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Circular RNAs in early brain development and their influence and clinical significance in neuropsychiatric disorders 预览
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作者 Chuan-Jun Zhuo Wei-Hong Hou +5 位作者 De-Guo Jiang Hong-Jun Tian Li-Na Wang Feng Jia Chun-Hua Zhou Jing-Jing Zhu 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第5期817-823,共7页
Neuropsychiatric disorders represent a set of severe and complex mental illnesses,and the exact etiologies of which are unknown.It has been well documented that impairments in the early development of the brain contri... Neuropsychiatric disorders represent a set of severe and complex mental illnesses,and the exact etiologies of which are unknown.It has been well documented that impairments in the early development of the brain contribute to the pathogenesis of many neuropsychiatric disorders.Currently,the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders largely relies on subjective cognitive assessment,because there are no widely accepted biochemical or genetic biomarkers for diagnosing mental illness.Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of endogenous non-coding RNA (ncRNA) with a closed-loop structure.In recent years,there have been tremendous advances in our understanding of the expression profiles and biological roles of circRNAs.In the brain,circRNAs are particularly enriched and are expressed more abundantly in contrast to linear counterpart transcripts.They are highly active at neuronal synapses.These features make circRNAs uniquely crucial for understanding brain health,disease,and neuropsychiatric disorders.This review focuses on the role of circRNAs in early brain development and other brain-related processes that have been associated with the development of neuropsychiatric disorders.In addition,we discuss the potential for blood or cerebrospinal fluid circRNAs to be used as novel biomarkers in the early diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders.The findings reviewed here may provide new insight into the pathological mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of neuropsychiatric disorders. 展开更多
关键词 AUTISM spectrum DISORDERS bipolar disorder brain exosomal circRNAs microRNAs nerve regeneration NON-CODING RNAS OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDERS SCHIZOPHRENIA
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Complement activation in obesity,insulin resistance,and type 2 diabetes mellitus 预览
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作者 Kyumin Shim Rayhana Begum +1 位作者 Catherine Yang Hongbin Wang 《世界糖尿病杂志:英文版(电子版)》 2020年第1期1-12,共12页
Amplified inflammatory reaction has been observed to be involved in cardiometabolic diseases such as obesity,insulin resistance,diabetes,dyslipidemia,and atherosclerosis.The complement system was originally viewed as ... Amplified inflammatory reaction has been observed to be involved in cardiometabolic diseases such as obesity,insulin resistance,diabetes,dyslipidemia,and atherosclerosis.The complement system was originally viewed as a supportive first line of defense against microbial invaders,and research over the past decade has come to appreciate that the functions of the complement system extend beyond the defense and elimination of microbes,involving in such diverse processes as clearance of the immune complexes,complementing T and B cell immune functions,tissue regeneration,and metabolism.The focus of this review is to summarize the role of the activation of complement system and the initiation and progression of metabolic disorders including obesity,insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.In addition,we briefly describe the interaction of the activation of the complement system with diabetic complications such as diabetic retinopathy,nephropathy and neuropathy,highlighting that targeting complement system therapeutics could be one of possible routes to slow down those aforementioned diabetic complications. 展开更多
关键词 INFLAMMATION Complement activation Metabolic disorders OBESITY Insulin resistance Type 2 diabetic mellitus
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Pathological significance of tRNA-derived small RNAs in neurological disorders 预览
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作者 Chuan Qin Pei-Pei Xu +7 位作者 Xin Zhang Chao Zhang Chang-Bin Liu De-Gang Yang Feng Gao Ming-Liang Yang Liang-Jie Du Jian-Jun Li 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第2期212-221,共10页
Non-coding RNAs(ncRNAs) are a type of RNA that is not translated into proteins. Transfer RNAs(tRNAs), a type of ncRNA, are the second most abundant type of RNA in cells. Recent studies have shown that tRNAs can be cle... Non-coding RNAs(ncRNAs) are a type of RNA that is not translated into proteins. Transfer RNAs(tRNAs), a type of ncRNA, are the second most abundant type of RNA in cells. Recent studies have shown that tRNAs can be cleaved into a heterogeneous population of ncRNAs with lengths of 18–40 nucleotides, known as tRNA-derived small RNAs(tsRNAs). There are two main types of tsRNA, based on their length and the number of cleavage sites that they contain: tRNA-derived fragments and tRNA-derived stress-induced RNAs. These RNA species were first considered to be byproducts of tRNA random cleavage. However, mounting evidence has demonstrated their critical functional roles as regulatory factors in the pathophysiological processes of various diseases, including neurological diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms by which tsRNAs affect specific cellular processes are largely unknown. Therefore, this study comprehensively summarizes the following points:(1) The biogenetics of tsRNA, including their discovery, classification, formation, and the roles of key enzymes.(2) The main biological functions of tsRNA, including its miRNA-like roles in gene expression regulation, protein translation regulation, regulation of various cellular activities, immune mediation, and response to stress.(3) The potential mechanisms of pathophysiological changes in neurological diseases that are regulated by tsRNA, including neurodegeneration and neurotrauma.(4) The identification of the functional diversity of tsRNA may provide valuable information regarding the physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms of neurological disorders, thus providing a new reference for the clinical treatment of neurological diseases. Research into tsRNAs in neurological diseases also has the following challenges: potential function and mechanism studies, how to accurately quantify expression, and the exact relationship between tsRNA and miRNA. These challenges require future research efforts. 展开更多
关键词 EPIGENETICS molecular biology NEUROLOGICAL disorders review sequencing STRESS tRNA tRNA-derived FRAGMENTS tRNA-derived small RNAs tRNA-derived stress-induced RNA
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Current status and future prospects of stem cell therapy in Alzheimer’s disease 预览
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作者 Fu-Qiang Zhang Jin-Lan Jiang +3 位作者 Jing-Tian Zhang Han Niu Xue-Qi Fu Lin-Lin Zeng 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第2期242-250,共9页
Alzheimer’s disease is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder, pathologically characterized by the presence of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Current treatment approaches using drugs only al... Alzheimer’s disease is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder, pathologically characterized by the presence of β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Current treatment approaches using drugs only alleviate the symptoms without curing the disease, which is a serious issue and influences the quality of life of the patients and their caregivers. In recent years, stem cell technology has provided new insights into the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Currently, the main sources of stem cells include neural stem cells, embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology and general treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, and the current state of stem cell transplantation in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. We also assess future challenges in the clinical application and drug development of stem cell transplantation as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. 展开更多
关键词 Alzheimer's disease β-amyloid drug development embryonic STEM CELLS induced PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS mesenchymal STEM CELLS nerve REGENERATION NEURAL REGENERATION NEURAL STEM CELLS NEURODEGENERATIVE disorders STEM cell therapy
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Synaptic development of layer V pyramidal neurons in the prenatal human prefrontal neocortex: a Neurolucida-aided Golgi study 预览
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作者 Li-Xin He Lily Wan +3 位作者 Wei Xiang Jian-Ming Li An-Hua Pan Da-Hua Lu 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2020年第8期1490-1495,共6页
The prefrontal neocortex is involved in many high cognitive functions in humans.Deficits in neuronal and neurocircuitry development in this part of the cerebrum have been associated with various neuropsychiatric disor... The prefrontal neocortex is involved in many high cognitive functions in humans.Deficits in neuronal and neurocircuitry development in this part of the cerebrum have been associated with various neuropsychiatric disorders in adolescents and adults.There are currently little available data regarding prenatal dendrite and spine formation on projecting neurons in the human prefrontal neocortex.Previous studies have demonstrated that Golgi silver staining can identify neurons in the frontal lobe and visual cortex in human embryos.In the present study,five fetal brains,at 19,20,26,35,and 38 gestational weeks,were obtained via the body donation program at Xiangya School of Medicine,Central South University,China.Golgi-stained pyramidal neurons in layer V of Brodmann area 46 in fetuses were quantitatively analyzed using the Neurolucida morphometry system.Results revealed that somal size,total dendritic length,and branching points of these neurons increased from 26 to 38 gestational weeks.There was also a large increase in dendritic spines from 35 to 38 gestational weeks.These findings indicate that,in the human prefrontal neocortex,dendritic growth in layer V pyramidal neurons occurs rapidly during the third trimester of gestation.The use of human fetal brain tissue was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Xiangya School of Medicine,Central South University,China(approval No.2011-045)on April 5,2011. 展开更多
关键词 Golgi staining human brain banking NEURODEVELOPMENT Neurolucida neuropsychiatric disorders prefrontal cortex SYNAPTOGENESIS three-dimensional reconstruction
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From Eating to Emotional Eating 预览
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作者 Pnina Hertz 《心理学研究:英文版》 2019年第5期197-202,共6页
Feeding and eating disorders are common in children, and may begin in infancy, in infants who nurse or are bottle-fed. The challenges and difficulties involved in feeding and eating are diverse and characterized diffe... Feeding and eating disorders are common in children, and may begin in infancy, in infants who nurse or are bottle-fed. The challenges and difficulties involved in feeding and eating are diverse and characterized differently at each developmental stage. There may be a continuum between the lack of parental sensitivity in feeding infants and children and eating disorders in adolescence. In other cases, eating disorders, such as emotional eating in adolescence, are a response to environmental-familial complexity and may have genetic components without a primary source in the early stages of development. In the case described in this article, Dalia was treated for about a year for emotional eating, which resulted in excess weight. Other aspects of emotional, social, and interpersonal issues were discussed. Treatment of the symptom was not achieved but due to the therapeutic flexibility and willingness to switch between therapeutic approaches, other important goals were achieved. Treatment using positive psychology with emphasis on empowerment may be beneficial to adolescents while personality is shaped as compared with cognitive-behavioral therapy that requires a long-term commitment. 展开更多
关键词 FEEDING DISORDERS EATING DISORDERS EMOTIONAL EATING cognitive BEHAVIORAL therapy positive PSYCHOLOGY
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Endocannabinoid signaling in psychiatric disorders:a review of positron emission tomography studies
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作者 Matthew E.Sloan Caroline W.Grant +2 位作者 Joshua L.Gowin Vijay A.Ramchandani Bernard Le Foll 《中国药理学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期342-350,共9页
Endocannabinoid signaling is implicated in an array of psychopathologies ranging from anxiety to psychosis and addiction.In recent years,radiotracers targeting the endocannabinoid system have been used in positron emi... Endocannabinoid signaling is implicated in an array of psychopathologies ranging from anxiety to psychosis and addiction.In recent years,radiotracers targeting the endocannabinoid system have been used in positron emission tomography(PET)studies to determine whether individuals with psychiatric disorders display altered endocannabinoid signaling.We comprehensively reviewed PET studies examining differences in endocannabinoid signaling between individuals with psychiatric illness and healthy controls.Published studies evaluated individuals with five psychiatric disorders:cannabis use disorder,alcohol use disorder,schizophrenia,post-traumatic stress disorder,and eating disorders.Most studies employed radiotracers targeting cannabinoid receptor 1(CB1).Cannabis users consistently demonstrated decreased CB1 binding compared to controls,with normalization following short periods of abstinence.Findings in those with alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia were less consistent,with some studies demonstrating increased CB1 binding and others demonstrating decreased CB1 binding.Evidence of aberrant CB1 binding was also found in individuals with anorexia nervosa and post-traumatic stress disorder,but limited data have been published to date.Thus,existing evidence suggests that alterations in endocannabinoid signaling are present in a range of psychiatric disorders.Although recent efforts have largely focused on evaluating CB1 binding,the synthesis of new radiotracers targeting enzymes involved in endocannabinoid degradation,such as fatty acid amide hydrolase,will allow for other facets of endocannabinoid signaling to be evaluated in future studies. 展开更多
关键词 positron emission tomography CANNABINOID receptors ENDOCANNABINOIDS fatty acid amide hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipases CANNABIS use disorder ALCOHOLISM schizophrenia post-traumatic stress DISORDERS feeding and eating DISORDERS
Cerebral organoids exhibit mature neurons and astrocytes and recapitulate electrophysiological activity of the human brain 预览
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作者 Abraam M.Yakoub 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第5期757-761,共5页
Multiple protocols have been devised to generate cerebral organoids that recapitulate features of the developing human brain,including the presence of a large,multi-layered,cortical-like neuronal zone.However,the cent... Multiple protocols have been devised to generate cerebral organoids that recapitulate features of the developing human brain,including the presence of a large,multi-layered,cortical-like neuronal zone.However,the central question is whether these organoids truly present mature,functional neurons and astrocytes,which may qualify the system for in-depth molecular neuroscience studies focused at neuronal and synaptic functions.Here,we demonstrate that cerebral organoids derived under optimal differentiation conditions exhibit mature,fully functional neurons and astrocytes,as validated by immunohistological,gene expression,and electrophysiological,analyses.Neurons in cerebral organoids showed gene expression profiles and electrophysiological properties similar to those reported for fetal human brain.These important findings indicate that cerebral organoids recapitulate the developing human brain and may enhance use of cerebral organoids in modeling human brain development or investigating neural deficits that underlie neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric conditions,such as autism or intellectual disorders. 展开更多
关键词 CEREBRAL ORGANOIDS human brain stem cells NEURONS ASTROCYTES NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS neuropsychiatric DISORDERS autism
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Two cases of variant late infantile ceroid lipofuscinosis in Jordan 预览
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作者 Omar Nafi Bashar Ramadan +2 位作者 Olaf Riess Rebecca Buchert Tawfiq Froukh 《世界临床病例杂志》 2019年第2期203-208,共6页
BACKGROUND Late infantile ceroid lipofuscinosis is a rare neurodegenerative disorder that appears between the ages of 2 and 4 years and is difficult to diagnose.In this report we present two sisters with this conditio... BACKGROUND Late infantile ceroid lipofuscinosis is a rare neurodegenerative disorder that appears between the ages of 2 and 4 years and is difficult to diagnose.In this report we present two sisters with this condition,and the clinical course consisted of delayed developmental skills initially and later regression of previously acquired skills.The cases were initially considered as childhood disintegrative disorder(CDD);however,when whole exome sequencing(WES)genetic testing was done,they proved to be variant late infantile ceroid lipofuscinosis.This is the first report from Jordan.CASE SUMMARY Clinical presentation included developmental delay and initially speech delay,followed by lose of sphincter control.Motor development was normal until 4 years of age,then they developed ataxia(fear of going downstairs)and weakness while walking.Atonic and myoclonic seizures become intractable,and this was followed by inability to stand or sit and loss of expressive language.In addition to complete blood count test,liver function test,kidney function test,serum electrolyte test,and blood sugar test,serum amino acid profile,B12 level test,thyroid function test,and a brain computed tomography scan were also normal.An electroencephalogram showed a generalized spike and wave pattern,and magnetic resonance imaging showed little to no abnormalities.After dealing with the cases as CDD,WES testing proved a final diagnosis of variant late infantile ceroid lipofuscinosis.Current treatment is anti-epileptic drugs and supportive care at home,and they are now in vegetative state.CONCLUSION This report highlights the importance of WES for the identification of genetic diseases,especially neurodegenerative disorders. 展开更多
关键词 Ceroid lipofuscinosis Childhood disintegrative disorder LYSOSOMAL storage DISORDERS NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS VARIANT LATE INFANTILE Case report
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Perspective on Etiology and Treatment of Bipolar Disorders in China: Clinical Implications and Future Directions
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作者 Zuowei Wang Chen Jun +2 位作者 Kerning Gao Haichen Yang Yiru Fang 《神经科学通报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第4期608-612,共5页
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic, recurrent, disabling disease, even when given currently-available pharmacological and psychological treatments. Currently, the etiology and pathogenesis of BD remain unclear. As a c... Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic, recurrent, disabling disease, even when given currently-available pharmacological and psychological treatments. Currently, the etiology and pathogenesis of BD remain unclear. As a consequence, patients with BD are frequently unrecognized, misdiagnosed, and inappropriately treated, which often yields a low treatment response and poor outcome. 展开更多
关键词 PERSPECTIVE Future DIRECTIONS BIPOLAR DISORDERS
Premature ejaculation:an update on definition and pathophysiology
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作者 Mohammed Abu El-Hamd Ramadan Saleh Ahmad Majzoub 《亚洲男性学杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第5期425-432,共8页
Premature ejaculation(PE)is the most comm on male sexual dysfunction,which represents a diag no stic as well as a therapeutic challenge for physicians.However,no universally accepted definition is currently available ... Premature ejaculation(PE)is the most comm on male sexual dysfunction,which represents a diag no stic as well as a therapeutic challenge for physicians.However,no universally accepted definition is currently available for PE.As a result,physicians continue to diagnose patients with PE according to major guidelines set by the professional societies.These guidelines either recommend the use of validated questionnaires or patient-reported outcomes.Recent efforts directed toward classifying PE may help provide a better understanding of the prevalence and risk factors of this disorder.While the exact etiology of PE has not been clearly elucidated,several risk factors have been strongly reported in the literature.Clearly,to understand the revised definition of PE,its etiology and pathophysiology is necessary to improve the clinical management of this medical condition and form the basis of future research in this regard.In this review,we highlight the past and current definitions of PE and present an appraisal on the classifications and theories suggested for the etiopathogenesis of PE. 展开更多
关键词 ejaculatory DISORDERS male sexual DYSFUNCTION PREMATURE EJACULATION
Functional gastrointestinal disorders and gut-brain axis:What does the future hold? 预览
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作者 Kashif Mukhtar Hasham Nawaz Shahab Abid 《世界胃肠病学杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS 2019年第5期552-566,共15页
Despite their high prevalence,lack of understanding of the exact pathophysiology of the functional gastrointestinal disorders has restricted us to symptomatic diagnostic tools and therapies.Complex mechanisms underlyi... Despite their high prevalence,lack of understanding of the exact pathophysiology of the functional gastrointestinal disorders has restricted us to symptomatic diagnostic tools and therapies.Complex mechanisms underlying the disturbances in the bidirectional communication between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain have a vital role in the pathogenesis and are key to our understanding of the disease phenomenon.Although we have come a long way in our understanding of these complex disorders with the help of studies on animals especially rodents,there need to be more studies in humans,especially to identify the therapeutic targets.This review study looks at the anatomical features of the gut-brain axis in order to discuss the different factors and underlying molecular mechanisms that may have a role in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal disorders.These molecules and their receptors can be targeted in future for further studies and possible therapeutic interventions.The article also discusses the potential role of artificial intelligence and machine learning and its possible role in our understanding of these scientifically challenging disorders. 展开更多
关键词 Functional gastrointestinal disorders IDIOPATHIC bowel syndrome Gut-brain AXIS Microbiome-gut-brain AXIS Machine learning Artificial intelligence
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Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry for Outpatients in a Great Metropolitan Hospital 预览
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作者 Matteo Porcellana Roberta Bassetti +1 位作者 Adelaide Panariello Mauro Percudani 《心理学研究:英文版》 2019年第1期1-5,共5页
Consultation-liaison psychiatry remains the guardian of holistic approach to the patient and consultation services in general hospital could therefore be referred to as“filters”for mental health care,in particular f... Consultation-liaison psychiatry remains the guardian of holistic approach to the patient and consultation services in general hospital could therefore be referred to as“filters”for mental health care,in particular for patients with minor depressive or anxiety disorders.It is worth noting that psychiatric disorders,even when sub-clinical,worsen outcome whereas their early detection and treatment reduce health care costs significantly.The present study was transversal,exploratory,and descriptive in order to investigate the sample of outpatients referred from general practitioners(GP)to service of consultation-liaison psychiatry of the ASST Great Metropolitan Hospital Niguarda of Milan over a 7-months period.Data from all psychiatric consultations for outpatients were collected by a structured clinical report including socio-demographic features,features of referrals,and features of back-referrals.Five hundred and eleven consultations were performed.Participants were mainly female(58.7%)with an average age between 45 and 55 years(27.6%);31.1%of these patients was at the first contact with a mental health specialist.The diagnoses formulated were distributed as follows:The most common diagnoses were affective disorders(44.6%),followed by neurotic disorders(34.1%),personality disorders(6.8%),and finally,psychosis(6.2%).The study showed an example of a consultation-liaison service situated in a Great Metropolitan Hospital offering to GP the opportunity of a diagnostic assessment and shared management of minor psychiatric disorders.This approach could lead to several vantages,such as the management in a non-psychiatric setting of patients with reduction of stigma and reduced costs for specific psychiatric services where are referred more severe patients. 展开更多
关键词 consultation-liaison PSYCHIATRY primary care MINOR DEPRESSIVE and ANXIETY disorders
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Evaluation of clinical outcomes in an interdisciplinary abdominal pain clinic:A retrospective,exploratory review 预览
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作者 Amanda D Deacy Craig A Friesen +1 位作者 Vincent S Staggs Jennifer V Schurman 《世界胃肠病学杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS 2019年第24期3079-3090,共12页
BACKGROUND Pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders(FGIDs)are common and wellaccepted to be etiologically complex in terms of the contribution of biological,psychological,and social factors to symptom presentat... BACKGROUND Pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders(FGIDs)are common and wellaccepted to be etiologically complex in terms of the contribution of biological,psychological,and social factors to symptom presentations.Nonetheless,despite its documented benefits,interdisciplinary treatment,designed to address all of these factors,for pediatric FGIDs remains rare.The current study hypothesized that the majority of pediatric patients seen in an interdisciplinary abdominal pain clinic(APC)would demonstrate clinical resolution of symptoms during the study period and that specific psychosocial variables would be significantly predictive of GI symptom improvement.AIM To evaluate outcomes with interdisciplinary treatment in pediatric patients with pain-related FGIDs and identify patient characteristics that predicted clinical outcomes.METHODS Participants were 392 children,ages 8-18[M=13.8;standard deviation(SD)=2.7],seen between August 1,2013 and June 15,2016 in an interdisciplinary APC housed within the Division of Gastroenterology in a medium-sized Midwestern children's hospital.To be eligible,patients had to be 8 years of age or older and have had abdominal pain for≥8 wk at the time of initial evaluation.Medical and psychosocial data collected as part of standard of care were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed in the context of the observational study.Logistic regression was used to model odds of reporting vs never reporting improvement,as well as to differentiate rapid from slower improvers.RESULTS Nearly 70%of patients followed during the study period achieved resolution on at least one of the employed outcome indices.Among those who achieved resolution during follow up,43%to 49%did so by the first follow up(i.e.,within roughly 2 mo after initial evaluation and initiation of interdisciplinary treatment).Patient age,sleep,ease of relaxation,and depression all significantly predicted the likelihood of resolution.More specifically,the odds of clinical resolution were 14%to 16%lower per additional year of pati 展开更多
关键词 Pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders Integrated care BEHAVIORAL health CONSULTATION Treatment outcomes ABDOMINAL pain clinic
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Neuromodulatory effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Zingiber officinale Roscoe extract in rats with lead-induced oxidative stress
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作者 Mary Abiola Okesola Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye +1 位作者 Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo 《结合医学学报:英文版》 CAS CSCD 2019年第2期125-131,共7页
Objective: This study investigated the ameliorative potential of Zingiber officinale Roscoe extract against lead-induced brain damage in rats. Methods: Thirty male rats were divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each. Lead-... Objective: This study investigated the ameliorative potential of Zingiber officinale Roscoe extract against lead-induced brain damage in rats. Methods: Thirty male rats were divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each. Lead-acetate toxicity was induced by intraperitoneal injection (10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) in Groups B-E. Group A (control) and Group B (lead-acetate) were left untreated;vitami n C (200 mg/kg b.w.) was ad mi nistered to Group C;ethyl acetate fraction from Z. officinale extract (200 and 100 mg/kg b.w.) was administered to Group D and E by oral gavage once daily for 7 days. Changes in the content of some key marker enzymes such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), monoamine oxidase (MAO), epinephrine, dopamine, Na^+/K^+-ATPase, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as well as malonaldehyde (MDA) levels were determined in serum. Results: Exposure to lead acetate resulted in a significant decrease (P< 0.05) in the activities of BChE, AChE, Na^+/K^+-ATPase, SOD, CAT and GPx with a corresponding increase in the levels of MDA, xanthine oxidase, epinephrine, dopamine and MAO relative to the control group. Levels of all disrupted parameters were alleviated by co-admi nistration of Z. officinale fraction and by the stan da rd drug, vitamin C. Conclusion: These results suggest that ethyl acetate fraction of Z. officinale extract attenuates leadinduced brain damage and might have therapeutic potential as a supplement that can be applied in lead pois on ing. 展开更多
关键词 ZINGIBER officinale ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE MONOAMINE OXIDASE Na^+/K^+-ATPase LEAD acetate NEURODEGENERATIVE disorders
Autism spectrum disorders: autistic phenotypes and complicated mechanisms
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作者 Xi-Cheng Zhang Li-Qi Shu +1 位作者 Xing-Sen Zhao Xue-Kun Li 《世界儿科杂志(英文版)》 2019年第1期17-25,共9页
Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD),a pervasive developmental neurological disorder,is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication,and stereotyped,repetitive patterns of interests or beh... Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD),a pervasive developmental neurological disorder,is characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication,and stereotyped,repetitive patterns of interests or behaviors.The mechanism of ASDs is complex,and genetic components and epigenetic modifications play important roles.In this review,we summarized the recent progresses of ASDs focusing on the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms.We also briefly discussed current animal models of ASD and the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies in studying ASD.Data sources Original research articles and literature reviews published in PubMed-indexed journals.Results Individuals with ASDs exhibit a set of phenotypes including neurological alteration.Genetic components including gene mutation,copy-number variations,and epigenetic modifications play important and diverse roles in ASDs.The establishment of animal models and development of new-generation sequencing technologies have contributed to reveal the complicated mechanisms underlying autistic phenotypes.Conclusions Dramatic progress has been made for understanding the roles of genetic and epigenetic components in ASD.Future basic and translational studies should be carried out towards those candidate therapeutic targets. 展开更多
关键词 AUTISM spectrum disorders Genetics EPIGENETICS CNV Next-generation sequencing
The Stanley Neuropathology Consortium Integrative Database (SNCID) for Psychiatric Disorders
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作者 Sanghyeon Kim Maree J.Webster 《神经科学通报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第2期277-282,共6页
The Stanley Medical Research Institute(SMRI)is a nonprofit organization with a primary mission to fund research on the cause and treatment of severe mental illnesses.The SMRI also supports a brain bank as part of the ... The Stanley Medical Research Institute(SMRI)is a nonprofit organization with a primary mission to fund research on the cause and treatment of severe mental illnesses.The SMRI also supports a brain bank as part of the mission to facilitate research into mental illness.The SMRI brain bank distributes postmortem samples from individuals with serious mental illness,free of charge,to scientists around the world.The SMRI brain bank is recognized for the unique way it is set up,organized,and administered.Cohorts of demographically-matched groups of patients with schizophrenia,bipolar disorder(BP),or major depression(DEP)and unaffected controls are organized such that all researchers applying for tissue received samples from the same cohort. 展开更多
关键词 SNCID for PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS DRD RNA
Cross-talk between T-cells and gut-microbiota in neurodegenerative disorders 预览
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作者 Rodrigo Pacheco 《中国神经再生研究:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第12期2091-2092,共2页
The emerging role of gut microbiota as a key player in the development of neurodegenerative disorders: Mammals have evolved together with commensal microbiota to establish a symbiotic relationship in which they regula... The emerging role of gut microbiota as a key player in the development of neurodegenerative disorders: Mammals have evolved together with commensal microbiota to establish a symbiotic relationship in which they regulate reciprocally by synthesizing and responding to several common chemical substances. In this regard, gut microbiota constitutes a consortium of bacteria that not only participates in the degradation of nutrients, but also produces metabolites, fatty acids and neurotransmitters that can act on the enzymes and receptors expressed in eukaryotic cells, which considerably affects the physiology of the host and contribute to maintaining homeostasis (Lyte, 2013). 展开更多
关键词 CROSS-TALK T-CELLS NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS
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Contribution of ghrelin to functional gastrointestinal disorders’pathogenesis 预览
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作者 Tilemachos Koutouratsas Theodora Kalli +1 位作者 Georgios Karamanolis Maria Gazouli 《世界胃肠病学杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS 2019年第5期539-551,共13页
Functional gastrointestinal disorders(FGID)are heterogeneous disorders with a variety of clinical manifestations,primarily defined by signs and symptoms rather than a definite underlying cause.Their pathophysiology re... Functional gastrointestinal disorders(FGID)are heterogeneous disorders with a variety of clinical manifestations,primarily defined by signs and symptoms rather than a definite underlying cause.Their pathophysiology remains obscure and,although it is expected to differ according to the specific FGID,disruptions in the brain-gut axis are now thought to be a common denominator in their pathogenesis.The hormone ghrelin is an important component of this axis,exerting a wide repertoire of physiological actions,including regulation of gastrointestinal motility and protection of mucosal tissue.Ghrelin’s gene shows genetic polymorphism,while its protein product undergoes complex regulation and metabolism in the human body.Numerous studies have studied ghrelin’s relation to the emergence of FGIDs,its potential value as an index of disease severity and as a predictive marker for symptom relief during attempted treatment.Despite the mixed results currently available in scientific literature,the plethora of statistically significant findings shows that disruptions in ghrelin genetics and expression are plausibly related to FGID pathogenesis.The aim of this paper is to review current literature studying these associations,in an effort to uncover certain patterns of alterations in both genetics and expression,which could delineate its true contribution to FGID emergence,either as a causative agent or as a pathogenetic intermediate. 展开更多
关键词 FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL disorders FUNCTIONAL colonic diseases Irritable bowel SYNDROME Cyclic VOMITING SYNDROME Infantile COLIC GASTROINTESTINAL disease GHRELIN Genetics Epigenetic processes
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The histone H4K20 methyltransferase PR-Set7 fine-tunes the transcriptional activation of Wingless signaling in Drosophila
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作者 Yun Yu Long Liu +2 位作者 Xiaojiao Li Xingjie Hu Haiyun Song 《遗传学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第1期57-59,共3页
Wnt/Wingless (Wg) signaling has evolutionarily conserved fundamental roles in the regulation of cell cycle, embryonic development, cell fate determination, morphological patterning and tissue homeostasis (Clevers, 200... Wnt/Wingless (Wg) signaling has evolutionarily conserved fundamental roles in the regulation of cell cycle, embryonic development, cell fate determination, morphological patterning and tissue homeostasis (Clevers, 2006). Dysregulation of the Wnt/Wg pathway leads to a variety of diseases such as birth defects, metabolism disorders and cancers (Nusse and Clevers, 2017). The activation of Wnt/Wg signaling requires the interaction between β- catenin/Armadillo (Arm) and the transcription factor LEF/TCFs/ Pangolin (Pan), and the recruitment of their co-factors (Zhai et al., 2017). 展开更多
关键词 SIGNALING has evolutionarily DYSREGULATION metabolism disorders
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