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Main Characteristics of Dust Storms and Their Radiative Impacts: With a Focus on Tajikistan 预览
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作者 Sabur.F.Abdullaev Irina.N.Sokolik 《大气科学研究(英文)》 2019年第2期1-21,共21页
known aridity of the region is a major factor in promoting numerous dust storms. They have many diverse impacts on the environment and the climate of the region. The classification of dust storms and synoptic conditio... known aridity of the region is a major factor in promoting numerous dust storms. They have many diverse impacts on the environment and the climate of the region. The classification of dust storms and synoptic conditions related to their formation in Central Asia are discussed in the content of their diverse impact. We address dust optical properties that are representative of the region. Dust storms significantly reduce visibly and pose a human health threads. They also cause a significant impact on the radiative regime. As a result, dust storms may cause a decrease in temperature during daytime of up to 16℃ and an increase in temperature during night time from up to 7℃ compared to a clear day. 展开更多
关键词 DUST storms DUST haze Temperature effect of AEROSOL AEROSOL optical thickness Desert ZONE ARID ZONE DUST AEROSOL
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Microbial aerosol chemistry characteristics in highly polluted air
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作者 Ting Zhang Xinyue Li +2 位作者 Minfei Wang Haoxuan Chen Maosheng Yao 《中国科学:化学英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第8期1051-1063,共13页
Aerosol chemistry is often studied without considering microbial involvements. Here, we investigated time-and size-resolved bacterial aerosol dynamics in air. Under high particulate matter(PM) polluted episodes, bacte... Aerosol chemistry is often studied without considering microbial involvements. Here, we investigated time-and size-resolved bacterial aerosol dynamics in air. Under high particulate matter(PM) polluted episodes, bacterial aerosols exhibited a viability of up to 50%–70% in the 0.56–1 μm size range, at which elevated levels of SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ were concurrently observed.Engineered or acclimated for both industrial use, bacteria such as Psychrobacter spp., Massilia spp., Acinetobacter lwoffii,Exiguobacteriumaurantiacum and Bacillusmegaterium were shown to have experienced massive abundance shifts in polluted air on early mornings and late afternoons, on which rapid new particle formation events were widely reported. Here, Psychrobacter spp. were shown to account for >96% abundance at a corresponding PM2.5 level of 208 μg/m3. These observed bacterial aerosol changes corresponded to the PM2.5 mass peak shift from 3.2–5.6 μm to the high viability size range of 0.56–1 μm. Additionally,elevated levels of soluble Na, Ca, Mg, K, Al, Fe and P elements, required for bacterial growth, were observed to co-occur with those significant bacterial aerosol structure shifts in the air. For particular time-resolved PM2.5 pollution episodes, Acinetobacter,Psychrobacter and Massilia were shown to alternate in dominating the time-resolved aerosol community structures. The results from a HYSPLIT trajectory model simulation suggested that air mass transport played a minor role in affecting the observed bacterial aerosol structure dynamics. All the data here suggested that airborne bacteria in the size range of 0.56–1 μm could be extensively involved in aerosol chemistry in highly polluted humid air. 展开更多
关键词 BACTERIAL AEROSOL dynamics in AIR PARTICULATE matter size-and TIME-RESOLVED BACTERIAL AEROSOL AEROSOL chemistry
全球不同类型气溶胶光学厚度的时空分布特征
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作者 张芝娟 陈斌 +1 位作者 贾瑞 衣育红 《高原气象》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第3期660-672,共13页
利用MERRA-2(第2版现代研究与应用再分析)资料分析了1980-2017年全球硫酸盐、黑碳、有机碳、海盐、沙尘及总气溶胶光学厚度的时空分布特征;选取了北美、北非、南非、印度、中国和印度洋6个典型区域研究了硫酸盐、黑碳、有机碳、海盐和... 利用MERRA-2(第2版现代研究与应用再分析)资料分析了1980-2017年全球硫酸盐、黑碳、有机碳、海盐、沙尘及总气溶胶光学厚度的时空分布特征;选取了北美、北非、南非、印度、中国和印度洋6个典型区域研究了硫酸盐、黑碳、有机碳、海盐和沙尘气溶胶对总气溶胶光学厚度的贡献率。结果表明,硫酸盐、黑碳、有机碳、海盐和沙尘气溶胶在全球非均匀分布,并且具有季节变化;全球总气溶胶的光学厚度(Aerosol Optical Depth,AOD)在夏季最大(0.137),春季次之(0.130),冬季最小(0.118);在6个典型区域里,北非地区总气溶胶的光学厚度最大,为0.43;其次是中国的东部地区,为0.41;每个区域其主要气溶胶的类型并不相同,在北美、中国东部及印度中部地区,硫酸盐是主导的气溶胶类型,贡献率分别为66%,63%和42%,在印度洋、南非及北非地区,海盐、有机碳和沙尘分别是最主要的气溶胶类型,贡献率分别为65%,51%和82%;对于黑碳、硫酸盐和总气溶胶,中国东部地区和印度中部地区有较为明显的增长趋势,其中总气溶胶光学厚度的线性增长率分别为0.007 a^-1和0.0056 a^-1,但在2010年以后,中国东部地区出现明显的下降。 展开更多
关键词 气溶胶 光学厚度 时空分布
微脉冲激光雷达与小型后向散射探空仪对气溶胶垂直结构联合观测研究
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作者 李辉 王章军 +6 位作者 王颢樾 陈超 孟祥谦 刘兴涛 李先欣 庄全风 王秀芬 《激光与光电子学进展》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第13期227-235,共9页
2017年7月至8月,使用微脉冲激光雷达与小型气溶胶后向散射探空仪在昆明开展了一个月的气溶胶垂直结构联合观测实验。对比2种仪器同步观测方法与探测后向散射比结果的异同,分析激光雷达和后向散射探空仪测量获得的气溶胶垂直分布特征。... 2017年7月至8月,使用微脉冲激光雷达与小型气溶胶后向散射探空仪在昆明开展了一个月的气溶胶垂直结构联合观测实验。对比2种仪器同步观测方法与探测后向散射比结果的异同,分析激光雷达和后向散射探空仪测量获得的气溶胶垂直分布特征。探测结果表明,两者具有较好的一致性,在14km高度范围内,排除云层干扰后,2种仪器后向散射比测量结果的相关系数为0.87,方均根误差为0.752;观测实验表明,研制的微脉冲激光雷达为连续探测气溶胶垂直结构演化过程提供了有效手段,融合后向散射仪探空数据,可以减少微脉冲激光雷达数据反演中的假设参数,开展两者联合观测具有一定应用价值。 展开更多
关键词 遥感 微脉冲激光雷达 气溶胶 后向散射比 后向散射探空仪
Differences of the oxidation process and secondary organic aerosol formation at low and high precursor concentrations
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作者 Tianzeng Chen Yongchun Liu +6 位作者 Biwu Chu Changgeng Liu Jun Liu Yanli Ge Qingxin Ma Jinzhu Ma Hong He 《环境科学学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第5期256-263,共8页
Current atmospheric quality models usually underestimate the level of ambient secondary organic aerosol(SOA), one of the possible reasons is that the precursors at different concentrations may undergo different oxidat... Current atmospheric quality models usually underestimate the level of ambient secondary organic aerosol(SOA), one of the possible reasons is that the precursors at different concentrations may undergo different oxidation processes and further affect SOA formation. Therefore, there is a need to perform more chamber studies to disclose the influence. In this work, SOA formation over a wide range of initial precursor concentrations(tens of ppb to hundreds of ppb levels) was investigated in a 30 m3 indoor smog chamber,and mainly through the analysis of multiple generations of VOCs detected from HR-To FPTRMS to expound the difference in the oxidation process between low and high precursor concentrations. Compared to high initial concentrations, gas-phase intermediates formed at low concentrations had a higher intensity by about one order of magnitude, and the lowvolatility compounds also had a higher formation potential due to the competition between semi-volatile intermediates and precursors with oxidants. In addition, the formed SOA was more oxidized with higher f44 value(0.14 ± 0.02) and more relevant to real atmosphere than that formed at high concentrations. This work should help to deeply understand SOA formation and improve the performance of air quality models for SOA simulation. 展开更多
关键词 Secondary organic AEROSOL Aromatic hydrocarbons AEROSOL mass SPECTROMETER Low-volatility compounds OXIDATION processes
Effect of air masses motion on the rapid change of aerosols in marine atmosphere
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作者 Jinpei Yan Qi Lin +2 位作者 Miming Zhang Shuhui Zhao Liqi Chen 《环境科学学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第9期217-228,共12页
The impact of air masses motion on marine aerosol properties was investigated using an on-board single particle mass spectrometer(SPAMS) deployed for the determination of single particle size resolved chemical composi... The impact of air masses motion on marine aerosol properties was investigated using an on-board single particle mass spectrometer(SPAMS) deployed for the determination of single particle size resolved chemical composition over Southeast China Sea. Two aerosol blooms(E1 and E2) were observed during the cruise. High average particle number count occurred in E1(7320), followed by E2(5850), which was more than 100–150 times of the average particle number count during normal periods. Particles were classified as four major sources, including continental source, shipping source, marine source, and transport source based on the mass spectral similarity. Transport source was identified as those particles with high particle number count occurred only during aerosol bloom period. Three sub-types of EC-Ca, OC-Ca, and Al-rich were classified as transport source.EC-Ca was the dominant particles of the transport source, accounting for more than 70%of the total particles in aerosol bloom events. A uni-modal size distribution in the size range of 0.1–2.0 μm was observed during normal period, while a bimodal distribution with a tiny mode(<0.3 μm) and a coarse mode between 0.4 and 0.6 μm was present during aerosol bloom. The variation of aerosol source is consistent with air masses back trajectories, for the reason that most of the long-range air trajectories are from the ocean,while short air trajectories originate in the continental regions, which means that air masses have a significant impact on the aerosol physical–chemical properties along their tracks. 展开更多
关键词 Marine AEROSOL Chemical composition Source APPORTIONMENT Air MASSES Single PARTICLE AEROSOL mass spectrometer(SPAMS)
气雾剂安全运输的要求 预览
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作者 于亮 钟焕荣 赵军 《合成材料老化与应用》 2019年第3期147-150,共4页
气雾剂产品的危险性历来为制造者、消费者、行政部门所关心。几十年来,随着气雾剂行业的发展,世界各国相继出台了许多法规和管理条例,对气雾剂的安全性提出了相应的要求,该文就其安全运输的相关要求进行重点论述。
关键词 气雾剂 运输安全
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Aerosol pollution in a megacity of southwest China inferred from variation characteristics of sulfate-δ^34S and water-soluble inorganic compositions in TSP
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作者 Zhou Yang Xiaodong Li +3 位作者 Shilu Wang Qinkai Li Jun Huang Gaoyang Cui 《中国颗粒学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第2期202-209,共8页
Daytime and nighttime aerosol samples for total suspended particles (TSP) were collected in Chengdu from 12 to 23 January 2013 (winter) and 10 to 21 August 2014 (summer). The mass concentrations of TSP, major inorgani... Daytime and nighttime aerosol samples for total suspended particles (TSP) were collected in Chengdu from 12 to 23 January 2013 (winter) and 10 to 21 August 2014 (summer). The mass concentrations of TSP, major inorganic ions, and stable sulfur isotope ratios were determined. Clear winter-summer variatio n inT SPwas observed;the mass concentrations ofTSPin summerwere below levels defi ned by the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standard (GB3095-2012), whereas winter TSP levels exceeded the standard by 2-4 times. Overall, the sum of SO4^2-, NO3^-, and NH4^+ concentmtions represented the highest contribution to water-soluble ionic components, which showed similar trends to TSP mass. According to correlations among major ions, the major compounds in TSP were likely to be (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, CaCl2,and KCl in both sampling times, and CaSO4 and Ca(NO3)2 were also present in summer. The NO3 /SO42^- ratios ranged from 0.57 to 1.28 (average 0.85 ± 0.16) in winter and 0.5 to 0.93 (average 0.66 ±0.11) in summer, indicating stationary source ernissi ons (coal bur ning) were more im porta nt sources than the vehicle exhaust. The relationship between SO4^2- and δ^34S indicated the sulfate sources were affected by the low sulfur isotope value of biogenic sulfur release in summer, and the high sulfur isotope value of coal in winter. As a whole, the mixture of coal burning and vehicle exhaust represent the major TSP sources in Chengdu in the study period, and biogenic sulfur also contributes to TSP in summer. 展开更多
关键词 AEROSOL POLLUTION Variation characteristics Sulfate-δ^34S Total suspended particle
Retrieval of aerosol optical constants from angular light-scattering measurement signals using principal component analysis approach
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作者 Zhenzong He Junkui Mao +1 位作者 Xingsi Han Hao Wang 《中国颗粒学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第2期210-218,共9页
An angular light-scattering measurement (ALSM) method combined with the probability density function-bmsed ant colony optimization algorithm (PDF-ACO) is proposed for retrieval of aerosol optical constants. An optimal... An angular light-scattering measurement (ALSM) method combined with the probability density function-bmsed ant colony optimization algorithm (PDF-ACO) is proposed for retrieval of aerosol optical constants. An optimal measurement angle selection method using a principal component analysis (PCA) approach is developed to improve retrieval accuracy. Results indicate that optimized angle selection can ensure retrieval accuracy. The aerosol optical constants over Beijing, China, which are available from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), are then rec on structed. The ALSM method's con vergence properties are also studied via comparison w让h those of the light reflection-transmittance measurement (LRTM) method. Results retrieved using the ALSM method show better convergence speed and accuracy than those retrieved using the LRTM method because the ALSM method does not require solution of the radiative transfer equation and allows more useful signals to be obtained. Additionally, the inverse accuracy of the refractive index results is better than that of the absorption index results;this is attributed to differences between the monodromic characteristics of the refractive index and absorption index retrieval results. All results confirm that the combination of the ALSM method w让h the PDF-ACO algorithm and the optimal measurement angle selection method provides effective and reliable aerosol optical constant reconstructio n. 展开更多
关键词 ANGULAR LIGHT-SCATTERING MEASUREMENT method AEROSOL optical constant Ant COLONY optimization algorithm Principal comp ORIENT analysis Inverse radiation problem
制备含抛射剂四氟乙烷的丙酸倍氯米松吸入气雾剂
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作者 张雯 李兆明 +1 位作者 王金虎 李尚宾 《中国药学杂志》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第7期571-575,共5页
目的制备以四氟乙烷作为抛射剂的丙酸倍氯米松吸入气雾剂。方法采用析因设计,以微细粒子剂量作为主要评价指标进行处方筛选,以微细粒子剂量、每揿主药含量及递送剂量均一性作为关键质量指标进行最优处方验证,并在此基础上筛选出合适的... 目的制备以四氟乙烷作为抛射剂的丙酸倍氯米松吸入气雾剂。方法采用析因设计,以微细粒子剂量作为主要评价指标进行处方筛选,以微细粒子剂量、每揿主药含量及递送剂量均一性作为关键质量指标进行最优处方验证,并在此基础上筛选出合适的驱动器。结果所选处方工艺制得的3批样品搭配Becotide?驱动器测得的微细粒子剂量均值为33. 1%,每揿主药含量在98. 3%~100. 7%,递送剂量均一性在87%~118%,与Becotide?相当,微细粒子剂量测定结果与预测值32. 9%接近,表明采用析因设计筛选处方及通过模型预测最优值是可靠的。自制样品搭配驱动器B测得的微细粒子剂量、质量中值空气动力学直径、几何标准差与Becotide?最接近,同时,每揿主药含量及递送剂量均一性结果均符合规定,因此选择驱动器B作为本品配套的驱动器。结论所选处方工艺稳定可靠,适合生产,成品宜配置驱动器B。 展开更多
关键词 丙酸倍氯米松 气雾剂 四氟乙烷 驱动器 抛射剂
宜宾地区气溶胶垂直结构地基空基联合监测分析 预览
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作者 孙伟 刘志红 +2 位作者 张洋 张娟 吕朝阳 《中国环境监测》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第2期150-160,共11页
利用Cloud-Aerosol LIDAR with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP)正交极化云-气溶胶星载激光雷达Level1B资料和LGJ-01型号气溶胶地基激光雷达资料对宜宾地区2016年12月—2017年2月无污染时期、少云轻度污染时期和多云重度污染时期气溶... 利用Cloud-Aerosol LIDAR with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP)正交极化云-气溶胶星载激光雷达Level1B资料和LGJ-01型号气溶胶地基激光雷达资料对宜宾地区2016年12月—2017年2月无污染时期、少云轻度污染时期和多云重度污染时期气溶胶的衰减后向散射系数和退偏振比光学参数的垂直分布进行对比分析研究。结果表明:少云轻度污染时期,CALIOP数据监测到海拔高度为0.2~1.0 km范围内气溶胶颗粒集中分布,LGJ-01数据监测到厚度约为0.2 km的近地面气溶胶层,2个激光雷达监测结果基本一致;重度污染时期,LGJ-01地基激光雷达能够较好地探测近地面气溶胶层,CALIOP星载激光雷达能够较好地探测到高空云层,若将两者结合,则能实现不同天气状况下的综合探测,以期较全面客观地为研究气溶胶垂直结构提供观测及科研数据。 展开更多
关键词 CALIOP 地基激光雷达 气溶胶 垂直结构 对比分析
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Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols analyzed using a multiwavelength thermal/optical carbon analyzer: A case study in Lanzhou City
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作者 Yulan ZHANG Shichang KANG 《中国科学:地球科学英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第2期389-402,共14页
Characteristics of atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols in Lanzhou City from December 2014 to November 2015 are analyzed using a multiwavelength thermal/optical carbon analyzer. Results reveal that average concentrations... Characteristics of atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols in Lanzhou City from December 2014 to November 2015 are analyzed using a multiwavelength thermal/optical carbon analyzer. Results reveal that average concentrations of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon in atmospheric aerosols at Lanzhou are 6.7 and 25.4 μg m-3, respectively, showing obvious seasonality (higher in winter and lower in summer). This is consistent with findings in cities of northern China. Primary organic aerosols and secondary organic aerosols respectively account for approximately 60% and 17% of carbonaceous aerosols. No significant seasonality is found for secondary organic carbon, indicating that its potential sources do not vary significantly throughout the study period. The mass absorption cross-section (MAC632nm) of BC is 7.1 m2g-1, slightly higher than that of immediately emitted BC. MAC values of BC at different wavelengths vary drastically;they are higher for ultraviolet and visible light (8.5–10.2 m2g-1) than for near-infrared light (4.9–5.7 m2g-1). The aerosol absorption optical depth generally declines from the near-infrared to the near-ultraviolet region. The values are higher in winter than in summer, thus showing there are different contributions of BC deposition in different seasons. Brown carbon (BrC) has an ?ngstr?m absorption exponent (AAE) value of approximately 2.75, which is similar to the AAE value of BrC generated by diesel combustion (2.3). The contribution of BrC to light absorption is as much as 34% at a wavelength of 635 nm. This study demonstrates that the multiwavelength thermal/optical carbon analyzer can quantify absorption properties of BrC in atmospheric aerosols. This can enhance understanding of carbonaceous aerosols and provide key parameters for simulations of climate models. 展开更多
关键词 CARBONACEOUS AEROSOL Black CARBON Organic CARBON Brown CARBON MULTIWAVELENGTH thermal/optical CARBON ANALYZER
不同类型猪舍内气溶胶中致病菌数量和内毒素水平的比较研究 预览
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作者 许铭洙 张勇 +3 位作者 郭振东 严鸿林 张宏福 刘静波 《四川农业大学学报》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第2期271-275,共5页
【目的】比较猪舍类型对舍内气溶胶致病菌数量和内毒素水平的影响。【方法】选用32栋全封闭式猪舍,共计4种类型(保育舍、育肥舍、妊娠舍和分娩舍),每种类型猪舍8栋。采用AGI-30采样器和安德森6级采样器收集空气样品,用平板培养和RT-qPC... 【目的】比较猪舍类型对舍内气溶胶致病菌数量和内毒素水平的影响。【方法】选用32栋全封闭式猪舍,共计4种类型(保育舍、育肥舍、妊娠舍和分娩舍),每种类型猪舍8栋。采用AGI-30采样器和安德森6级采样器收集空气样品,用平板培养和RT-qPCR的方法测定需氧菌和致病菌的丰度,并测定气溶胶中内毒素的含量。【结果】保育舍需氧菌数量显著高于其他猪舍,而分娩舍需氧菌数量显著低于其他猪舍(P<0.05)。保育舍气溶胶中弯曲杆菌和大肠埃希菌的数量显著高于其他猪舍(P<0.05)。此外,保育舍气溶胶中内毒素含量显著高于其他猪舍(P<0.05)。【结论】不同猪舍类型气溶胶中致病菌数量和内毒素含量存在差异。 展开更多
关键词 猪舍类型 气溶胶 致病菌 内毒素
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加热不燃烧卷烟烟气主要成分的逐口释放行为 预览
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作者 龚淑果 刘巍 +5 位作者 黄平 卓宁野 钟科军 易建华 尹新强 代远刚 《烟草科技》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第2期62-71,共10页
为考察加热不燃烧卷烟烟气中主要成分的逐口释放量变化,以两种不同加热方式的加热不燃烧卷烟IQOS和GLO为研究对象,通过改造转盘型吸烟机实现卷烟的逐口抽吸与烟气捕集,建立了烟气中丙三醇、烟碱、水分和主要香气物质的检测方法,并分析了... 为考察加热不燃烧卷烟烟气中主要成分的逐口释放量变化,以两种不同加热方式的加热不燃烧卷烟IQOS和GLO为研究对象,通过改造转盘型吸烟机实现卷烟的逐口抽吸与烟气捕集,建立了烟气中丙三醇、烟碱、水分和主要香气物质的检测方法,并分析了IQOS和GLO在加拿大深度抽吸(HCI)和ISO标准抽吸两种模式下烟气主要成分逐口释放量的变化。结果表明:①采用该方法检测的烟碱、丙三醇和水分的平均回收率≥99.7%,相对标准偏差(RSD)≤5.32%。②随着抽吸口序的增加,在两种抽吸模式下,IQOS烟气中烟碱和丙三醇的释放量均呈现先上升后稳定再下降的趋势;GLO烟气中的烟碱先下降后上升再下降,而丙三醇先上升后下降。③随着抽吸口序的增加,IQOS烟气中水分在ISO抽吸模式下先上升后下降,而在HCI抽吸模式下呈现逐渐下降趋势;GLO烟气中的水分在两种抽吸模式下均呈现逐渐下降趋势。④随着抽吸口序的增加,IQOS烟气中的新植二烯在ISO抽吸模式下逐渐升高,而在HCI模式下先升高后降低;糠醛、羟基丙酮、乙酸和茄酮在两种抽吸模式下先升高后降低,而5-甲基呋喃醛和糠醇逐渐升高。GLO烟气中主要香气物质在两种抽吸模式下呈现两段先上升后下降的趋势。 展开更多
关键词 加热不燃烧卷烟 抽吸模式 烟气 丙三醇 烟碱 水分 香气物质 逐口释放
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大气气溶胶污染监测中应用的新型全天时户外型拉曼-米散射激光雷达系统 预览
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作者 滕曼 庄鹏 +2 位作者 张站业 李路 姚雅伟 《红外与激光工程》 EI CSCD 北大核心 2019年第7期59-65,共7页
介绍在大气气溶胶污染监测中应用的新型全天时户外型拉曼-米散射激光雷达系统,主要用于对大气边界层结构、对流层气溶胶和云光学特征及其形态进行自动连续观测。该系统在整体结构方面,运用成熟的米散射、偏振和拉曼激光雷达技术,采用一... 介绍在大气气溶胶污染监测中应用的新型全天时户外型拉曼-米散射激光雷达系统,主要用于对大气边界层结构、对流层气溶胶和云光学特征及其形态进行自动连续观测。该系统在整体结构方面,运用成熟的米散射、偏振和拉曼激光雷达技术,采用一体化设计,结构紧凑,便于运输,外场试验无需安装和调试;在系统控制方面,采用一键式启动,操作简单,同时具备手动和自动两种工作模式,并具有网络控制和数据传输功能;在数据处理方面,采用自动和人工两套处理软件,前者可根据系统设置自动处理和实时显示测量结果,后者则根据用户设定参数对原始测量数据进行数据反演和显示。该系统真正实现了激光雷达的产品化应用要求,可广泛运用于大气环境监测和大气科学等研究领域。 展开更多
关键词 激光雷达 拉曼 偏振 气溶胶 污染
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切丝宽度对卷烟主流烟气气溶胶粒径分布的影响 预览
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作者 司晓喜 朱瑞芝 +8 位作者 杨建云 王洪波 崔华鹏 李振杰 何沛 唐石云 缪明明 刘强 刘志华 《烟草科技》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第2期88-95,共8页
为研究切丝宽度对卷烟烟气气溶胶粒径分布特性的影响,采用DMS500快速粒径谱仪和电子低压撞击器(ELPI),在ISO抽吸模式下,分别研究了不同切丝宽度卷烟烟气气溶胶的粒数粒径分布和质量粒径分布特征。结果表明:①不同切丝宽度(0.7、0.9和1.1... 为研究切丝宽度对卷烟烟气气溶胶粒径分布特性的影响,采用DMS500快速粒径谱仪和电子低压撞击器(ELPI),在ISO抽吸模式下,分别研究了不同切丝宽度卷烟烟气气溶胶的粒数粒径分布和质量粒径分布特征。结果表明:①不同切丝宽度(0.7、0.9和1.1mm)卷烟的烟气气溶胶粒子数随粒径大小均呈现出近似的对数正态分布,粒子主要分布在40~400nm。切丝宽度为0.7mm和0.9mm时烟气气溶胶的粒子数浓度略高于切丝宽度为1.1mm,随切丝宽度的增加烟气气溶胶粒数中值直径(CMD)逐渐减小。②3种切丝宽度卷烟烟气气溶胶的质量主要集中在粒径为100~1000nm范围内,随着切丝宽度的增加,烟气气溶胶质量中值直径(MMD)减小,气溶胶总质量降低。③随着烟丝切丝宽度增加烟气总粒相物、焦油、烟碱、水分和CO逐渐降低。④感官评吸结果表明随切丝宽度增加烟气量降低,烟气质变稍粗糙,烟气形态变短,烟气变蓬松,整体烟气感官品质略有下降。⑤综合考虑,切丝宽度为0.9mm时,烟气粒子浓度高、粒径大小适中,烟气常规释放量较0.7mm时低,并有较好的感官质量。 展开更多
关键词 切丝宽度 主流烟气 气溶胶 粒径分布
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深蓝算法应用于FY-3B星数据反演陆地气溶胶
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作者 赵永辉 郭新望 +3 位作者 张明 曹霞 冯继锋 郑逢斌 《河南大学学报:自然科学版》 CAS 2019年第4期459-467,共9页
利用国产风云三号卫星MERSI传感器监测气溶胶对研究气候变化、监测环境质量等有重要意义.在深蓝算法基础上,利用AQUA星MODIS的蓝光波段地表反射率产品,剔除异常值后作为清晰天的地表反射率,完成地气解耦,实现了FY-3B星MERSI传感器的气... 利用国产风云三号卫星MERSI传感器监测气溶胶对研究气候变化、监测环境质量等有重要意义.在深蓝算法基础上,利用AQUA星MODIS的蓝光波段地表反射率产品,剔除异常值后作为清晰天的地表反射率,完成地气解耦,实现了FY-3B星MERSI传感器的气溶胶反演算法的构建.误差分析表明,MODIS与MERSI波段响应差异带来的气溶胶反演误差基本控制在0.07以下.针对北京地区,2016年4月至2017年3月的反演实验显示,本文获得的结果能较好地体现气溶胶浓度的空间分布,与MODIS气溶胶产品、AERONET地基观测结果有着较好的一致性;与城市型气溶胶相比,采用大陆型气溶胶能获得更多的有效数据,与地面数据的相关性也更高,相关指数在0.7左右. 展开更多
关键词 风云三号卫星 遥感 气溶胶 深蓝算法
飞秒激光人工影响天气的物理机理及研究进展
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作者 鞠晶晶 刘建胜 +3 位作者 孙海轶 李儒新 See Leang Chin 徐至展 《中国激光》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第5期38-52,共15页
综述了飞秒激光人工影响天气的相关研究结果。从飞秒激光成丝产生的光氧化副产物、热沉积效应、气溶胶形成和水凝结及沉降过程等4个方面展开,综述了飞秒激光在诱导水凝结及降水、人工引雷等领域的研究进展。提出了飞秒激光人工影响环境... 综述了飞秒激光人工影响天气的相关研究结果。从飞秒激光成丝产生的光氧化副产物、热沉积效应、气溶胶形成和水凝结及沉降过程等4个方面展开,综述了飞秒激光在诱导水凝结及降水、人工引雷等领域的研究进展。提出了飞秒激光人工影响环境大气的初步物理图像,并综述了该技术未来应用于人工影响天气所面临的问题,探讨了可能的解决方案。 展开更多
关键词 非线性光学 飞秒光丝 光化学反应 气溶胶 水凝结
多角度偏振成像仪高精度辐射定标方法
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作者 袁银麟 康晴 +6 位作者 翁建文 丁蕾 李健军 李双 吴浩宇 洪津 郑小兵 《大气与环境光学学报》 CAS CSCD 2019年第1期24-35,共12页
开展高精度辐射定标方法研究,对于多角度偏振成像仪实现大气气溶胶粒子分布和微观物理特性探测反演的科学应用至关重要。采用傅里叶级数的分析方法,建立了全视场起偏度的测量模型,消除了参考光源偏振方位角绝对位置引入的测量误差,实现... 开展高精度辐射定标方法研究,对于多角度偏振成像仪实现大气气溶胶粒子分布和微观物理特性探测反演的科学应用至关重要。采用傅里叶级数的分析方法,建立了全视场起偏度的测量模型,消除了参考光源偏振方位角绝对位置引入的测量误差,实现了光学系统偏振特性的准确测量。结合多角度偏振成像仪的辐射与偏振定标模型,开展了光学系统偏振特性的校正方法研究,实现偏振特性引起辐射定标不确定度由8%下降至2.2%以内。利用高精度二维转动平台和大口径积分球辐射源,采用分视场测量方法,校正像元响应非一致性,实现相对辐射校正精度优于0.5%。采用基于标准灯漫反射板的辐亮度量值传递链路,经过各影响因素的分析评测,所有波段辐射定标精度均优于5%。 展开更多
关键词 遥感 辐射定标 不确定度 气溶胶 偏振 传递
利用κ-Kohler理论研究大气气溶胶的吸湿特性 预览
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作者 王昱焜 张现仁 曹达鹏 《化工学报》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第7期2691-2698,I0004共9页
利用κ-Kohler理论对西安、北京两地大气气溶胶体系的吸湿特性进行研究。选取多种代表性无机物(硫酸盐、硝酸盐、氯盐)及有机物(烯烃、芳香烃、羧酸)建立气溶胶体系模型,使研究体系更接近于真实大气成分。结果表明,在空气质量由清洁状... 利用κ-Kohler理论对西安、北京两地大气气溶胶体系的吸湿特性进行研究。选取多种代表性无机物(硫酸盐、硝酸盐、氯盐)及有机物(烯烃、芳香烃、羧酸)建立气溶胶体系模型,使研究体系更接近于真实大气成分。结果表明,在空气质量由清洁状态向雾霾发生状态转变的过程中,两种体系中均呈现有机物含量逐渐减少而(NH4)2SO4和NH4NO3含量逐渐增多的趋势,这种变化趋势总是促使气溶胶体系整体吸湿能力增强,因此更易吸湿增长形成雾霾。对体系中不同组分对吸湿性的影响进行了定量预测,理论预测的变动趋势与实际观测的变动趋势相同,揭示了雾霾形成过程中各组分的变动趋势及影响程度,为针对性解决雾霾问题提供思路。 展开更多
关键词 环境 污染 气溶胶 吸湿性 κ-Kohler理论
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