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儿童旅游认知的探索性研究 认领
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作者 钟士恩 黄佩红 +2 位作者 彭红松 徐彩霞 颜丙金 《旅游学刊》 CSSCI 北大核心 2020年第2期38-52,共15页
儿童参与的旅游,无论是"以乐为中心"的家庭旅游模式,抑或"以儿童为中心"的亲子旅游模式,均具有鲜明的成人主义性质。文章试图从儿童的视角/声音对儿童旅游认知进行探索性研究,核心命题聚焦儿童如何定义旅游,旅游与... 儿童参与的旅游,无论是"以乐为中心"的家庭旅游模式,抑或"以儿童为中心"的亲子旅游模式,均具有鲜明的成人主义性质。文章试图从儿童的视角/声音对儿童旅游认知进行探索性研究,核心命题聚焦儿童如何定义旅游,旅游与游戏/玩有什么区别,旅游之于儿童的价值和意义是什么,旅游的"儿童版本"与"成人版本"之间存在哪些差异。研究方法采用结构化的妈妈语式访谈法,研究案例地为南京市红山森林动物园和玄武湖公园,研究对象主要为4岁以上、12岁以下儿童(幼儿园和小学阶段儿童)。研究结果显示:(1)"小小人类"远超成人的想象,多数儿童能够通过空间、速度、数量、比较、因果、抽象、逻辑以及感觉、情感类语言来描述旅游、认知旅游",旅游感"十足。(2)从家庭环境、学校环境变换到旅游环境,儿童旅游认知呈现出4个鲜明的主题,分别是旅游与"玩"、旅游与"爸爸妈妈"、旅游与"学习""、喜欢"与"不喜欢"。(3)旅游是比"玩""更好玩"的游戏,是和爸爸妈妈一起、离开家、去外面不一样的地方、开心尽情地玩。理解旅游的"儿童版本"将会丰富旅游学的研究内容,同样有助于回答旅游的"成人版本"。儿童研究具有趣味性,研究者需要具有童心。妈妈语式访谈法是研究早期、中期儿童相对有效的方法,但需严格遵循儿童研究伦理和实施要领。 展开更多
关键词 儿童 儿童旅游 儿童教育 亲子关系 儿童旅游认知 妈妈语
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On the Co-development of Children’s Foreign Language and Drawing Abilities and Its Enlightenment to Children’sEnglish Teaching 认领
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作者 CHE Huan-huan 《美中外语:英文版》 2020年第1期25-31,共7页
In modern education,children’s cognitive thinking expression is first structured from their graphic language.Pictures are recognized as one of the most effective and vivid ways to communicate with children’s inner w... In modern education,children’s cognitive thinking expression is first structured from their graphic language.Pictures are recognized as one of the most effective and vivid ways to communicate with children’s inner world.In light of language acquisition in cognitive linguistics and children’s drawing psychology,this paper first demonstrates the possibility of the coordinated development of children’s foreign language and drawing abilities from the aspects of acquisition mechanism,acquisition object,and acquisition method.Then combined with the cognitive characteristics of children of different ages in language and drawing,some suggestions for designing activities that combine“drawing”and“English”in children’s English teaching are given. 展开更多
关键词 cognitive LINGUISTICS children’s foreign language ABILITY children’s DRAWING ABILITY children’s English teaching
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利福平耐药实时荧光定量核酸扩增在儿童结核性脑膜炎诊断中的应用价值 认领
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作者 王晓霞 邱微 黄绍梅 《临床医药实践》 2020年第1期5-8,共4页
目的:回顾性分析广州市胸科医院儿科利福平耐药实时荧光定量核酸扩增(Xpert MTB/RIF)检测在儿童结核性脑膜炎诊断中的价值。方法:选择2016年2月—2019年2月广州市胸科医院儿科住院的诊断为结核性脑膜炎的患者47例,对脑脊液标本分别采用X... 目的:回顾性分析广州市胸科医院儿科利福平耐药实时荧光定量核酸扩增(Xpert MTB/RIF)检测在儿童结核性脑膜炎诊断中的价值。方法:选择2016年2月—2019年2月广州市胸科医院儿科住院的诊断为结核性脑膜炎的患者47例,对脑脊液标本分别采用Xpert MTB/RIF法、结核菌涂片检查法和结核分枝杆菌培养法三种检测方法,比较三种检测结果。结果:Xpert MTB/RIF法、结核菌涂片检查法和结核分枝杆菌培养法三种检测方法的阳性率分别为12,76%,0和14.87%;Xpert MTB/RIF方法的阳性率明显高于结核菌涂片检查法,与结核分枝杆菌培养法比较,差异无统计学意义(χ^2=0.089,P=0.765)。结论:Xpert MTB/RIF检测方法比传统结核菌涂片检查法具有明显优势,与结核分枝杆菌培养法比较无明显优势,不能取代结核分枝杆菌培养法。因其简便、快速及可检测利福平耐药情况的优点可为儿童结核性脑膜炎患儿的诊断及治疗提供依据。 展开更多
关键词 核酸扩增技术 结核性脑膜炎 儿童
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Predictors of Malaria Prevalence and Coverage of Insecticide-Treated Bednets among Under-Five Children in the Buea Health District, South West Region, Cameroon 认领
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作者 Mohamed Isah Ngwa Fabrice Ambe +3 位作者 Tanyi Pride Bobga Ateh Stanislas Ketum Misonge Kapnang Ivan Mentoh Ajem Abungwi 《生物科学与医学(英文)》 2020年第2期25-40,共16页
Introduction: Cameroon is a hyperendemic country to malaria where it remains a major public health concern, especially amongst children under-five. Insecticide-treated bednets (ITBNs) is the main control strategies. T... Introduction: Cameroon is a hyperendemic country to malaria where it remains a major public health concern, especially amongst children under-five. Insecticide-treated bednets (ITBNs) is the main control strategies. This study aimed at determining the predictors of malaria prevalence and coverage of ITBNs among under-five children in the Buea Health District (BHD), South West Region of Cameroon in other to reduce the morbidity and mortality of malaria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the BHD which is a malaria-hyperendemic area. Every head (female/male) of the household who was present at home at the time of data collection was randomly interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Under-five children were ascertained for malaria using microscopy, with a temperature of ≥37.50&deg;C. Results: Out of 391 children (mean age = 19.7 month, SD = 2.5) who were selected and ascertained for malaria, the overall malaria prevalence was 13.04% (95% CI: 10.04 - 16.78). In a multivariate analysis after adjusting for confounders, female parents/guardians (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.29 - 0.91) was associated with low risk of malaria while parents/guardians with no formal/primary educational (AOR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.76 - 4.04) and children who did not use ITBN (AOR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.08 - 2.51) were associated with an increased risk of malaria. Out of the selected children, 84.4% possessed ITBN (95% CI: 80.4 - 87.7) while 72.6% (95% CI: 67.9 - 76.8) used ITBN. In a multivariate after adjusting for confounders, Bova health area showed a significantly lower usage of ITBNs (χ 2 = 14.053, p = 0.003). Conclusion: The findings indicate that increased ITBN usage, increased parents/guardians’ educational level and good knowledge of ITBN is required to lower the risk of under-five children being infected with malaria. Health area of residence greatly influences the direct relationship between bednets possession and usage. These, therefore, indicates the possession of ITBN doesn’t mean their usage. The Cameroon National m 展开更多
关键词 MALARIA PREVALENCE Bednets Children Under-Five
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Reliability and Clinical Significance of the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) in the Greek Language in Children Aged 4 to 18 Years 认领
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作者 Victoria Laspa Thomas Besios +4 位作者 Alexandra Xristara George Tsigaras Maria Milioudi Savvas Mauromoustakos Stauros Kottaras 《预防医学期刊(英文)》 2020年第5期73-81,共9页
Introduction: In recent years, many tests have been developed to assess the mobility and functional capacity of children with motor dysfunctions. The Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) is a qualitative assessment test of t... Introduction: In recent years, many tests have been developed to assess the mobility and functional capacity of children with motor dysfunctions. The Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) is a qualitative assessment test of the motor behavior of children aged 4 to 18 years. Purpose: The purpose of the proposed research is to determine the external reliability of the test Pediatric Balance Scale translated for the first time in Greek in children aged 4 to 18 years, in order to have a reliable tool in the hands of experts. Method: 26 children (14 girls and 12 boys with an average age of ±10,673 years of age) participated in this research. The Greek adaptation of the PBS and a Nikon 5300 digital camera for video recording were used for data collection. Results: The results found that there were no statistically significant differences between the two independent evaluators and that the Pediatric Balance Scale test had strong reliability. Overall, the results of the present investigation provided considerable evidence suggesting that the Greek adaptation of the PBS test has good inter-rater reliability and can be used to detect kinetic disorders in children aged 4 to 18 years for the Greek population. 展开更多
关键词 PBS CHILDREN Evaluation RELIABILITY
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Parental Presence Promoted Children Anesthesia Recovery: A Randomized Controlled Study 认领
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作者 Rong Hai Liu Zhang +2 位作者 Xin Liang Gaijing Wang Zumei Gao 《长江医药(英文)》 2020年第1期54-61,共8页
Objective: There are few studies about restlessness and awakening of children during recovering from anesthesia accompanied by parents. Only one related study was retrieved in China. The purpose of this study is to in... Objective: There are few studies about restlessness and awakening of children during recovering from anesthesia accompanied by parents. Only one related study was retrieved in China. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of awakening, agitation and pain level in children after tonsillectomy accompanied by their parents. Methods: Children who met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into experimental group and control group according to coin tossing method. There were 30 cases in the experimental group and 32 in the control group. The control group received routine nursing while the experimental group was given parental presence on the basis of routine nursing. Steward awakening score, Pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium (PAED), Scale and FLACC pain assessment scale were used to evaluate the children when they entered anesthesia recovery room and awaked respectively. Results: There was no significant difference in the scoring of three scales between the two groups when they entered anesthesia recovery room (P > 0.05). There was significant difference in Steward awakening score and PAED scale between the two groups when they came to recovery room (P P > 0.05). Conclusion: Parental presence can improve the recovery effect and reduce the restlessness of children after operation. Our study suggests that anesthetic children should be accompanied by their parents in the future. 展开更多
关键词 PARENTAL PRESENCE CHILDREN AGITATION PAIN
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Antibiotic Resistance Trends of Nasal Staphylococcal Isolates from Namibian School Children 认领
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作者 Sunette Walter Ronnie B?ck 《生物科学与医学(英文)》 2020年第3期18-27,共10页
Nasal colonization with Staphylococcus strains puts children at risk of developing difficult-to-treat staphylococcal infections. Antibiotic resistance data is limited in Namibia. Our study thus aimed to provide resist... Nasal colonization with Staphylococcus strains puts children at risk of developing difficult-to-treat staphylococcal infections. Antibiotic resistance data is limited in Namibia. Our study thus aimed to provide resistance trends for nasal staphylococci isolated from school children in the Mariental District. This is the first report on antibiotic resistance trends of staphylococci from Namibian school children. By Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay, 352 Staphylococcus aureus and 81 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolates from Namibian school children aged 6 - 14 years underwent susceptibility testing against seven antibiotics. Ninety-six percent S. aureus and 66.7% CoNS were resistant to ampicillin. Ampicillin resistance was significantly higher in S. aureus than in CoNS (P S. aureus. Ciprofloxacin was also the most effective drug against CoNS. Cefoxitin/methicillin resistance was seen in 14.5% S. aureus isolates and 8.6% of CoNS. Thirty-one antibiotic resistance patterns were observed, most frequently ampicillin (A), ampicillin-erythromycin (AP-E), and ampicillin-tetracycline (AP-T). Altogether 12.5% isolates (50 S. aureus and four CoNS) were multi-drug resistant. From the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates, 43.1% were multi-drug resistant. Methicillin-resistant CoNS were not multi-drug resistant, with the most common resistance pattern being ampicillin-rifampicin-cefoxitin (AP-RP-FOX). In conclusion, multi-drug resistance in our study was relatively low. However, some of the MRSA isolates were multi-drug resistant, which is of concern. Learners should be educated on the importance of handwashing and appropriate use of antibiotics to prevent spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria within the community. Ciprofloxacin and gentamicin may effectively be used to treat staphylococcal infections in this study population. 展开更多
关键词 STAPHYLOCOCCUS Resistance TRENDS CHILDREN Namibia
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Trans-Thoracic Echocardiographic Aortic Blood Flow Peak Velocity Variation, Distance Minute, Aortic Velocity Time Integral and Postoperative Outcome in Pediatric Surgical Patients—An Observational Pilot Study Protocol 认领
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作者 Claudine Kumba 《内科学期刊(英文)》 2020年第1期90-95,共6页
Background: A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) has been elaborated where goal directed fluid and hemodynamic therapy (GDFHT) will be realized with trans-thoracic echocardiographic aortic blood flow peak velocity vari... Background: A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) has been elaborated where goal directed fluid and hemodynamic therapy (GDFHT) will be realized with trans-thoracic echocardiographic aortic blood flow peak velocity variation (ΔVpeak) and distance minute (DM) to guide fluid therapy and hemodynamics in high risk pediatric surgical patients. This RCT will clarify the impact of GDFHT with ΔVpeak and DM on postoperative outcome in terms of morbidity, length of stay in the intensive care unit (LOSICU), length of mechanical ventilation (LMV) and length of hospital stay (LOS) in children. To determine values of ΔVpeak, DM and VTI predictive of these postoperative outcomes, an observational pilot study will be realized. This pilot study is described here. The primary objective of this study is to determine values of ΔVpeak, DM and ITV predictive of postoperative outcome in children in terms of morbidity. The secondary objectives are to determine values of ΔVpeak, DM and ITV predictive of LOSICU, LMV, LOS, intraoperative, postoperative fluid administration and vasoactive-inotropic therapy. Methods: 500 - 1000 children aged less than 18 years will be included prospectively. Statistic analysis will be realized with XLSTAT 2019.4.2 software or plus. Results and Conclusions: This trial protocol will determine values of ΔVpeak, DM and ITV with echocardiography predictive of postoperative outcome in children. 展开更多
关键词 Children AORTIC Blood Flow Peak VELOCITY Variation AORTIC VELOCITY Time Integral DISTANCE MINUTE Postoperative Outcome Pilot Study Protocol Trans-Thoracic Echocardiography
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The Prevalence and Determinants of Stunting among Children 6 - 59 Months of Age in One of the Sub-Counties in the Rwenzori Sub-Region, Western Uganda 认领
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作者 Enos Mirembe Masereka Arthur Kiconco +1 位作者 Edson Katsomyo Clement Munguiko 《护理学期刊(英文)》 2020年第3期239-251,共13页
Introduction: Despite being referred to as one of the country’s “food baskets”, 41% of children, 6 - 59 months of age in the Rwenzori sub-region, Western Uganda are stunted. Stunting is a form of chronic malnutriti... Introduction: Despite being referred to as one of the country’s “food baskets”, 41% of children, 6 - 59 months of age in the Rwenzori sub-region, Western Uganda are stunted. Stunting is a form of chronic malnutrition in which children are short for their age. In this study, we established the prevalence and determinants of stunting in one of the sub-counties in this region. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in one of the sub-counties in the Rwenzori sub-region, Western Uganda from May 26th to June 26th, 2018. A total of 372 mothers and their children were recruited using systematic sampling. Data was collected using a questionnaire. Stunting was determined by taking child’s height or length and comparing it with child’s age. A child whose height or length for age index was less than &#8722;2 Standard Deviations (SD) was considered stunted. We used descriptive statistics to understand characteristics of mothers and multivariable logistic regression model to obtain the determinants of stunting. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: A total of 372 mothers and their children were included in this study;majority, 307 (83.0%) of the children were 6 - 24 months old and nearly half, 167 (44.9%) were stunted. We found that reserving food stock for use in the dry season (aOR = 0.23, CI = 0.08 - 0.62, p = 0.004), deworming children (aOR = 0.32, CI = 0.18 - 0.54, p = 0.001) and the family earning at least 10,000 Ushs (2.7USD) at the end of the month (aOR = 0.36, CI = 0.22 - 0.58, P = 0.001) were associated with no stunting. Conclusions: We found a high prevalence of stunting among children 6 - 59 months of age. We recommend enforcing ownership of food granary by households especially during dry season, support to de-worming programs targeting children below five years of age and establishing community based income generating livelihood projects. 展开更多
关键词 Determinants STUNTING Chronic MALNUTRITION CHILDREN WESTERN Uganda
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微信为平台的健康教育在小儿骨折患者家属中的应用效果分析 认领
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作者 王曼 《健康教育与健康促进》 2020年第1期86-88,共3页
目的探讨基于微信平台的健康教育指导对骨折患儿家属的临床效果.方法2018年7月-2019年7月,选择骨折患儿共170例,并以患儿其中一位家属作为研究对象.将所有患儿家属按照数字随机表的方法分为两组,分别是对照组和研究组,每组85例.对照组... 目的探讨基于微信平台的健康教育指导对骨折患儿家属的临床效果.方法2018年7月-2019年7月,选择骨折患儿共170例,并以患儿其中一位家属作为研究对象.将所有患儿家属按照数字随机表的方法分为两组,分别是对照组和研究组,每组85例.对照组给予常规宣教,研究组给予微信为平台的健康教育宣传.比对两组治疗依从性、护理前后患儿的康复情况以及患儿家属对于健康知识的知晓率、患儿发生并发症的几率.结果研究组患儿的治疗依从性(96.47%)明显高于对照组的(87.06%)(P<0.05).护理后研究组患儿的康复优良率以及患儿家属对于健康知识的知晓率均明显高于对照组(P<0.05).研究组患儿发生压疮、肺炎以及切口感染等并发症的几率(2.35%)明显低于对照组(10.59%)(P<0.05).结论对骨折患儿家属给予微信平台的健康教育指导,提高了安全性,在一定程度上更加利于患儿的预后康复. 展开更多
关键词 微信平台 健康教育 小儿 骨折患儿 并发症
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Congenital Urinary Tract Anomalies: About Cases 80 Cases at the University Hospital of Brazzaville 认领
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作者 Anani Wencesl Séverin Odzébé Crayne Mboutol Mandavo +1 位作者 Irene Patricia Lucie Ondima Prosper Alain Bouya 《泌尿学期刊(英文)》 2020年第1期8-15,共8页
Objective: To determine the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of urinary tract anomalies in children in our environment. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted in the pediatric sur... Objective: To determine the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of urinary tract anomalies in children in our environment. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted in the pediatric surgery and urology-andrology departments of the University Hospital of Brazzaville, from January 2012 to December 2017. Children aged 0 to 17 years old hospitalized for a malformation of the urinary tract were included. Results: The frequency of urinary tract anomalies was 1% of all patients admitted during the study period. The average age of the patients was 6.1 years (range, 0 - 17 years). The most common motive of consultation was ectopic urethral meatus (66.2%), vesical urine retention (18.7%) and lumbar spine pain (6.3%). Hypospadias was more common with 58.7%, followed by posterior urethral valves (20%), uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (7.5%). The most frequent preoperative complications were urinary tract infection (11.3%), urolithiasis (3.7%) and renal failure (2.5%). The treatment was surgical including urethroplasty (70.1%), or instrumental based on destruction of valves (16.9%). Conclusion: Urinary tract anomalies suffer late diagnosis and treatment in our practice. An antenatal screening strategy should be put in place to improve care to prevent the occurrence of complications. 展开更多
关键词 MALFORMATIONS URINARY TRACT Children BRAZZAVILLE
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学前教育变革中儿童立场的审思 认领
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作者 王春燕 张传红 《幼儿教育:教育科学》 2020年第3期3-6,32共5页
本文从厘清儿童立场的内涵出发,阐述了坚守儿童立场的缘由,又分析了实践中儿童立场的乱象,提出坚守儿童立场应当尊重儿童,但不盲从儿童;应当理解儿童,尤其要理解儿童文化;应当促进儿童发展,秉承儿童优先原则。
关键词 儿童 学前教育变革 儿童立场
Ocular Findings in HIV-Positive Children in Two Hospital Facilities in Yaoundé, Cameroon 认领
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作者 Christelle Domngang Nelly Kamgaing +2 位作者 Chantal Nanfack Ngoune Josephine Ngapou Chapeh Giles Kagmeni 《眼科学期刊(英文)》 2020年第2期180-189,共10页
Background: HIV infection in children as well as adults remain a disease with potential multisystemic disorders despite the increased use of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). The aim of this work was to de... Background: HIV infection in children as well as adults remain a disease with potential multisystemic disorders despite the increased use of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). The aim of this work was to determine the profile of eye diseases among HIV-positive children aged 5 to 15 years in the Mother and Child Centre of the Chantal Biya Foundation and the University Hospital Centre (UHC) in Yaoundé. Materials and Methods: an analytical study was conducted from June 1, to July 31, 2019. Our sample consisted of all children aged 5 - 18 years who were HIV positive and whose parent or legal guardian gave his or her consent. A complete clinical examination was performed. The following variables were collected: socio-demographic data, Immunological data. A comprehensive eye exam was also performed. Data were analysed by the Epi info 3.5.4 software. Results: A total of 53 children were retained for the study. The population consisted of 28 boys (52.3%), for a sex ratio of 1.12. The mean age was 12.7 ± 4.2 years [5 - 18 years]. And 84.9% of children had normal immune status. The average duration of HAART was 8.3 ± 3.9 years [0 to 16 years] with more than half (50.9%) of the children on treatment for more than 8 years. The main eye complaints were pruritus (11.32%), eye pain (11.32%) and tingling (9.43%). The frequency of ophthalmological manifestations was 52.8% with adnexal involvement the most frequent (34%), followed by anterior (7.5%) and posterior segment involvement (1.9%). Anterior segment involvement was marked by granulomatous anterior uveitis, keratouveitis and corneal ulcer. A cytomegalovirus retinitis and a macular scar of a unilateral retinitis were found in 2 patients. In a multivariate analysis, elevated CD4 count (>500) was associated with ocular manifestations. Conclusion: In the HAART era, an ocular examination is mandatory to prevent harmful eye diseases among children because ophthalmological diseases remain frequent. Although they are most often lesions of the annexes, corneal and chor 展开更多
关键词 HAART UVEITIS CHILDREN RETINITIS eye HIV CD4
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童书里的“爱情”:儿童的“爱情”与教育 认领
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作者 王瑞珺 郑三元 《陕西学前师范学院学报》 2020年第2期29-34,共6页
以“爱情”为主题的童书不胜枚举,不免令人困惑:“儿童也有爱情吗”?通过阅读相关童书并分析其中所蕴含的儿童爱情观,结合现实生活中儿童“爱情”的表现,可以发现:儿童的“爱情”虽受成人文化的影响,但与“早恋”、“性”等无关,而是孩... 以“爱情”为主题的童书不胜枚举,不免令人困惑:“儿童也有爱情吗”?通过阅读相关童书并分析其中所蕴含的儿童爱情观,结合现实生活中儿童“爱情”的表现,可以发现:儿童的“爱情”虽受成人文化的影响,但与“早恋”、“性”等无关,而是孩子向他人表达的真诚而美好的善意。所以,当成人面对儿童的“爱情”时,应转变观念,正视儿童的“爱情”;可以借助童书,守护儿童美好的情感;也要身体力行,引导儿童学会爱。 展开更多
关键词 儿童 爱情与教育 童书
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中国儿童抗肿瘤药物临床试验的伦理问题探讨及实践 认领
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作者 和龙 刘新琦 +1 位作者 王玲 赵侠 《中国医学伦理学》 2020年第2期175-179,共5页
儿童抗肿瘤药物临床试验与成人临床试验有着显著的区别,通过一项氯法拉滨注射液儿童临床试验项目的实施,对该项目涉及的特殊伦理问题进行了深入的分析和讨论,最后提出对于儿童肿瘤患者参与的临床试验应重点关注以下几个环节:知情同意过... 儿童抗肿瘤药物临床试验与成人临床试验有着显著的区别,通过一项氯法拉滨注射液儿童临床试验项目的实施,对该项目涉及的特殊伦理问题进行了深入的分析和讨论,最后提出对于儿童肿瘤患者参与的临床试验应重点关注以下几个环节:知情同意过程应充分考虑儿童患者本人的意愿;注意在临床试验的方案设计应与儿科临床实践相结合;强调儿童受试者的监护人在临床试验中作用;试验实施过程中应重视对儿童受试者的关怀;肿瘤患儿在参与抗肿瘤临床试验过程的特殊保护、受益与风险评价、补偿及损害赔偿机制设计。 展开更多
关键词 儿童 肿瘤 临床试验 儿童受试者 知情同意
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Brain Complications with Influenza Infection in Children 认领
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作者 Qinglian Chen Peiqing Li +3 位作者 Suyun Li Weiqiang Xiao Sida Yang Hui Lu 《行为与脑科学期刊(英文)》 2020年第3期129-152,共24页
Objectives: To summarize the characteristics and research progress of influenza-associated brain complications in children and provide references for early diagnosis and brain protection treatment. Methods: Studied pu... Objectives: To summarize the characteristics and research progress of influenza-associated brain complications in children and provide references for early diagnosis and brain protection treatment. Methods: Studied published articles of influenza-associated neurocomplications in children from PubMed and summarizes them from epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment, and basic research progress. Results: Common brain complications in flu-children include febrile seizures, influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE), acute or post-influenza encephalitis, and the most severe condition is acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE). However, the mechanism and relevant factors of influenza-associated brain damage have not been elucidated. Conclusion: Influenza could be accompanied by various brain lesion complications in dif ferent stages of the disease, some of which are life-threatening or leave severe neurological sequelae, such as ANE. Due to different brain injury mechanisms, specific early diagnosis and brain protection treatment for different complications are unclear or unanimous. Therefore, further classification and basic research are needed. 展开更多
关键词 BRAIN LESIONS Risk FACTOR INFLUENZA CHILDREN
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儿童恶探微及其救赎 认领
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作者 李晋刚 《当代教育理论与实践》 2020年第2期20-28,共9页
儿童非但有天使之称,儿童的破坏性、侵犯性、与伦理道德为敌和屡破法律底线充分说明“熊孩子”与儿童恶的在场。恶之源可能包含“原罪”、本性、私有制、邪恶传承、文化环境影响、自由意志、伦理观不同和精神疾病等。可以通过教化育人... 儿童非但有天使之称,儿童的破坏性、侵犯性、与伦理道德为敌和屡破法律底线充分说明“熊孩子”与儿童恶的在场。恶之源可能包含“原罪”、本性、私有制、邪恶传承、文化环境影响、自由意志、伦理观不同和精神疾病等。可以通过教化育人、道化肉身、他律管束与社会进步对儿童恶进行多维救椟。儿童的善与恶是对立统一的,并且其善远大于恶。此处讨论恶,是为了更深层次地认识儿童,认识儿童的伦理与道德,更好地发展、完善更高的善。 展开更多
关键词 儿童 人性 儿童恶 救赎
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留守儿童更信任他人吗? 来自实验经济学的证据 认领
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作者 杨晓兰 C.Bram Cadsby 宋菲 《南方经济》 CSSCI 北大核心 2020年第4期29-39,共11页
文章采用经典的信任博弈框架,用实验经济学方法比较城市儿童、农村留守儿童和农村非留守儿童的信任行为。实验结果发现,农村留守儿童对他人的信任水平显著高于城市儿童,而农村留守儿童和非留守儿童的信任水平没有显著差异。在控制了性... 文章采用经典的信任博弈框架,用实验经济学方法比较城市儿童、农村留守儿童和农村非留守儿童的信任行为。实验结果发现,农村留守儿童对他人的信任水平显著高于城市儿童,而农村留守儿童和非留守儿童的信任水平没有显著差异。在控制了性别、民族、兄弟姐妹数量等人口学特征后,农村身份对儿童的信任水平有显著正向影响,父母双方外出务工、一方外出务工对信任水平均无显著影响。从被信任度来看,三组儿童中,城市儿童被信任度最低,农村留守儿童被信任度最高,但考虑人口学特征后,农村身份、留守身份均不影响被信任度。结合儿童在利他实验中的表现,文章还发现在利他行为中表现为无私型的儿童比平等型和恶意型有更高的信任水平。研究结果表明与同年龄城市儿童相比,农村儿童而不仅是农村留守儿童更信任他人。 展开更多
关键词 儿童 留守儿童 信任博弈 实验
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重视娃娃家游戏提高幼儿同伴协商水平的研究 认领
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作者 方云雁 《成才之路》 2020年第8期46-47,共2页
文章以调研为基础,以娃娃家游戏为例,探讨通过娃娃家游戏提高幼儿同伴协商水平的策略。幼儿园方面要切实贯彻培养目标,全面加强教师培训,合理投放游戏材料,高度关注家园合作;教师方面要把握介入时机,注意指导方式,留心观察幼儿;家长方... 文章以调研为基础,以娃娃家游戏为例,探讨通过娃娃家游戏提高幼儿同伴协商水平的策略。幼儿园方面要切实贯彻培养目标,全面加强教师培训,合理投放游戏材料,高度关注家园合作;教师方面要把握介入时机,注意指导方式,留心观察幼儿;家长方面要更新教育理念,发挥榜样作用,增加陪伴时间。 展开更多
关键词 幼儿 同伴协商 水平 娃娃家 游戏 幼儿园 教师 家长
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Height/Length and Weight Growth Curves and Growth References of Children Aged 0 - 7 in Chongqing by GAMLSS 认领
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作者 Qian Chen Jiaxiu Liu +1 位作者 Kaocong Tian Zhaohai Liu 《健康(英文)》 2020年第2期86-98,共13页
Aim: Using the generalised additive model for location, the scale and shape (GAMLSS), the standard of height (length), weight and percentage curve of children were formulated to understand the growth law in Chongqing ... Aim: Using the generalised additive model for location, the scale and shape (GAMLSS), the standard of height (length), weight and percentage curve of children were formulated to understand the growth law in Chongqing and to provide a reference for clinical and preventive health care work of paediatrics in West China. Methods: Data were collected from the health clinic dataset of children aged 0 - 7 years in the Department of Child Health Care of a Third-Class A hospital in Chongqing from 2010 to 2017. By applying the GAMLSS technology and taking D(μ, σ, ν, τ) as the specific distribution form, BCT as the link function, P-spline function and cubic splines function as the smoothing function, the unit value of age-specific standard deviation of height (length) and weight were obtained, and the percentile map was drawn. Results: Based on the principle of minimum AIC and SBC values, BCT distribution was chosen as the model of the link function. Fitting results of height (length) and weight parameters of boys and girls, standard deviation tables of age and percentile curves were obtained. Conclusions: This study was an exploration of using GAMLSS method to establish a reference value range in the field of children’s growth and development in China. It could supplement the relevant data of Chongqing area for Reference standard for growth and development of children under 7 years of age in China, and also provide a reference for the rational diagnosis of children’s short stature and malnutrition in Chongqing. 展开更多
关键词 CHILDREN HEIGHT WEIGHT GROWTH CURVE GAMLSS
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