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骨科药物治疗临床路径管理模式的建立与实践 认领
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作者 刘东华 全香花 +7 位作者 邢晓敏 韩冰 周长凯 曲海军 刘月芬 王龙源 王堃 荆凡波 《医药导报》 CAS 北大核心 2021年第1期139-143,共5页
目的促进骨科围手术期预防用抗菌药物和手术后镇痛药物的合理使用。方法建立基于药物治疗临床路径精细化管理模式,在骨科开展围手术期预防用抗菌药物和手术后镇痛药物的用药路径。结果药物治疗临床路径实施后,骨科抗菌药物使用强度、人... 目的促进骨科围手术期预防用抗菌药物和手术后镇痛药物的合理使用。方法建立基于药物治疗临床路径精细化管理模式,在骨科开展围手术期预防用抗菌药物和手术后镇痛药物的用药路径。结果药物治疗临床路径实施后,骨科抗菌药物使用强度、人均药费和每床日药费均显著降低,分别降低51.50%,23.86%和8.28%,在促进合理用药方面取得显著成效。结论建立药物治疗临床路径精细化管理模式,为促进合理用药管理提供了新思路。 展开更多
关键词 药物治疗 临床路径 围手术期 抗菌药物 镇痛药物 骨科
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抗生素人工骨治疗慢性骨髓炎疗效和安全性的Meta分析 认领
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作者 化昊天 赵文宇 +2 位作者 张磊 白文博 王新卫 《中国组织工程研究》 CAS 北大核心 2021年第6期970-976,共7页
目的:慢性骨髓炎作为骨科疑难病,治疗过程复杂漫长且极易复发,目前已有研究证实抗生素人工骨治疗慢性骨髓炎效果显著,但仍缺乏循证依据。为此,文章对抗生素人工骨治疗慢性骨髓炎的临床疗效和安全性进行系统评价。方法:检索CNKI、万方、... 目的:慢性骨髓炎作为骨科疑难病,治疗过程复杂漫长且极易复发,目前已有研究证实抗生素人工骨治疗慢性骨髓炎效果显著,但仍缺乏循证依据。为此,文章对抗生素人工骨治疗慢性骨髓炎的临床疗效和安全性进行系统评价。方法:检索CNKI、万方、维普、CBM、PubMed和Cochrane Llibrary数据库,检索时间为建库至2020年4月,根据纳入和排除标准,收集有关使用抗生素人工骨治疗慢性骨髓炎的临床对照试验,然后由2名研究人员分别独立对检索到的文献进行筛选、评价和数据提取,质量评价按照Cochrane评价手册和NOS量表进行,最后使用RevMan 5.3软件进行Meta分析。结果:①共纳入13篇临床对照试验,2篇随机临床对照试验质量评价为中等偏倚,11篇回顾性研究评价为高质量文献,共744例患者,治疗组387例,对照组357例;②Meta分析的结果显示:在感染清除率、骨折愈合率、骨折愈合时间、切口愈合时间、治疗有效率、住院时间、再次手术率、并发症发生率、复发率方面,治疗组与对照组相比有显著性差异,治疗组优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:抗生素人工骨治疗慢性骨髓炎可以提高治疗有效率、缩短治疗时间、更好的控制感染,降低并发症和复发率,该结论还需要未来大样本、更高质量的随机对照试验试验加以验证。 展开更多
关键词 抗生素 人工骨 万古霉素 素硫酸钙 骨髓炎 感染 骨缺损 META分析
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文章速递Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Index of Gram-Negative Bacteria from Bird Droppings in Two Commercial Poultries in Enugu, Nigeria 认领
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作者 Ruth Asikiya Afunwa Johnpaul Ezeanyinka +3 位作者 Emmanuel Chijindu Afunwa Adaeze Suzzy Udeh Angus Nnamdi Oli Marian Unachukwu 《医学微生物学(英文)》 2020年第4期171-181,共11页
<span style="font-family:;" "=""><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Antimicrobial resistance refers to the ability of microorganisms to grow in the presence of an antimic... <span style="font-family:;" "=""><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Antimicrobial resistance refers to the ability of microorganisms to grow in the presence of an antimicrobial agent at a concentration that will normally kill or inhibit their growth. Antimicrobial resistance has become a major global threat making treatment of infections tougher especially with high cost of treatment in humans and animals. This study was done to determine the Multiple Antibiotic Resistant Index (MARI) of Gram-negative bacteria from bird droppings in two commercial poultries in Enugu. Forty (40) samples were collected from each of the poultries. Isolates were identified by standard microbiological methods. The isolates identified were </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Escherichia</span></i> <i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">coli</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">, </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Klebsiella</span></i> <i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">pneumoniae</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">, </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Pseudomonas</span></i> <i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">aeruginosa</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">, </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Citrobacter</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> spp, </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Proteus</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> spp. and, </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Enterobacter</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> spp. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out using disc diffusion technique. The organisms were tested against pefloxacin, augmentin (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid), ceftazidime, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, cephalothin, neomycin and ofloxacin. The result of the susceptibility test showed that </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Proteus</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> spp had the highest resistance and MARI value of 0.5 and</span></span><span style="font-family:;" "=""> </span><span style="font-family:;" "=""><span style="font-family:Verdana;">1.0 respectively. The other MARI values were </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Escherichia</span></i> <i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">coli</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> (0.9), </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Klebsiella</span></i> <i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">pneumonia</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> (0.9), </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Pseudomonas</span></i> <i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">aeruginosa</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> (0.8), </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Citrobacter</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> spp (0.8) and </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Enterobacter</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> spp (0.7). These results suggest that bacterial organisms from poultry source can contribute significantly to the spread of multi-antibiotic resistant organisms. This could arise from the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in bird feeds in poultries.</span></span> 展开更多
关键词 Antibiotic Poultry Gram Negative Bacteria Multi-Drug Resistance Antibiotic Susceptibility
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宏基因组方法分析医药化工废水厂中抗生素耐药菌及耐性基因 认领
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作者 陈红玲 张兴桃 +1 位作者 王晴 姚沛琳 《环境科学》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第1期313-320,共8页
废水厂是抗生素耐药菌(ARB)和抗生素耐药基因(ARGs)的巨大储存地.为调查医药化工废水处理厂中的ARB和ARGs,采用了宏基因组技术对医药化工废水中的活性污泥进行取样分析.结果显示,医药化工废水厂微生物组成主要是细菌类,主要细菌门是Prot... 废水厂是抗生素耐药菌(ARB)和抗生素耐药基因(ARGs)的巨大储存地.为调查医药化工废水处理厂中的ARB和ARGs,采用了宏基因组技术对医药化工废水中的活性污泥进行取样分析.结果显示,医药化工废水厂微生物组成主要是细菌类,主要细菌门是Proteobacteria,主要属是Hyphomicrobium,主要种是Hyphomicrobium zavarzinii.共检测到74类ARGs,最主要的类型是sav1866、dfr E和mfd.网络分析揭示了ARGs与微分类单元之间的共存模式,即ARGs与废水厂中属级的微生物分类群高度相关.抗生素特异的外排泵是该微生物群落主要的抗生素耐药机制,并且外排泵中耐药结节化细胞分化家族(RND)外排泵占主要部分.该微生物群落最主要的功能通路是代谢相关,并存在许多与人类疾病相关的基因,其中主要是细菌感染性疾病.结果表明,医药化工废水厂蕴藏着丰富的ARB和ARGs,ARGs的累积会增加潜在环境风险,需要加强对医药化工废水厂中ARB和ARGs的监控,并且ARB和ARGs的分析研究对于选择深度处理技术来有效去除ARB和ARGs具有重要的指导意义. 展开更多
关键词 医药化工废水处理厂 抗生素 宏基因组技术 抗生素耐药菌(ARB) 抗生素耐药基因(ARGs)
环境中抗生素抗性基因研究进展 认领
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作者 朱光平 薛晨晨(综述) +1 位作者 范宏亮 吴南翔(审校) 《预防医学》 2020年第11期1121-1125,1129,共6页
近年来抗生素滥用导致环境微生物广泛耐药,抗生素抗性基因(ARGs)的出现及其在全球范围内的传播对人类健康及生态环境的稳定造成了巨大的、潜在的危害。环境中ARGs主要来自微生物的自然进化和菌种之间的水平基因转移(HGT),广泛分布于水... 近年来抗生素滥用导致环境微生物广泛耐药,抗生素抗性基因(ARGs)的出现及其在全球范围内的传播对人类健康及生态环境的稳定造成了巨大的、潜在的危害。环境中ARGs主要来自微生物的自然进化和菌种之间的水平基因转移(HGT),广泛分布于水、土壤和空气中,其传播受环境残留的抗生素、重金属和有机物等影响。ARGs检测方法分为对抗性菌表型的检测和对抗性菌基因型的检测,现阶段以PCR为基础的检测方法发展较为成熟,而宏基因组学为ARGs的检测打开了更高效、更准确的大门。本文对ARGs的来源与分布、传播及影响因素和检测方法研究进行综述,为环境中ARGs的监管和防治提供参考。 展开更多
关键词 抗生素 抗性基因 耐药 水平基因转移
骨科植入型抗菌药物缓释系统局部释放情况的文献分析 认领
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作者 武丹威 毛璐 +1 位作者 李静 张威 《临床药物治疗杂志》 2020年第6期68-73,共6页
目的了解骨科植入型抗菌药物缓释系统局部释放情况。方法检索PubMed、Elsevier Science Direct、Embase、Springer Link、Wiley Online Library、CNKI、万方数据库,收集植入型抗菌药物缓释系统局部释放情况的研究,提取相关数据进行描述... 目的了解骨科植入型抗菌药物缓释系统局部释放情况。方法检索PubMed、Elsevier Science Direct、Embase、Springer Link、Wiley Online Library、CNKI、万方数据库,收集植入型抗菌药物缓释系统局部释放情况的研究,提取相关数据进行描述性统计分析,检索时限均从建库至2020年1月。结果共检索到骨科植入型抗菌药物缓释系统局部释放研究17项,其中预防研究2项、治疗研究15项,包括骨感染和假体周围感染治疗。植入型抗菌药物缓释系统负载的抗菌药物多为万古霉素、庆大霉素。不同缓释系统抗菌药物释放度不同,人工骨术后第1天局部释放抗菌药物浓度最高,人工骨混入2 g万古霉素,平均局部释放浓度可达1488. 33μg/mL。在治疗骨感染研究中,9项研究涉及应用骨科植入型抗菌药物缓释系统的转归,最低治愈率为95. 2%。结论骨科植入型抗菌药物缓释系统局部抗菌药物释放度高,是治疗骨科相关感染的有效手段。 展开更多
关键词 抗菌药物 缓释系统 局部释放 假体周围感染 骨感染
Navigating the Third Frontier of Antimicrobial Therapy to Support Women’s Health 认领
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作者 Emma Wittman Neela Yar Bryan Larsen 《妇产科期刊(英文)》 2020年第8期1011-1035,共25页
This paper explores one of the underappreciated reasons for lack of efficacy in certain cases of antimicrobial therapy, namely the occurrence of a non-genetic resistance to antimicrobial drugs due to a metabolic quies... This paper explores one of the underappreciated reasons for lack of efficacy in certain cases of antimicrobial therapy, namely the occurrence of a non-genetic resistance to antimicrobial drugs due to a metabolic quiescence of microorganisms. T</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">his review has centered on those microorganisms of particular importance in obstetrics and gynecology and accordingly has reviewed the nature and extent of the persister phenotype in relation to infectious agents affecting women’s health. We show how the quiescent persister microbial phenotype represents the next significant issue that could compromise successful antibiotic therapy. A brief history of antimicrobial therapy is provided as context for the problem posed by the persister phenotype. This review has been focused on the current literature having relevance for physicians concerned with women’s health. The study of this phenotype has led to increasing understanding of the molecular mechanisms for this state which also provides ideas for rational development of drug candidates to interdict these organisms in human disease and explores the possibility of developing specifically targeted molecules to address persisters, research on screening botanicals, existing drugs and chemicals to discover novel approaches to the clinical consequence of microbial persisters. Of interest in this review, is the return to naturally occurring botanical substances, first to be used as anti</span></span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;">-</span></span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;"><span style="font-family:Verdana;">infectives, now being considered as possible agents to address persister microorganisms. Overall this paper aims to provide information tailored especially to the obstetrics and gynecology specialists. 展开更多
关键词 Gynecologic Infection Obstetric Infection Antibiotic Therapy Antimicrobial Resistance Quiescent Microorganisms Mechanisms
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武夷菌素对土壤微生物群落及抗生素抗性基因的影响 认领
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作者 施李鸣 葛蓓孛 +4 位作者 刘炳花 麻金金 韦秋合 姜明国 张克诚 《基因组学与应用生物学》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第4期1621-1631,共11页
抗生素抗性基因(antibiotic resistance genes,ARGs)作为一种新型环境污染物近年来受到广泛关注。目前关于抗生素的环境污染研究主要集中于医疗和养殖业,对植物保护领域的农用抗生素环境污染研究很少。武夷菌素是一种环保、高效、广谱... 抗生素抗性基因(antibiotic resistance genes,ARGs)作为一种新型环境污染物近年来受到广泛关注。目前关于抗生素的环境污染研究主要集中于医疗和养殖业,对植物保护领域的农用抗生素环境污染研究很少。武夷菌素是一种环保、高效、广谱的农用抗生素,在农业生产中得到了广泛应用,对农作物真菌性病害具有良好的防治效果。本研究分别选取了未使用武夷菌素和使用武夷菌素的蔬菜大棚中的土壤,通过高通量测序分析了土壤中微生物群落结构,发现两份土壤中主要的微生物群落种类没有发生明显改变,但是优势菌群的丰度有显著差异。通过荧光定量PCR技术,对18个典型的抗生素抗性基因进行了检测,发现aadA、aac(3)-Ⅱ、strA、strB、aacA4、tetX、sulI和intI18个基因在两份土壤中的绝对含量和丰度均有显著差异,表明武夷菌素对土壤中微生物的群落结构及抗生素抗性基因的绝对含量和丰度均会造成一定影响。本研究为评估武夷菌素的环境安全性及合理正确使用武夷菌素提供了理论依据,也为其它农用抗生素的相关研究提供了借鉴。 展开更多
关键词 抗生素 武夷菌素 微生物群落 抗生素抗性基因 新型环境污染物
抗生素耐药性的研究进展与控制策略 认领
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作者 沙国萌 陈冠军 +1 位作者 陈彤 王禄山 《微生物学通报》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第10期3369-3379,共11页
抗生素是治疗细菌感染的有效药物,然而抗生素在人类医学及农业生产中的大规模使用催生了细菌耐药性在环境中的快速扩散和传播,特别是多种抗生素的联合使用更是促进了多重耐药性的产生,严重威胁着人类和动物健康及食品与环境安全,相关问... 抗生素是治疗细菌感染的有效药物,然而抗生素在人类医学及农业生产中的大规模使用催生了细菌耐药性在环境中的快速扩散和传播,特别是多种抗生素的联合使用更是促进了多重耐药性的产生,严重威胁着人类和动物健康及食品与环境安全,相关问题已经引起人们的警觉。因此新研究主要集中在以下几方面:利用组学及合成生物学等方法挖掘并合成新型抗生素;利用高通量技术等系统分析环境中耐药菌及耐药基因新的传播途径及产生的新耐药机制;减抗、替抗及控制耐药基因的策略及其相关工艺。因此,在全面认识耐药基因在环境中传播规律的基础上,如何绿色高效地切断传播途径仍是目前研究的热点。基于此,本文在细菌水平上阐述了抗生素的研发历程、耐药性的发展及控制策略,从而为有效遏制细菌耐药性的发展提供思路。 展开更多
关键词 抗生素 发展历史 耐药性 抗性机制 控制策略
微塑料对河水抗生素抗性基因的影响 认领
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作者 周昕原 王言仔 +1 位作者 苏建强 黄福义 《环境科学》 EI CAS CSCD 北大核心 2020年第9期4076-4080,共5页
微塑料和抗生素抗性基因都是环境中的新型污染物,两者的复合污染引发了一定的生态环境风险,成为近年的研究热点.本文采集了城市郊区河水,添加不易降解微塑料(聚氯乙烯,PVC)和水溶性微塑料(聚乙烯醇,PVA)进行曝气培养实验,采用高通量定量... 微塑料和抗生素抗性基因都是环境中的新型污染物,两者的复合污染引发了一定的生态环境风险,成为近年的研究热点.本文采集了城市郊区河水,添加不易降解微塑料(聚氯乙烯,PVC)和水溶性微塑料(聚乙烯醇,PVA)进行曝气培养实验,采用高通量定量PCR技术,研究微塑料对河水抗生素抗性基因的影响.结果表明,空白对照河水、添加PVC的河水和添加PVA的河水抗性基因种类数分别为71、87和95种,微塑料的存在显著增加了河水抗生素抗性基因种类,进而可能增加河流生态风险;曝气培养的河水中抗性基因的种类数和丰度有所减少,但是相对于空白对照组(2.8×10^9 copies·L^-1),添加具有水溶性的微塑料仍能显著增加河水抗性基因丰度(8.1×10^9 copies·L^-1),并且抗生素抗性基因丰度与可移动遗传元件呈显著正相关关系,说明可移动遗传元件可能通过基因横向转移机制影响抗生素抗性基因的赋存与演变. 展开更多
关键词 河水 微塑料 抗生素 高通量定量PCR 抗生素抗性基因(ARGs)
Management of Sepsis in Intensive Care Units in Rajshahi Medical College, Bangladesh 认领
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作者 Abu Hena Mostafa Kamal Pranab Karmaker +3 位作者 Wahida Khatun Arup Kumar Saha Md. Latifur Rahman Parvez Hassan 《传染病进展(英文)》 2020年第1期11-25,共15页
Background: Sepsis was a life-threatening situation affecting roughly 27 million individuals globally every year. Devoid of proper management, sepsis could develop to austere sepsis and septic shock that reason certai... Background: Sepsis was a life-threatening situation affecting roughly 27 million individuals globally every year. Devoid of proper management, sepsis could develop to austere sepsis and septic shock that reason certain eight million expiries every year. Initial identification and analysis of contaminations and quick introductions of antimicrobial management had long been predictable as essential principles of treatment. Methods: All patients were evaluated thoroughly by history, clinical and laboratory findings. Serum lactate levels were collected at 0 hr and 24 hrs of the total admission in the ICU. Blood culture and sensitivity was performed prior to antibiotic administration in this study. Results: In this research, total sample was 1367 patients. Among these sepsis patients were 305 (nearly 22%). These 305 studied sepsis cases, majority 128 (42%) of the patients were within the age group of 41 - 65 years, followed by 18 - 30 years consisting of 116 (38%) and the least number of sepsis patients were in the age group of >65 years (20%). This study found that 129 (42.3%) out of 305 blood samples screened from assumed sepsis infection were affirmative for the presence of sepsis causing pathogens. Among the 129 culture positive samples, majority of the isolated micro-organisms were gram negative bacteria 58% (75), followed by gram positive bacteria 38% (49), and 3.8% (5) were the fungi Candida albicans. Conclusion: At present, mortality & morbidity of sepsis subject was too big due to late identification, wrong & inadequate management of sepsis in the ward and also in the intensive care unit of Bangladesh. 展开更多
关键词 SEPSIS ICU SIRS Empirical Antibiotic
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文章速递Usefulness of the Pediatric Appendicitis Score and Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio for Assessing the Complicated Appendicitis in Children 认领
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作者 Erdenetsetseg Chuluun Bayartsetseg Ankhbayar +4 位作者 Ganbayar Ganzorig Ganbayar Luuzan Davaalkham Dambadarjaa Zorig Dungerdorj Puntsag Chimedtseye 《临床诊断学期刊(英文)》 2020年第4期93-103,共11页
<b>Introduction:</b> Acute appendicitis (AA) is a common surgical disease which occurs in almost all age groups, and especially in childhood. Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute ab... <b>Introduction:</b> Acute appendicitis (AA) is a common surgical disease which occurs in almost all age groups, and especially in childhood. Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdomen. The lifetime occurrence of this disease is approximately 7%, with perforation rate of up to 20%. In spite of the well-known classical symptoms and clinical findings of acute appendicitis, early diagnosis can be sometimes challenging. For the treatment of simple appendicitis (SA) in children, the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment has been reported. We aimed to determine predictive value of combination NLR and PAS in pediatric patients with clinical suspicion of acute appendicitis and complicated appendicitis <b>Methods:</b> Our study was performed on 480 children admitted for suspected acute appendicitis and underwent appendectomy at the MNCMCH, Ulaanbaatar Mongolia, between May 2019 and December 2019. White blood count (WBC), Neutrophil, NLR and PAS were compared between groups. <b>Results:</b> The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV of PAS + NLR for differentiating complicated and noncomplicated appendicitis were 86.8%, 89.4%, 92.1% and 76% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV of PAS + NLR for diagnosis of acute appendicitis were 90.5%, 68.1%, 97.68% and 32.6% respectively. <b>Conclusion:</b> In the era of conservative antibiotic-based management of uncomplicated acute appendicitis, we advocate that combination of NLR and PAS is a useful aid in predicting complicated appendicitis. 展开更多
关键词 Acute Appendicitis Complicated Appendicitis Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio Antibiotic Pediatric Patient
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文章速递A Comparative Study of Static Biofilm Formation and Antibiotic Resistant Pattern between Environmental and Clinical Isolate of <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> 认领
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作者 Fahareen Binta Mosharraf Sara Sadia Chowdhury +1 位作者 Akash Ahmed M. Mahboob Hossain 《微生物学(英文)》 2020年第12期663-672,共10页
Biofilms are dense bacterial colonies, derived from microbially derived sessile community, networked within a polysaccharide matrix with a distinct architecture that has the attachment potential to both alive and abio... Biofilms are dense bacterial colonies, derived from microbially derived sessile community, networked within a polysaccharide matrix with a distinct architecture that has the attachment potential to both alive and abiotic surfaces. <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> is a model biofilm forming microorganism associated with remarkable morbidity and mortality rate due to emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> originating from a biofilm is more resistant to a wide range of antibiotics than the planktonic bacteria. This research was planned to develop a comparative study of the biofilm production between potential, antimicrobial resistance of <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> isolated from mature environmental biofilm and clinical strain of the same species that did not derive from biofilm. It was observed that the <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> from environmental isolates were resistant to 15 prominent antibiotics, while clinical strain was comparatively resistant to only few of them. A confirmatory analysis of biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance pattern of these two groups of organisms was checked by 96-well microtiter plate and the disc diffusion method respectively. Finally, the results portrayed that the environmental strains with high drug resistance, potentially formed a considerable amount of biofilm in the period of a week whereas;clinical stains formed a negligible amount of biofilm within the same time frame. 展开更多
关键词 Biofilms Clinical Isolate Antibiotic Resistant
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文章速递The Five Years Surveillance and Trends of Antibiotic Resistance in Some Common Gram Negative Bacteria at the Vietnam Military Hospital 认领
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作者 Ha Thi Thu Van Hoang Xuan Quang +1 位作者 Vo Thi Bich Thuy Nguyen Thai Son 《微生物学(英文)》 2020年第12期730-741,共12页
The study is to identify trends and levels of antibiotic resistance of some common Gram-negative strains over time. The samples were collected from Vietnam Military Hospital 103 between 2014 and 2019. A total of 405 &... The study is to identify trends and levels of antibiotic resistance of some common Gram-negative strains over time. The samples were collected from Vietnam Military Hospital 103 between 2014 and 2019. A total of 405 <i>Acinetobacter baumannii</i>., 528 <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>, 741 <i>Escherichia coli</i>, and 352 <i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i> strains were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility was by Vitek system and Etest method. The multi-drug resistance (MDR) was major proportion of four common bacteria. In particular, there is a tendency to shift from MDR to Extended drug resistance (XDR) or possibly Pan drug resistant (pPDR). <i>A. baumannii</i> had the highest level of antibiotic resistance, namely, carbapenem (61.5% - 82.5%) and cephalosporin (72.7% - 88.7%). <i>P. aeruginosa</i> resisted most of commonly antibiotics, ranging from 50% to 70%. <i>E. coli</i> had a high resistance with antibiotics like ampicillin (87.2% - 97.6%) and the 3rd generation cephalosporins (up to 79.6%). <i>K. pneumoniae</i> resisted carbapenem from 14.7% to 44.4%, and other antibiotics with the higher rate of 40%. The collected data will be a prerequisite for further studies on mechanisms and factors related to antibiotic resistant bacteria, in order to find out a rational and effective using strategy of antibiotics. 展开更多
关键词 Gram-Negative Bacteria Antibiotic Resistance Multi-Drug Resistance
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抗菌肽对抗生素耐药菌株的抑菌活性研究 认领
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作者 张丽 武刚 +3 位作者 祝发明 张甲戌 白杰 俞颖 《畜牧与饲料科学》 2020年第2期92-95,共4页
[目的]研究抗菌肽对抗生素耐药菌株的抑菌活性。[方法]利用抗性平板划线法从腹泻病牛血便中筛选分离出1株耐药菌,通过16S rDNA序列进行鉴定,采用琼脂孔穴扩散法通过梯度盐酸壮观霉素(spectinomycin,Spe+)、氨苄青霉素(ampicillin,Amp+)... [目的]研究抗菌肽对抗生素耐药菌株的抑菌活性。[方法]利用抗性平板划线法从腹泻病牛血便中筛选分离出1株耐药菌,通过16S rDNA序列进行鉴定,采用琼脂孔穴扩散法通过梯度盐酸壮观霉素(spectinomycin,Spe+)、氨苄青霉素(ampicillin,Amp+)、硫酸卡那霉素(kanamycin,Kan+)和氯霉素(chloramphenicol,Cm+)试验确定该菌药敏特性,并利用1种抗菌肽制剂对该菌株进行药敏试验。[结果]经BLAST比对分析该菌16S rDNA序列,鉴定该耐药菌为科氏葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus cohnii),此菌对Amp+敏感,但对试验中其他抗生素均有耐药性,各梯度抗菌肽对该耐药菌均具有明显的抑菌活性。[结论]抗菌肽能有效抑制耐药科氏葡萄球菌的生长,有望在畜牧生产中代替抗生素使用。 展开更多
关键词 抗菌肽 抗生素 耐药菌 抑菌活性
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Bacteriology and Antibiotic Sensibility Associated with Extracted Carious Teeth: A Cross Sectional Study at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana 认领
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作者 Ama Agyeibea Amuasi Alexander Oti Acheampong +4 位作者 Collins Kokuro Alex Ofori Kpedekpo Yayra Joseph Abu-Sakyi Francis Adu-Ababio 《口腔学期刊(英文)》 2020年第5期87-96,共10页
Background: Many oral bacterial species forming the normal flora present as a biofilm in the oral cavity. Dental caries results when there is an imbalance of pathogenic bacteria within these biofilms. Aim: This study ... Background: Many oral bacterial species forming the normal flora present as a biofilm in the oral cavity. Dental caries results when there is an imbalance of pathogenic bacteria within these biofilms. Aim: This study sought to isolate and identify the bacterial species associated with extracted carious teeth and their susceptibility pattern towards commonly employed antimicrobial agents used at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH). Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study carried out on thirty-three extracted carious teeth samples collected by convenient sampling from patients attending the Oral Health Directorate-KATH. All samples were collected from the 11th of March 2019 to the 6th of April 2019. Data was collected using 5 ml peptone water and a case study form. Analysis was done using SPSS version 25 and Microsoft Excel version 10. Results: Twenty (61%) samples were obtained from female patients and thirteen samples (39%) from male patients. Streptococcus spp had the highest occurrence (32.25%) with the least isolated being Pseudomonas and E. coli spp (6.45%). Antibiotic susceptibility test revealed Pseudomonas spp was resistant to all the eight antibiotics used in this study. All bacterial isolates were resistant to Cefuroxime and penicillin except Staphylococcus and Streptococcus spp. Conclusion: The commonest isolates associated with dental caries in KATH were Streptococcus, Bacillus and Staphylococcus spp. In this study most of the isolated species were resistant to common antibiotics employed in the Oral Health Directorate in KATH (amoxicillin/clavulanic, ampicillin and penicillin). From the current study the most effective antibiotic observed was meropenem (23%) with penicillin (3%) being least effective in treating infections of caries. 展开更多
关键词 CARIES BACTERIA Teeth Antibiotic RESISTANCE
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Correlation between a Change of Drug Resistance of <i>Klebsiella pneumonia</i>and Defined Daily Doses of Antimicrobial Agents from 2014 to 2018 认领
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作者 Jiuli Hu Xu Xiao +3 位作者 Chanchan Hu Rui Wang Yanwu Zhao Xiaoqin Zhu 《药理与制药(英文)》 2020年第11期299-305,共7页
Introduction: The prevalence of </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Klebsiella pneumoniae</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> has rapidly incr... Introduction: The prevalence of </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Klebsiella pneumoniae</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> has rapidly increased in recent years and the distribution differed greatly by region, We aimed to study the relationship between antibiotic resistance and </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">K. pneumoniae</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">, especially carbapenem-resistant </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Klebsiella pneumoniae</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> (CRKP) in our tertiary hospitals from 2014 to 2018.</span></span><span style="font-family:""> </span><span style="font-family:""><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Methodology: The antibiotic consumption data of </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">K. pneumoniae</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> were expressed as the defined daily dose (DDD) per 100 inpatient days</span></span><span style="font-family:""> </span><span style="font-family:""><span style="font-family:Verdana;">(DDDs). </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">K. pneumoniae</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> which isolated from clinical samples in</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> hospital between January 2014 and December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed, and the correlation between antibiotic resistance rate and antibiotic frequency was analyzed.</span></span><span style="font-family:""> </span><span style="font-family:""><span style="font-family:Verdana;">Results: From 2014 to 2018, a total of 2295 strains of </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">K. pneumoniae</span></i><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> were isolated, with the detection rates of 8.2%, 9.2%, 11.9%, 13.4% and 14.0%. There were 423 strains of CRKP, with the detection rates of 7.5%, 5.8%, 17</span></span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">.</span><span style="font-family:""><span style="font-family:Verdana;">8% 24.2% and 25.2% respectively. </span><i><span style="font-family:Verdana;">K. pne 展开更多
关键词 Klebsiella pneumonia Antibiotic Consumption Resistance Correlation Analysis Defined Daily Doses
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Expression of Fusion Lytic Peptides Promotes Fungal Disease Resistance in Transgenic Plants 认领
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作者 George S. Biliarski Bakhyt Yertaeva Amitava Mitra 《美国植物学期刊(英文)》 2020年第2期148-161,共14页
Many organisms produce small proteins which exhibit antimicrobial activities. In recent decades, the biological role of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) has been recognized as the main factor in the defense mechanisms aga... Many organisms produce small proteins which exhibit antimicrobial activities. In recent decades, the biological role of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) has been recognized as the main factor in the defense mechanisms against a broad range of pathogenic microbes. The increased worldwide incidence of microbial resistance to antibiotics makes AMPs promising alternative for the control of microbial disease. Exploring the potential of AMPs in transgenic crops could lead to the development of new and improved cultivars which are resistant to various economically important diseases. In the present study, two fusion lytic peptide gene constructs coding for antimicrobial peptides were expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana tobacco plants and tested against three fungal pathogens, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Pythium sp. Detached-leaf bioassay was employed for the transgenic plants carrying the fusion lytic peptide constructs (ORF13 and RSA1), transgenic vector only control plants (1234), and wild-type control plants (WT) against the three fungal pathogens. Symptom area of each leaf was measured with high accuracy and data were recorded and processed by statistical analyses. The results showed that transgenic plant lines ORF13 and RSL1 have substantial resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection, producing significantly smaller lesion areas compared to vector only plant line 1234 and wild type plants. These transgenic lines also provided resistance against Rhizoctonia solani, however, these lines were not effective against the other fungal pathogen Pythium sp. 展开更多
关键词 ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES Antibiotic RESISTANCE FUNGAL Diseases Plant Disease Control TRANSGENIC Plants
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Effective Antibiotic Stewardship Program: Controlling Antibiotic Resistance and Optimizing Drug Use in Ahmadi Hospital 认领
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作者 Saud M. Alajmi Wadha N. Almarri 《分析科学方法和仪器期刊(英文)》 2020年第1期1-11,共11页
An Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) is established to promote cost effective and safe use of antimicrobial agents. Basically, this approach directs the management of antimicrobials in terms of selection of appr... An Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) is established to promote cost effective and safe use of antimicrobial agents. Basically, this approach directs the management of antimicrobials in terms of selection of appropriate drugs, determination of administration routes and standardization of both medication dosage and treatment duration. The program involves, but is not limited to, Hospital Staff Education, Pharmacodynamics Dose Optimization, Computer-Assisted Decision Support Programs, Pharmacist-Driven Intravenous to Oral Switch Programs, Pharmacy Dosing Programs and Antibiotic Cycling. A study was conducted to determine effectiveness of the ASP in significantly improving patient outcomes (e.g. decrease morbidity and mortality from infection). This was undertaken by collecting restrospective data on patient length of hospital stay, bed turnover rate and antibiotic consumption over a period of 2 years since the ASP was initiated. Periodic data were then compared and interpreted based on its clinical, quality and financial implications in order to measure effectiveness of the program implementation. 展开更多
关键词 ANTIBIOTICS Antibiotic STEWARDSHIP DRUG Resistance INFECTIOUS Disease KUWAIT
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饮用水处理工艺对抗生素抗性基因的去除现状 认领
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作者 张国芳 《净水技术》 CAS 2020年第S01期1-6,105,共7页
近年来,抗生素抗性基因在水源水中的频繁检出及其对饮用水生物安全的潜在风险备受关注。文中系统归纳了饮用水处理各单元(混凝沉淀、砂滤、臭氧、UV及氯消毒等)和新型消毒技术(超滤膜、光催化和联合去除技术)对抗生素抗性基因的去除规... 近年来,抗生素抗性基因在水源水中的频繁检出及其对饮用水生物安全的潜在风险备受关注。文中系统归纳了饮用水处理各单元(混凝沉淀、砂滤、臭氧、UV及氯消毒等)和新型消毒技术(超滤膜、光催化和联合去除技术)对抗生素抗性基因的去除规律、影响因素(如pH、温度、有机物)以及消毒副产物生成等,分析了实际水厂应用的可行性、经济性,展望了饮用水中抗生素抗性基因生物安全风险防控的研究发展,为饮用水安全保障提供了建议。 展开更多
关键词 饮用水 抗生素 抗生素抗性基因 处理技术
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