肥叶龄组合均为6∶4显著高于8∶2。(2)不同氮肥运筹下,吉粳88在8叶(叶龄指数57.1%)、沈农265在9叶(叶龄指数60.0%)、沈农1401在10叶(叶龄指数62.5%)时,即叶龄指数在60%左右时,施用蘖肥效果最佳,最终穗数最多,对保蘖起主要作用;吉粳88在11叶(叶龄指数78.6%)、沈农265在12叶(叶龄指数80.0%)、沈农1401在13叶(叶龄指数81.3%)时,即叶龄指数在80%左右时,施用穗肥效果最佳,最终穗粒数最多,对促花起主要作用。(3)吉粳88-6∶4 (8, 11),沈农265-6∶4 (9, 12),沈农1401-6∶4 (10, 13) 3组处理,在产量、氮素积累量、氮素吸收利用率、农学利用率及偏生产力等方面,显著高于同品种不同叶龄蘖、穗氮肥组合中的其他处理。因此,适当延迟蘖肥施用叶龄期(叶龄指数60%左右)、提前穗肥施用叶龄期(叶龄指数80%左右)同时增加穗肥施用比例,既可以显著提高氮素积累量、氮素吸收利用率、农学利用率及偏生产力,又能显著促进成穗率的提高和颖花数的分化,达到保蘖促花的双重作用,实现优源、扩库、充实的目标,从而获得高产。 展开更多
关键词 粳稻 保蘖氮肥 促花氮肥 产量 氮素利用效率
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氮肥施用量对机插优质晚稻产量和稻米品质的影响 预览
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作者 唐健 唐闯 +6 位作者 郭保卫 张诚信 张振振 王科 张洪程 陈恒 孙明珠 《作物学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第1期117-130,共14页
本试验为筛选适合优质丰产机插晚稻的最佳氮肥用量,以优质双季晚稻泰优398、黄华占、天优华占、美香新占4个品种为试验材料,在机插条件下设0、135、180、255 kg hm^–2四个施氮水平,测定产量构成及稻米品质指标。结果表明,适当增施氮肥... 本试验为筛选适合优质丰产机插晚稻的最佳氮肥用量,以优质双季晚稻泰优398、黄华占、天优华占、美香新占4个品种为试验材料,在机插条件下设0、135、180、255 kg hm^–2四个施氮水平,测定产量构成及稻米品质指标。结果表明,适当增施氮肥可增加优质双季晚稻产量,施氮量为180kghm^–2时产量最高。除黄华占的整精米率外,施氮量为180 kg hm^–2时各品种的糙米率、精米率和整精米率最高。随施氮量的增加,机插优质双季晚稻的垩白粒率和垩白度降低,米粒长宽比变大,蛋白质含量和胶稠度均增加,直链淀粉含量减少;峰值黏度、热浆黏度、崩解值、最终黏度逐渐下降,消减值增加,糊化温度呈上升趋势。适当增施氮肥可改善机插优质晚稻加工品质、外观品质、蒸煮和营养品质,但RVA特性有变劣趋势。180 kg hm^–2的施氮量可使机插优质双季晚稻优质和高产达到较好的协调统一。 展开更多
关键词 机插 优质晚稻 氮肥用量 产量 稻米品质
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设施番茄产量品质及土壤有效养分的影响——基于不同节水灌溉方案 预览
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作者 王琴 张星星 +3 位作者 王洁 林志远 谢修会 侯毛毛 《农机化研究》 北大核心 2020年第7期186-190,共5页
为明晰不同节水灌溉措施和灌溉量对土壤-作物系统的影响,以设施番茄为植物材料,设计不同灌水模式(喷灌、滴灌和浇灌)及不同灌溉定额(140、180、220 m~3/hm~2),观测不同处理下番茄总产量、叶面积指数(LAI)、果实品质、土壤盐分及有效养... 为明晰不同节水灌溉措施和灌溉量对土壤-作物系统的影响,以设施番茄为植物材料,设计不同灌水模式(喷灌、滴灌和浇灌)及不同灌溉定额(140、180、220 m~3/hm~2),观测不同处理下番茄总产量、叶面积指数(LAI)、果实品质、土壤盐分及有效养分等指标。结果表明:相比浇灌处理,滴灌和喷灌增产效果明显,在相同灌水量条件下滴灌优于喷灌,滴灌处理番茄总产量达到118.3~138.7t/hm~2;相同灌水模式下,较低的灌水量有利于番茄可溶性固形物、总糖和Vc含量的增加。高灌水量有利于耕层土壤盐分的去除,不同灌水模式以滴灌效果最佳。此外,滴灌、喷灌等节水灌溉措施形成的土壤干湿交替的状态有利于肥料元素的矿化,可提高耕层土壤有效养分水平。 展开更多
关键词 节水灌溉 灌溉量 土壤 番茄 产量
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甘蓝型油菜每角粒数的全基因组关联分析 预览
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作者 孙程明 陈锋 +5 位作者 陈松 彭琦 张维 易斌 张洁夫 傅廷栋 《作物学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第1期147-153,I0002-I0010,共16页
每角粒数是油菜重要的产量构成因子,增加每角粒数有助于提高油菜的籽粒产量。利用Illumina 60K SNP芯片对496份具有代表性的油菜资源进行基因型分析,考察该群体在2个环境中的每角粒数,利用MLM和GLM模型进行全基因组关联分析。结果表明,... 每角粒数是油菜重要的产量构成因子,增加每角粒数有助于提高油菜的籽粒产量。利用Illumina 60K SNP芯片对496份具有代表性的油菜资源进行基因型分析,考察该群体在2个环境中的每角粒数,利用MLM和GLM模型进行全基因组关联分析。结果表明,本群体在2个环境中每角粒数的广义遗传力为57.7%。利用MLM和GLM模型分别检测到9个和20个位点,所有MLM位点均得到GLM结果的验证。6个位点与前人定位的QTL重叠,其中2个位点得到2次验证,其余14个是新位点。在7个位点附近找到了候选基因,其中在C09染色体的位点Bn-scaff155761-p74980附近找到已克隆的油菜每角粒数基因BnaC9.SMG7b,在其余6个位点附近找到GRDP1、SPATULA、HVA22D、DA2等已知的拟南芥每角粒数基因的同源基因。本研究结果有助于解析油菜每角粒数的遗传基础及其调控机制,为每角粒数的遗传改良奠定了基础。 展开更多
关键词 甘蓝型油菜 产量 每角粒数 关联分析 SNP标记
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Systematic Errors Introduced into Sorghum Grain Yield Data: Does the Multiseed (<i>msd</i>) Trait Increase Sorghum Seed Yield? 预览
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作者 Dennis C. Gitz III Jeffrey T. Baker +2 位作者 Zhanguo Xin John E. Stout Robert J. Lascano 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2019年第9期1503-1516,共14页
Multiseed (msd) mutant sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] lines with greatly increased seed numbers were developed. It was originally thought that the msd trait could increase grain yield several times in compariso... Multiseed (msd) mutant sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] lines with greatly increased seed numbers were developed. It was originally thought that the msd trait could increase grain yield several times in comparison with the wild type from which the mutant was derived. However, in a small plot trial, msd seed yield decreased when compared to the parent line. Herein we report results that msd seed yield remained either unchanged or slightly increased in comparison to the parent line. We suggest that attempts to measure msd sorghum seed yield were complicated due to systematic errors associated with the post-harvest processing methods, including threshing and pneumatic winnowing equipment that was used for harvest. That is, seed recovery and seed loss from individual panicles were affected by the post-harvest processing. When evaluating sorghum grain yield of types with different seed sizes, threshing and seed cleaning harvesting methods should be optimized for each sorghum line. 展开更多
关键词 SORGHUM YIELD YIELD Components msd Multiseed YIELD Measurement Error
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Yield Gap of Stress Tolerant Rice Varieties Binadhan-10 &Binadhan-11 in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh 预览
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作者 Razia Sultana Md. Habibur Rahman +2 位作者 Md. Rashidul Haque Md. Mohsin Ali Sarkar Syful Islam 《农业科学(英文)》 2019年第11期1438-1452,共15页
Binadhan-10 & Binadhan-11 are climate smart stress tolerant high yielding rice varieties (yield > 4 t&#8901;ha&#8722;1) have saline tolerant EC up to 12 ds/m and submergence tolerant up to 20 - 25 days ... Binadhan-10 & Binadhan-11 are climate smart stress tolerant high yielding rice varieties (yield > 4 t&#8901;ha&#8722;1) have saline tolerant EC up to 12 ds/m and submergence tolerant up to 20 - 25 days capacity. The present study was an attempt to analyze the yield gap of stress tolerant varieties Binadhan-10 & Binadhan-11 in some selected areas of Bangladesh. The objectives of the study were: 1) to estimate the yield gap of Binadhan-10 &-11 growers among the study areas;2) to identify the factors affecting the yield of these variety;and 3) to suggest some policy guidelines to minimize the yield gap. The study was conducted in eight Binadhan-10 & Binadhan-11 growing areas in Bangladesh. In this study, four districts namely Satkhira, Khulna, Barishal, and Cox’s Bazar were used for Binadhan-10 and Mymensingh, Jamalpur, Sherpur and Sunamgonj were taken for Binadhan-11. It is based on primary level data from eight sub-districts among the study areas. A total of 240 farmers were randomly selected (30 from each location) to collect the data with a pre-designed questionnaire. Farmer were grouped according to saline affected and not-affected for saline tolerant variety Binadhan-10 and not affected, affected (1 - 10 days) and highly affected (10 - 20 days) for submergence tolerant rice variety Binadhan-11 to identify existing yield gap. Tabular as well as Zandstra method were applied for analysis the data. The study also found factors affecting the gap and some policy guidelines to minimize the gap. 展开更多
关键词 Stress TOLERANT Saline TOLERANT SUBMERGENCE TOLERANT RICE YIELD YIELD Gap
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早熟优质甜玉米一次性施肥技术试验 预览
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作者 包斐 谭禾平 +1 位作者 韩海亮 赵福成 《现代农业科技》 2019年第17期23-23,27共2页
本试验依据一般大田鲜食玉米生产需肥量进行设计,采用复合肥+尿素作底肥一次性沟施、玉米专用缓释肥作底肥一次性沟施2种处理,并以复合肥作底肥+尿素作追肥的“一基一追”模式作对照,比较分析各处理对甜玉米新品种雪甜7401产量及产量性... 本试验依据一般大田鲜食玉米生产需肥量进行设计,采用复合肥+尿素作底肥一次性沟施、玉米专用缓释肥作底肥一次性沟施2种处理,并以复合肥作底肥+尿素作追肥的“一基一追”模式作对照,比较分析各处理对甜玉米新品种雪甜7401产量及产量性状的影响。结果表明,各处理甜玉米在产量和产量性状上均无显著差异,说明在本试验设置条件下,采用一次性施肥模式代替传统的“一基一追”施肥模式更适合早播大棚和地膜种植,同时可解决破膜追肥不方便的问题。 展开更多
关键词 甜玉米 一次性施肥 产量 产量性状
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Performance of Green Type Eggplant in Relation of Insect and Diseases 预览
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作者 Akm Quamruzzaman Ferdouse Islam +1 位作者 M. Nazim Uddin Mohammad Aziz Zilani Chowdhury 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2019年第1期139-146,共8页
The study was conducted with 18 eggplant lines/variety at the farm of Olericulture Division, HRC, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur during the winter season of 2017-18 to develop new green type high ... The study was conducted with 18 eggplant lines/variety at the farm of Olericulture Division, HRC, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur during the winter season of 2017-18 to develop new green type high yielding OP variety having tolerance to eggplant fruit and shoot borer and bacterial wilt. The lines varied significantly for their response to all characters (P SM 083F required minimum 105 days to first harvest. Maximum marketable fruit number was obtained by SM083A (30.33). Heavy sized fruit was harvested by SM275 (175 g), followed by SM289 (170 g), SM279 (169 g), SM083E (165 g), SM253 (164 g). The range of fruit infection by BFSB was 10.33% - 19.007%, while lowest in SM262 (10.33%). In case of bacterial wilt (BW) infestation at field level performance, zero percent incidence was observed in SM262, SM275, SM279, SM291B. The yield range of eggplant lines was 18.62 - 43.36 t/ha. The highest fruit yield was recorded from the line SM 275 (43.36 t/ha), which was statistically similar with which was statistically similar with SM 279 (39.85 t/ha), SM 291B (38.59 t/ha), SM083B (38.42 t/ha), SM 262 (38.17 t/ha), SM 253 (37.43 t/ha). Considering earliness, tolerance to fruit infection by BFSB, bacterial wilt infestation, attractive fruit shape and fruit colour, the lines SM 275, SM 279, SM 291B, SM083B, SM 262, SM 253 were found promising. So these six lines can be selected for further confirmation. 展开更多
关键词 PERFORMANCE Green EGGPLANT YIELD INSECT and DISEASES
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不同灌水量对滴灌猕猴桃光合、产量与水分利用效率的影响 预览
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作者 张效星 樊毅 +3 位作者 崔宁博 李晨 胡笑涛 龚道枝 《灌溉排水学报》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第1期1-7,共7页
【目的】揭示不同灌水量对滴灌猕猴桃生长、产量及水分利用效率的调控效应。【方法】以7 a生'金艳'猕猴桃为试材,在果实膨大期(Ⅲ期)、果实成熟期(Ⅳ期)各设置1个对照(CK)和4个灌水处理,即高水(HW)、中水(MW-1)、偏低水(MW-2)... 【目的】揭示不同灌水量对滴灌猕猴桃生长、产量及水分利用效率的调控效应。【方法】以7 a生'金艳'猕猴桃为试材,在果实膨大期(Ⅲ期)、果实成熟期(Ⅳ期)各设置1个对照(CK)和4个灌水处理,即高水(HW)、中水(MW-1)、偏低水(MW-2)和低水处理(LW),灌水量分别为CK的55%、65%、75%和85%。【结果】猕猴桃叶片光合特性因生育期和灌水量的不同而呈现明显差异,其光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)和气孔导度(gs)均随灌水量的减小而减小,但Ⅲ-HW、Ⅳ-HW处理的Pn与CK差异不显著(P>0.05),Ⅲ-HW和Ⅳ-MW-2处理的瞬时水分利用效率较CK分别显著提高了2.70%、5.41%(P<0.05);各处理猕猴桃产量较CK仅下降0.09%~6.24%,产量水分利用效率(WUEy)则提高了2.82%~23.16%,其中Ⅲ-HW、Ⅳ-MW-1处理产量仅下降了0.09%、2.45%,而WUEy提高了2.82%、10.73%。【结论】滴灌猕猴桃果实膨大期高水处理、果实成熟期中水处理保持产量无明显下降,有效提高WUEy,并节水2.50%、11.62%(分别节水156、726 m3/hm~2),具有较好的节水稳产效果。 展开更多
关键词 滴灌 不同灌水量 猕猴桃 光合特性 产量 产量水分利用效率
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Analyze Production, Utilization and Its Future Trends of Lupin in Ethiopia 预览
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作者 Akale Assamere Habtemariam Alemu Mamuye Woldetsadik Asmamaw Menelih Belay 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2019年第10期1797-1812,共16页
Lupin is a significant legume crops to maintain the sustainable farming practice. It is important to analyze production and utilization trends to forecast future trends and create good insights. The CSA published data... Lupin is a significant legume crops to maintain the sustainable farming practice. It is important to analyze production and utilization trends to forecast future trends and create good insights. The CSA published data, recorded in 2001/02 until 2017/18 cropping seasons, were used for analysis using Excel and SPSS version 21. Inconsistent trends of Lupin productions were recorded in Ethiopia, South Africa and Egypt, but increasing in Morocco. In Ethiopia, the productions were ranged between 48,326 and 443,705.05 quintals. All the recorded yields were ranged between 3.22 and 16.65 q/ha and declined in 2009/10-2012/13 and increased trends in 2015/16-2017/18 cropping seasons. In Ethiopia, about 95.85% of land coverage and 99.29% of total productions accounted from Amhara region in 2017/18 cropping season and Benishangul Gumz region is the second producers. West Gojam and Awi zone are the first and the second, which accounted major productions in the country. Out of the total production, 44.61%, 53.28% and 50.48% in 2009/10, 2011/12 and 2017/18 were utilized as sales respectively. The major Lupin production, in 2009/10 (Amhara and Benishangul Gumz), 2010/11 (Benishangul Gumz and Oromia) and 2011/12 (Southern Nation Nationalities and Peoples Regional state), were utilized as household consumption. In Amhara region, the majority of the productions were utilized for sales in 2009/10, 2011/12 and 2017/18 cropping seasons. This indicated that the percentage of utilization showed inconsistent trends and mostly used as sales. In Ethiopia, inconsistent trends of Lupin will be continued in the next four years. 展开更多
关键词 LAND COVERAGE LUPIN PRODUCTION UTILIZATION YIELD
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红小豆品种高产特征分析与评价 预览
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作者 刘振兴 周桂梅 +2 位作者 亚秀秀 陈健 孟庆祥 《河北农业大学学报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第5期21-26,共6页
在高产栽培条件下,研究了29份红小豆新品种主要农艺性状与产量的相关性,并通过系统聚类分析和方差分析,对红小豆高产品种特征进行了初步研究。结果表明:红小豆株高、荚长与产量呈负相关,日产量、百粒重、单株荚数、生育期与产量呈极显... 在高产栽培条件下,研究了29份红小豆新品种主要农艺性状与产量的相关性,并通过系统聚类分析和方差分析,对红小豆高产品种特征进行了初步研究。结果表明:红小豆株高、荚长与产量呈负相关,日产量、百粒重、单株荚数、生育期与产量呈极显著正相关;日产量、生育期对产量的直接效应最大,效应值分别为0.875 0、0.571 0,综合效应大小依次为日产量、百粒重、单株荚数、生育期、荚粒数、主茎节数、主茎分枝、荚长、株高;高产类型的品种应具备生育期较长(97~102 d)、株高较矮(54~65 cm)、主茎分枝较多(4~6个)、单株荚数较多(31~40个)、单荚粒数多(6~9粒)、百粒重较大(17~24 g)、日产量较大[29~31 kg/(hm^2·d)]等基本特征。 展开更多
关键词 红小豆 新品种 农艺性状 产量 高产特征
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气候变化对松嫩平原马铃薯生长发育及产量的影响 预览
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作者 王萍 李秀芬 +4 位作者 杨晓强 闫平 王秋京 姜丽霞 朱海霞 《中国农学通报》 2019年第16期100-105,共6页
利用黑龙江省松嫩平原马铃薯主产区1987—2017年气温、降水、日照、地段产量、发育期、产量结构资料,分析气候变化对马铃薯生长发育及产量形成的影响,探寻不同发育阶段影响显著的气象因子,以期为马铃薯生产防灾减灾提供科学依据。结果表... 利用黑龙江省松嫩平原马铃薯主产区1987—2017年气温、降水、日照、地段产量、发育期、产量结构资料,分析气候变化对马铃薯生长发育及产量形成的影响,探寻不同发育阶段影响显著的气象因子,以期为马铃薯生产防灾减灾提供科学依据。结果表明:1987—2017年松嫩平原马铃薯全生育期日数为延长的趋势,播种期先提前后延迟,出苗期普遍提前,分枝、花序形成、开花期均先提前后延迟,可收期波动频繁,全生育期≥10℃积温总体增加,马铃薯观测站的地段产量呈上升趋势。研究区域内屑薯率与各发育阶段的气象因子相关性不大;株薯块质量与播种—出苗期的日照时数、花序形成—开花期的平均气温和降水及开花—可收期的日照时数相关性较大。在满足马铃薯生长发育的情况下,花序形成—开花期的降水越少、开花—可收期的平均气温越低,气象产量越高。 展开更多
关键词 马铃薯 松嫩平原 相关性 产量 气象产量
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连续重整焦炭、纯氢和C5^+液体产品产率随各因素影响的变化规律研究 预览
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作者 熊献金 《广东化工》 CAS 2019年第2期108-110,101共4页
本文首先开发了连续重整生焦率经验关联模型。该模型计算结果与工业数据比较,相对偏差较小。然后利用该经验关联模型结合自主开发的连续重整反应模拟计算软件包较全面地对有关各种因素对焦炭产率、C5^+液体产品收率、芳烃产率和纯氢产... 本文首先开发了连续重整生焦率经验关联模型。该模型计算结果与工业数据比较,相对偏差较小。然后利用该经验关联模型结合自主开发的连续重整反应模拟计算软件包较全面地对有关各种因素对焦炭产率、C5^+液体产品收率、芳烃产率和纯氢产率影响规律进行了模拟研究。对用相同原料、相同催化剂装填比例的同一装置,该模拟研究是采用将多个因素中两个或两个以上因素同时加以改变,而维持其它因素不变的方法来进行的。该模拟研究未见文献报道。根据模拟研究成果,得出下列四个实用的结论:(1)在包括体积空速和C5+液体产品研究法辛烷值在内的其它条件不变的情况下,随着反应温度的增加和氢油摩尔比降低,焦炭产率增加、芳烃产率增加、纯氢产率增加、C5^+液体产品收率增加。(2)在其它操作条件不变的情况下,随着反应温度的增加、氢油摩尔比增加和体积空速降低,焦炭产率增加、C5^+液体产品研究法辛烷值增加、芳烃产率增加、纯氢产率增加、C5^+液体产品收率降低。(3)在其它操作条件不变的情况下,当反应温度恒定时,随着氢油摩尔比增加和体积空速降低,焦炭产率增加、C5^+液体产品研究法辛烷值增加、芳烃产率增加、纯氢产率增加、C5^+液体产品收率降低。(4)两个及两个以上因素对焦炭产率等的综合影响其规律并不一定遵循每个因素独立地对焦炭产率等的影响规律。含有装置多个操作条件在内的各种因素对焦炭产率、芳烃产率、纯氢产率和C5+液体产品收率的影响规律,能对连续重整装置的模拟和装置操作条件优化提供依据和指导。 展开更多
关键词 连续重整 焦炭 芳烃 纯氢 C5^+液体产品 产率 变化规律 影响因素 操作条件 生焦率 关联模型 模拟计算 优化
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基肥与密度互作对水稻产量构成因素及产量的影响 预览
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作者 任淑娟 柴楠 焉山 《北方水稻》 CAS 2019年第3期23-26,共4页
采用随机区组法,以三江6号和绥粳18号为试验材料,研究基肥与密度互作对产量构成及产量的影响。结果表明:两个品种基肥与密度处理间在穗数、穗粒数、结实率、千粒重及产量上均存在互作关系,A3B3(20 kg/667 m^2基肥,30cm×12 cm)组合... 采用随机区组法,以三江6号和绥粳18号为试验材料,研究基肥与密度互作对产量构成及产量的影响。结果表明:两个品种基肥与密度处理间在穗数、穗粒数、结实率、千粒重及产量上均存在互作关系,A3B3(20 kg/667 m^2基肥,30cm×12 cm)组合有利于水稻产量的提高,A1B1(12 kg/667 m^2基肥,30 cm×16 cm)组合不利于水稻产量的提高。 展开更多
关键词 基肥密度互作 水稻 产量 产量构成
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Spatial distribution of bolls affects yield formation in different genotypes of Bt cotton varieties 预览
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作者 NIE Jun-jun YUAN Yan-chao +10 位作者 QIN Du-lin LIU Yan-hui WANG Shuang-lei LI Jin-pu ZHANG Mei-ling ZHAO Na GUO Wen-jun QI Jie MAO Li-li SONG Xian-liang SUN Xue-zhen 《农业科学学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第11期2492-2504,共13页
To optimize the spatial distribution of cotton bolls and to increase the yield,the relationship between yield components and boll spatial distribution was investigated among different Bt(Bacillus thuringensis)cotton v... To optimize the spatial distribution of cotton bolls and to increase the yield,the relationship between yield components and boll spatial distribution was investigated among different Bt(Bacillus thuringensis)cotton varieties.A five-year field experiment was conducted to reveal the reasons for the differences in lint yield and fiber quality across three Bt cotton varieties with different yield formations from 2013 to 2017.The lint yield of Jiman 169(the average yield from 2013-2017 was 42.2 g/plant)was the highest,i.e.,16.3 and 36.9%higher than Lumianyan 21(L21)and Daizimian 99B(99B),respectively.And the differences in boll weight among the three cultivars were similar to the lint yield,while the others yield components were not.So the increase in lint yield was mainly attributed to the enlargement in boll weight.However,the change in fiber quality was inconsistent with the lint yield,and the quality of L21 was significantly better than that of Jimian 169(J169)and 99B,which was caused by the diversity of boll spatial distribution.Compared with 99B,the loose-type J169 had the highest number of large bolls in inner positions;the tight-type L21 had a few large bolls and the highest number of lower and middle bolls.And approximately 80.72%of the lint yield was concentrated on the inner nodes in Jiman 169,compared with 77.44%of L21 and 66.73%of 99B during the five-year experiment.Although lint yield was significantly affected by the interannual changes,the lint yield of J169 was the highest and the most stable,as well as its yield components.These observations demonstrated the increase in lint yield was due to the increase in boll weight,and the large bolls and high fiber quality were attributed to the optimal distribution of bolls within the canopies. 展开更多
关键词 Bt COTTON YIELD formation boll spatial distribution LINT YIELD fiber quality
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Bioecological Characteristics and Natural Resources of <i>Rhaponticum integrifolium</i>in Uzbekistan 预览
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作者 Alieva Namuna 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2019年第5期850-865,共16页
The large life cycle Rhaponticum integrifolium in natural populations (Qashqadaryo, Uzbekistan) was studied. Duration of before generative, generative and senile periods of Rhaponticum integrifolium is 2 - 5, 8 - 10 a... The large life cycle Rhaponticum integrifolium in natural populations (Qashqadaryo, Uzbekistan) was studied. Duration of before generative, generative and senile periods of Rhaponticum integrifolium is 2 - 5, 8 - 10 and 2 - 4 years respectively. The beginning of phenophases depends on the height of the terrain above sea level: raising the terrain from 400 to 1500 m leads to a delay in the onset of phenophases. Age states of Rhaponticum integrifolium in different ecological and phytogenetic conditions were revealed. Updated distribution of detected participation of vegetation and the raw Rhaponticum integrifolium in Uzbekistan, describes the dynamics of the contents ecdysteroids in the periods of vegetation. At the same time, a map of the species area in Central Asia was made and the term of its phytomass recovery under different operating modes of thickets was determined. 展开更多
关键词 Rhaponticum integrifolium ECDYSTEROIDS ONTOGENESIS SEED Production Yield RESERVES in Uzbekistan
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叶面喷施赖氨酸对水稻产量及稻米品质的影响 预览
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作者 李先 杨毅 邹朝晖 《湖南农业科学》 2019年第9期40-41,46共3页
通过室内盆栽模拟试验研究叶面喷施赖氨酸对水稻产量及其构成因素和稻米品质的影响。结果表明:叶面喷施赖氨酸有利于水稻植株的生长和稻穗的形成;在抽穗期叶面喷施赖氨酸有利于提高水稻产量、结实率和千粒重,分别比对照处理提高了3.38%... 通过室内盆栽模拟试验研究叶面喷施赖氨酸对水稻产量及其构成因素和稻米品质的影响。结果表明:叶面喷施赖氨酸有利于水稻植株的生长和稻穗的形成;在抽穗期叶面喷施赖氨酸有利于提高水稻产量、结实率和千粒重,分别比对照处理提高了3.38%、1.70%和3.56%,但差异不显著;同时,抽穗期叶面喷施赖氨酸能提高稻米的糙米率、精米率和长宽比,有效降低垩白粒率、垩白度和直链淀粉含量,改善稻米的碾米品质、外观品质和蒸煮品质。 展开更多
关键词 叶面喷施 赖氨酸 水稻 产量 产量构成因素 稻米品质
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Effects of the <i>Castanea mollissima Blume</i>Shell Cultivation Substrate on the Yield and Nutritional Composition of <i>Pleurotus geesteranus</i> 预览
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作者 Jinping Zhang Xuebin Li +1 位作者 Yue Ying Xiaohua Yao 《食品与营养科学(英文)》 2019年第9期1112-1121,共10页
Cottonseed hull substrates blended with different ratios of Castanea mollissima Blume shell were prepared and used for the cultivation of Pleurotus geesteranus. The effects of the chestnut shell content on the mycelia... Cottonseed hull substrates blended with different ratios of Castanea mollissima Blume shell were prepared and used for the cultivation of Pleurotus geesteranus. The effects of the chestnut shell content on the mycelial growth rate, yield, nutritional composition and contents of heavy metals of the cultivated Pleurotus geesteranus were investigated. The results suggest that the Castanea mollissima Blume shell in substrate can increase the mycelial growth rate, yield, biological efficiency and the contents of protein, crude fiber, amino acids and essential amino acids of Pleurotus geesteranus. Further investigation suggests that the tannin and saponin in Castanea mollissima Blume shell and the C/N ratio of substrate significantly influence the mycelial growth rate. The crude fat content of Pleurotus geesteranus decreased, while the contents of heavy metals including mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) increased with the increase of the Castanea mollissima Blume shell content in substrate. Based on these results, the content of Castanea mollissima Blume shell was optimized to be less than 30% for the cultivation of Pleurotus geesteranus. 展开更多
关键词 CASTANEA mollissima Blume SHELL PLEUROTUS geesteranus YIELD Nutrients Heavy Metals
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苗期水肥耦合对玉米农艺性状、产量及产量性状的影响 预览
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作者 罗英舰 宋碧 +2 位作者 刘君鹏 蒙懿练 周晓 《山地农业生物学报》 2019年第1期79-83,共5页
研究苗期水肥耦合对玉米农艺性状、产量及产量性状的影响,探讨最佳的水肥耦合模式。在盆栽条件下,本研究采用L9(34)4因素3水平正交试验设计,研究不同水肥处理对玉米株高、茎粗和产量等指标的影响。各个时期水肥耦合处理研究表明,处理7、... 研究苗期水肥耦合对玉米农艺性状、产量及产量性状的影响,探讨最佳的水肥耦合模式。在盆栽条件下,本研究采用L9(34)4因素3水平正交试验设计,研究不同水肥处理对玉米株高、茎粗和产量等指标的影响。各个时期水肥耦合处理研究表明,处理7、8、9的玉米株高、茎粗表现最优且处理之间差异不显著,三个处理调亏程度均为70%~80%,说明水分在水肥耦合试验中对玉米的农艺性状起决定性作用。土壤相对含水量70%~80%、施氮量150kg/hm^2、施磷量100kg/hm^2、施钾量300kg/hm^2条件下穗长、穗粗、穗行数、行粒数均表现较高,秃尖值最低,获得了较高的单株产量。综合分析认为中单808最佳的水肥耦合模式是在土壤相对含水量为70%~80%条件下,氮、磷、钾肥分别施用150kg/hm^2、100kg/hm^2、300kg/hm^2。 展开更多
关键词 玉米 水肥耦合 农艺性状 产量 产量性状
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Control of Common Chickweed in Winter Wheat with Postemergence Herbicides 预览
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作者 Nader Soltani Christy Shropshire Peter H. Sikkema 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2019年第11期2012-2019,共8页
A total of six experiments were conducted over a two-year period (2018, 2019) at the University of Guelph Ridgetown Campus to assess the efficacy of various herbicides applied postemergence (POST) for the control of c... A total of six experiments were conducted over a two-year period (2018, 2019) at the University of Guelph Ridgetown Campus to assess the efficacy of various herbicides applied postemergence (POST) for the control of common chickweed in winter wheat. Fluroxypyr/bromoxynil/MCPA, pyrasulfotole/bromoxynil,pyrasulfotole/bromoxynil/fluroxypyr,pyrasulfotole/bromoxynil/thiencarbazone, pyrasulfotole/bromoxynil/thiencarbazone + MCPA ester, tolpyralate and fluroxypyr/halauxifen + MCPA EHE, applied POST, controlled common chickweed only 5% - 42% at 2 weeks after treatment (WAT) and 1% - 23% at 4 WAT and resulted in common chickweed density and biomass that was similar to non-treated weedy control. Fluroxypyr/halauxifen + pyroxsulam + MCPA EHE, applied POST, provided 57% - 82% control of common chickweed and reduced density 93% and biomass 98% compared to the non-treated control. Thifensulfuron/tribenuron, thifensulfuron/tribenuron + MCPA ester, thifensulfuron/tribenuron + fluroxypyr + MCPA ester, tribenuron + thiencarbazone, and tribenuron + thiencarbazone + MCPA ester, applied POST, controlled common chickweed 98% - 100% and reduced common chickweed density 96% - 98% and common chickweed biomass 99%. Based on these results, herbicide treatments which contained tribenuron including thifensulfuron/tribenuron, thifensulfuron/tribenuron + MCPA ester, thifensulfuron/tribenuron + fluroxypyr + MCPA ester, tribenuron + thiencarbazone, and tribenuron + thiencarbazone + MCPA ester were the most efficacious for the control of common chickweed in wheat. In addition, fluroxypyr/halauxifen + pyroxsulam + MCPA EHE, applied POST, can provide adequate control of common chickweed in winter wheat. 展开更多
关键词 WINTER Wheat WEED CONTROL NO-TILLAGE Biomass Density Injury TOLERANCE Yield
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