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Co-variation of the surface wind speed and the sea surface temperature over mesoscale eddies in the Gulf Stream region: momentum vertical mixing aspect 预览
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作者 HE Jingjing LIN Xiaopei 《海洋湖沼学报(英文)》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第4期1154-1164,共11页
The co-variation of surface wind speed and sea surface temperature (SST) over the Gulf Stream frontal region is investigated using high-resolution satellite measurements and atmospheric reanalysis data. Results show t... The co-variation of surface wind speed and sea surface temperature (SST) over the Gulf Stream frontal region is investigated using high-resolution satellite measurements and atmospheric reanalysis data. Results show that the pattern of positive SST-surface wind speed correlations is anchored by strong SST gradient and marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) height front, with active warm and cold-ocean eddies around. The MABL has an obvious transitional structure along the strong SST front, with greater (lesser) heights over the north (south) side. The significant positive SST-surface wind-speed perturbation correlations are mostly found over both strong warm and cold eddies. The surface wind speed increases (decreases) about 0.32 (0.41) m/s and the MABL elevates (drops) approximate 55 (54) m per 1℃ of SST perturbation induced by warm (cold) eddies. The response of the surface wind speed to SST perturbations over the mesoscale eddies is mainly attributed to the momentum vertical mixing in the MABL, which is confirmed by the linear relationships between the downwind (crosswind) SST gradient and wind divergence (curl). 展开更多
关键词 GULF Stream positive sea SURFACE temperature (SST)-surface wind speed correlation marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) height MESOSCALE EDDY MOMENTUM vertical mixing
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波斯湾中受随机波作用的某新建离岸导管架平台时域动力分析研究 预览
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作者 Abdolrahim Taheri Ehsan Shahsavari 《船舶与海洋工程学报:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第3期372-379,共8页
API RP2AWSD is a design code in practice for design of jacket platforms in the Persian Gulf but is based on the Gulf of Mexico environmental condition. So for the sake of using this code for the Persian Gulf, it is be... API RP2AWSD is a design code in practice for design of jacket platforms in the Persian Gulf but is based on the Gulf of Mexico environmental condition. So for the sake of using this code for the Persian Gulf, it is better to perform a calibration based on this specific region. Analysis and design of jacket platforms based on API code are performed in a static manner and dynamic analysis is not recommended for such structures. Regarding the fact that the real behavior of the offshore jacket platforms is a dynamic behavior, so in this research, dynamic analysis for an offshore jacket platform in the Persian Gulf under extreme environmental condition is performed using random time domain method. Therefore, a new constructed offshore jacket platform in the Persian Gulf is selected and analyzed. Fifteen, 1-h storm, simulations for the water surface elevation is produced to capture the statistical properties of extreme sea condition. Time series of base shear and overturning moment are derived from both dynamic and static responses. By calculating the maximum dynamic amplification factor (DAF) from each simulation and fitting the collected data to Weibull distribution, the most probable maximum extreme (MPME) value for the DAF is achieved. Results show that a realistic value for DAF for this specific platform is 1.06, which is a notable value and is recommended to take into practice in design of fixed jacket platform in the Persian Gulf. 展开更多
关键词 OFFSHORE PLATFORMS Weibull distribution Water surface simulation Time history analysis Dynamic AMPLIFICATION factor PERSIAN GULF
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Regional-Scale Study on Sediment Processes of Khuran Strait at Persian Gulf with Implications for Engineering Design 预览
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作者 A. Shanehsazzadeh H. Ardalan 《中国海洋工程:英文版》 SCIE EI CSCD 2019年第3期356-364,共9页
In this article, the sediment transport processes in the Khuran Strait between the mainland Iran and Qeshm Island at North Central Persian Gulf are studied in regional scale in a comprehensive manner. The objectives o... In this article, the sediment transport processes in the Khuran Strait between the mainland Iran and Qeshm Island at North Central Persian Gulf are studied in regional scale in a comprehensive manner. The objectives of this study include defining the type and origin of the sediment, the influencing factors, and the dominant mode of sediment transport. Four possible scenarios of sediment processes in terms of sediment sources and influential environmental forces are examined. The results of the conceptual and 2D numerical model of MIKE21 applied for this purposes indicate that the sediment sources in the transport processes are mainly provided by the sediments suspended from the central and eastern zones of the strait bed. Other sources including input from rivers do not have direct influence on the processes. The results are applied to the study of morphological changes for engineering applications including the pattern and amount of deposit in the Rajaee port approach channel and harbor basin. The pattern and amount of annual sediment deposits in the approach channel predicted by the model is satisfactory, compatible with annual dredging records. 展开更多
关键词 SEDIMENT transport MORPHODYNAMICS 2D numerical model PERSIAN GULF Khuran STRAIT Rajaee PORT
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Roles of fishing and climate change in long-term fish species succession and population dynamics in the outer Beibu Gulf,South China Sea 预览
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作者 Xuehui Wang Yongsong Qiu +5 位作者 Feiyan Du Weida Liu Dianrong Sun Xiao Chen Weiwen Yuan Yong Chen 《海洋学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第10期1-8,共8页
A prevailing,controversial hypothesis is that fishing pressure has played a greater role than climatic and environmental drivers,in changing fish species succession and biomass fluctuation in the South China Sea(SCS).... A prevailing,controversial hypothesis is that fishing pressure has played a greater role than climatic and environmental drivers,in changing fish species succession and biomass fluctuation in the South China Sea(SCS).Based on otter trawl survey data from 1959 to 2010 in the outer Beibu Gulf(OBG),northern SCS,large seasonal and interannual variation is reported for fish species composition,the proportional abundances of dominant taxa,and fish biomass.Generalized additive models are developed to quantify relationships between fish biomass and the external factors of fishing pressure and climate change.Fishing pressure proved to be the main driver of sharp declines in demersal fish stocks,with high-value species being replaced by low-value ones over time.Abrupt decreases in fish biomass during the years of 1993 and 1998 correspond to El Niño events,with climate change possibly the main driver of proportional representation of pelagic species in fisheries trawl catch.The need to differentiate impacts of fishing and environmental drivers on fish species with different life history strategies is stressed to better understand fish community dynamics. 展开更多
关键词 fish species succession biomass fluctuation fishing effect climate influence Beibu Gulf northernSouth China Sea
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海湾认证在汽车行业中的应用技巧 预览
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作者 孙光 《汽车实用技术》 2019年第17期249-252,共4页
海湾认证是中国汽车企业在海湾地区销售车辆的一个入门证,每个汽车出口企业,都要认真研究和完成每年的海湾车型的认证和更新工作,基于多年的工作实践经验,总结成一篇文章,把海湾认证的背景,流程,以及工作中的技巧以及需要注意的事项给... 海湾认证是中国汽车企业在海湾地区销售车辆的一个入门证,每个汽车出口企业,都要认真研究和完成每年的海湾车型的认证和更新工作,基于多年的工作实践经验,总结成一篇文章,把海湾认证的背景,流程,以及工作中的技巧以及需要注意的事项给从事相关工作的汽车行业人员做一份参考,少走一些弯路。 展开更多
关键词 中东地区 海湾 GCC GSO SASO
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Baseline Survey on Coral Diseases, Stress Factors and New Threats in Coral Reefs of Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere, India 预览
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作者 CH.Ramesh S.Koushik +1 位作者 T.Shunmugaraj M.V.Ramana Murthy 《海洋科学杂志(英文)》 2019年第1期31-48,共18页
Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve (GOMMBRE) is the first marine biosphere reserve in India and Southeast Asia. It has a rich marine biodiversity including coral reefs, but now facing threats from different envir... Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve (GOMMBRE) is the first marine biosphere reserve in India and Southeast Asia. It has a rich marine biodiversity including coral reefs, but now facing threats from different environmental factors and anthropogenic interferences. Particularly, coral reefs distributed in the 21 islands under the Gulf of Mannar (GoM) region are facing critical threats. Although several institutions and authors have studied various aspects on corals, direct and indirect influences of natural and anthropogenic catastrophes on corals have been poorly understood. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to identify the anthropogenic disturbances, biological stress factors and diseases on fringing reefs of GoM. The present study reveals that dead coral reefs are being replaced by assemblage of marine algae. Although several diseases were recorded during this study, pink line disease is wide spread in all the islands. Porites sp. and Acropora sp. were the more affected corals. This baseline data lays foundations to survey and to assess the rapid changes that occur over a period of time in coral reefs of GoM. 展开更多
关键词 CORAL diseases Sedimentation FISHING nets Invasive FLORA and FAUNA GULF of Mannar
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Sea-level rise impact on the evolution of a microtidal Mediterranean coastline without human-made structures——a case of the Port aux Princes-Sidi Daoued coastline, Gulf of Tunis,NE-Tunisia 预览
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作者 Hanen Sa?di Fouad Zargouni 《海洋学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期72-77,共6页
The evolution of the natural and pristine Mediterranean coastline Port aux Princes-Sidi Daoued(Gulf of Tunis,NE-Tunisia) is studied during the period of 1887–2010 on the basis of an ancient minute of bathymetry(1887)... The evolution of the natural and pristine Mediterranean coastline Port aux Princes-Sidi Daoued(Gulf of Tunis,NE-Tunisia) is studied during the period of 1887–2010 on the basis of an ancient minute of bathymetry(1887) and aerial photographs treated by numerical photogrammetric methods. Morphological changes of the coastline shows a general retreat despite the absence of the various anthropogenic actions. Adding to the drift currents and the currents of high energy that are generated by the N-W dominant waves along steeply sub-marine funds, the erosion is mainly due to the sea level rise which increased since the beginning of the 2000 s. The Port aux PrincesSidi Daoued coastline works as a single littoral cell limited by Jbel Korbous to the SW and the fishing harbor of Sidi Daoued to the N-E. 展开更多
关键词 Mediterranean COASTLINE erosion sea level rise LITTORAL cell GULF of TUNIS Tunisia
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The spatial distribution of major and trace elements of surface sediments in the northeastern Beibu Gulf of the South China Sea 预览
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作者 Qian Ge George Z Xue +3 位作者 Liming Ye Dong Xu Jianru Zhao Fengyou Chu 《海洋学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期93-102,共10页
A multi-index analysis including grain size, major and trace elements is performed on the surface sediments from the northeastern Beibu Gulf to trace the sources of the sediments and to understand the controlling fact... A multi-index analysis including grain size, major and trace elements is performed on the surface sediments from the northeastern Beibu Gulf to trace the sources of the sediments and to understand the controlling factors for elements distribution. The mean grain size exhibits a wide variation ranging from 0.09Φ to 8.05Φ with an average value of 5.33Φ. The average contents of major elements descend in an order of c(SiO2)>c(Al2O3)>c(Fe2O3)>c(CaO)>c(MgO)>c(K2O)>c(Na2O)>c(TiO2)>c(P2O5)>c(MnO), while those of trace elements exhibit a descending order of c(Sr)>c(Rb)>c(V)>c(Zn)>c(Cr)>c(Pb)>c(Ni)>c(Cu)>c(As). On the basis of elementary distribution characteristics and statistical analyses, the study area is divided into the four zones: Zone I is located in the northeastern coastal area of the gulf, which receives large amount of fluvial materials from local rivers in Guangxi and Guangdong, China, and the Qiongzhou Strait;Zone Ⅱ is located in the center of the study area, where surface sediments exhibits a multiple source;Zone Ⅲ is located in the Qiongzhou Strait, where surface sediments are dominated by materials from the Zhujiang River and Hainan;Zone IV is located in the southwest of the study area, where surface sediments are mainly originated from the Red River and Hainan. The statistical analyses of sediment geochemical characteristics reveal that the grain size, which is mainly influenced by hydrodynamics and mineral composition of terrigenous materials, is the leading factor controlling the elementary distribution.Meanwhile, impacts from anthropogenic activities and marine biogenic process will also be taken into consideration. 展开更多
关键词 GRAIN size major and TRACE elements Beibu GULF spatial distribution sediment source
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The Tsar Legacy: Russian Foreign Policy in the Mediterranean Area from the Romanovs to Putin 预览
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作者 Maria Teresa Giusti 《国际关系与外交:英文版》 2019年第7期325-330,共6页
This paper aims at offering an analysis of the attempts of Russian empire before, and the Soviet empire later, until to now, to exert its influence in the Mediterranean area. Drawing also from Russian archival sources... This paper aims at offering an analysis of the attempts of Russian empire before, and the Soviet empire later, until to now, to exert its influence in the Mediterranean area. Drawing also from Russian archival sources, the relations between the Soviet Union and Russia, on one side, and some countries in the Mediterranean or Adriatic areas, like former Yugoslavia or Syria, will be examined. Part of the historiography, firstly Soviet and then Russian, continued to maintain a theory, according to which Stalin’s foreign policy choices were made as a sheer reaction to English and American challenges in the region which goes from the Adriatic to the Persian Gulf. According to others, Stalin’s foreign policy was formed during and immediately after World War II and was dictated by Stalin’s personal ambitions, reinforced by the victory over Nazi Germany. However, the documents consulted until now allow for a new approach and a new evaluation of the events. The picture that emerges from an analysis of the new documentation is more complex than what could have been imagined. The clarification of the objectives and actions to be undertaken in various European countries, where communist regimes were intended to be established, was dictated by pragmatic considerations and by the development of the situation in the various countries under the Soviet influence. In addition, the USSR indirectly aimed at influencing foreign as well as internal policy in countries, such as Italy, which did not belong to the Soviet sphere. 展开更多
关键词 RUSSIAN EMPIRE Soviet foreign Policy STALIN ADRIATIC Sea YUGOSLAVIA Persian Gulf Cold War the Soviet-Yugoslav Split
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Ecology of Pinnidae(Mollusca:Bivalvia)from the Gulf of Thailand 预览
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作者 Cheewarat Printrakoon Peter D Roopnarine Thamasak Yeemin 《海洋学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第2期52-69,共18页
The ecology of the family Pinnidae was studied by sampling three pinnid species from 36 sampling sites across four different microhabitats in the Gulf of Thailand.The species spatial distributions were mostly uniform,... The ecology of the family Pinnidae was studied by sampling three pinnid species from 36 sampling sites across four different microhabitats in the Gulf of Thailand.The species spatial distributions were mostly uniform,with some populations having random distributions.Species abundances differed between sandy and coral habitats according to non-metric multi-dimension scaling analyses.Although the Gulf of Thailand is a relatively small geographic area,habitats are varied enough to provide variable shell densities.Small islands are important distribution areas,and coral reefs provide both direct and indirect shelter which support high abundances,densities and increased shell size.The highest density was recorded in sand beds within coral reefs.Low density and small shell size in sand beaches might be related to high mortality in shallow water or to adaptations for survival in shallow waters.A clear correlation between sediment composition and species abundance was found in Pinna atropurpurea;abundance increased with the sand content of the sediment.For P.deltodes,abundance increased as the rock fraction of the sediment increased.These results suggest that adaptations in Pinnidae,such as shell size,shell morphology,and the exposure of the shell above the sediment-water interface,are responses for survival in different habitats. 展开更多
关键词 density distribution pinnid SHELL SHELL ADAPTATION the GULF of Thailand
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Paleobiological significance of the James Ross Basin 预览
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作者 J.Alistair CRAME 《极地科学进展:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第3期186-198,共13页
The extensive Late Mesozoic–Early Cenozoic sedimentary succession exposed within the James Ross Basin,Antarctica has huge potential to enhance paleobiological investigations into both the marine and terrestrial fossi... The extensive Late Mesozoic–Early Cenozoic sedimentary succession exposed within the James Ross Basin,Antarctica has huge potential to enhance paleobiological investigations into both the marine and terrestrial fossil records.In excess of 7 km in total thickness and spanning the Early Cretaceous(Aptian)–Late Eocene in age,it represents an invaluable high-latitude(~65°S)site for comparison with lower latitude,tropical ones in an essentially greenhouse world.The Early Cretaceous(Aptian–Albian)sequence is deep-water but there are indications of shallowing to inner shelf depths in both the Turonian and Coniacian stages.The first prolific shallow-water marine fauna occurs in the Santonian–Campanian Santa Marta Formation and this is followed by repeated occurrences through the later Campanian,Maastrichtian,Danian and Middle Eocene(Lutetian).In this study an attempt has been made to compare these Antarctic faunas directly with the well-known ones of the same age from the US Gulf Coast.Detailed comparisons made for three time slices,Late Maastrichtian,Danian and Middle Eocene,indicate that the Antarctic is characterised by both low taxonomic diversity and high levels of endemism.The James Ross Basin is providing important evidence to indicate that the highest southern latitudes have always been characterised by a distinctive temperate biota,even on a pre-glacial Earth.The roots of at least some elements of the modern Southern Ocean biota can be traced back to a Late Mesozoic–Early Cenozoic austral realm. 展开更多
关键词 James Ross Basin BIOSTRATIGRAPHY molluscan faunas US Gulf Coast biodiversity patterns evolutionof temperate biotas
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The International Law Regime of Resolving Sovereign Disputes in the South China Sea:A Case Study of Joint Development Arrangement in the Tonkin Gulf 预览
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作者 LIN Hongyi 《美中法律评论:英文版》 2019年第2期43-51,共9页
The paper examines the precedent value of the Tonkin Gulf case of maritime delimitation between China and Vietnam in facilitating the propagation of peaceful resolutions of sovereign disputes in the South China Sea th... The paper examines the precedent value of the Tonkin Gulf case of maritime delimitation between China and Vietnam in facilitating the propagation of peaceful resolutions of sovereign disputes in the South China Sea through a perspective of United Nations Convention on the Law of Sea (UNCLOS). Despite China’s rhetoric adherence on its Joint Development Arrangement (JDA) proposals to shelve the maritime disputes, the establishment of an effective and institutionalized JDA regime backed up by a multitude of bilateral treaties and agreements over the Tonkin Gulf remain the sole successful example of shelving sovereign disputes through peaceful negotiations. Under such circumstance in which the prospects of most joint development proposals are stepping forward uncertainty for China’s growing assertiveness, it is requested that the Tonkin Gulf case can provide significant precedent value for other disputable areas in the South China Sea. The paper investigates the legitimation of JDA and highlights three key characteristics that the Tonkin Gulf pattern has enshrined, including the single delimitation principle and the notion of equidistance for boundary delimitation, the considerations from historical factors, the procedure of “due process”. Nevertheless, it finds that it remains unlikely that these three characteristics can be effectively fulfilled in other sovereign negotiations. Finally, the status quo over the Paracel Islands is examined as a real-world problem by highlighting the three characteristics. 展开更多
关键词 the Tonkin GULF case Joint Development ARGUMENT UNCLOS INSTITUTIONALISM the South China Sea
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Counter-Wind Deep Current in the Northern Beibu Gulf in Boreal Winter 预览
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作者 GAO Jingsong WU Guidan +1 位作者 NGUYEN Kim-Cuong SHI Maochong 《中国海洋大学学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第1期57-68,共12页
The Beibu Gulf is at an important geographical location and rich in gas,oil and biological resources.The observed currents showed that the current in the upper layer was opposite to that in the lower layer in boreal w... The Beibu Gulf is at an important geographical location and rich in gas,oil and biological resources.The observed currents showed that the current in the upper layer was opposite to that in the lower layer in boreal winter in the northern Beibu Gulf and it was northeastward in the lower layer.This northeastward current was reproduced by a 3D baroclinic model in this study.It’s found that the counter-wind deep current(referred to as‘CWDC’hereinafter)strengthened from September to November but weakened from December to the following February.A closed meridional circulation in vertical direction was found in the northern Beibu Gulf,including CWDC,surface southwestward current,an upwelling,and a downwelling.The temporal variation process of the meridional circulation was similar to that of CWDC,with strength and range stronger in November and December than in other four months.Similar to the variation process of CWDC,the monsoon wind changed from weak easterly wind in September to strong northeasterly wind in November and December,and it was transformed into weak southeasterly wind in February again.The sensitive experiments showed that CWDC and the meridional circulation were controlled by the monsoon wind and were adjusted by heat flux-and tide-induced mixing,respectively.According to the momentum balance equation,it can be revealed the counter-wind deep current is a compensation current which is induced by the surface elevation gradient balanced by the Coriolis force,vertical diffusion and baroclinic pressure gradient. 展开更多
关键词 Beibu GULF numerical model(POM) counter-wind DEEP current(CWDC) monsoon WIND momentum balance equation
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Monitoring of coral communities in the inner Gulf of Thailand influenced by the elevated seawater temperature and flooding 预览
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作者 Sittiporn Pengsakun Thamasak Yeemin +3 位作者 Makamas Sutthacheep Watchara Samsuvan Wanlaya Klinthong Charernmee Chamchoy 《海洋学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第1期102-111,共10页
There were two severe coral bleaching events at Ko Khang Khao, the inner Gulf of Thailand, occurred during the prolonged period of the elevated sea surface temperature (SST) in 2010 and low salinity as well as turbidi... There were two severe coral bleaching events at Ko Khang Khao, the inner Gulf of Thailand, occurred during the prolonged period of the elevated sea surface temperature (SST) in 2010 and low salinity as well as turbidity due to heavy flooding in 2011. The bleaching index (BI) and mortality index (MI) are calculated to compare the susceptibilities of coral species in the two bleaching events. The BI and MI vary significantly among the study sites and bleaching events. The most susceptible corals during both bleaching events are Acropora millepora, Pocillopora damicornis and Pavona decussate, while the most resistant species were Galaxea fascicularis, Fungia fungites, Pavona frondifera, Oulastrea crispate, and Symphyllia recta. The corals Favia favus, Goniopora columna, Platygyra pini, Symphyllia agaricia were relatively more tolerant to high SST but they are relatively more susceptible to low salinity. Coral bleaching is a phenomenon that the dissociation stress of the symbiotic relationship between zooxanthellae and their cnidarian host results in the reduction in photosynthetic pigment concentration. Among stressors, both prolonged exposure of high SST and low salinity, above and below their thresholds, respectively. The long-term resilience of coral communities at Ko Khang Khao and other coral communities close to the mouth of large rivers may depend on the frequency and duration of the exposure on the elevated SST due to atmospheric heating and low salinity due to river flooding. 展开更多
关键词 CORAL BLEACHING SALINITY temperature mortality FLOODING GULF of Thailand
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Diseases and compromised health states of massive Porites spp. in the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea 预览
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作者 Watchara Samsuvan Thamasak Yeemin +3 位作者 Makamas Sutthacheep Sittiporn Pengsakun Juthamart Putthayakool Monthaphat Thummasan 《海洋学报:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第1期118-127,共10页
In this study, we assess coral health by detecting the severity of coral diseases and compromised health states on massive Porites. Field surveys are conducted at twenty-two sites covering the eastern, inner and weste... In this study, we assess coral health by detecting the severity of coral diseases and compromised health states on massive Porites. Field surveys are conducted at twenty-two sites covering the eastern, inner and western Gulf of Thailand as well as the Andaman Sea during 2010–2015. A total of nine coral diseases and signs of compromised health are observed in the waters of Thailand, consisting of pigmentation responses (pink lines, pink patches, pink spots and pink borers), white syndromes (white patches, white bands and ulcerative white spots), growth anomalies, and unusual bleaching patterns. The highest severity of all observed coral diseases and signs of compromised health are found at Ko Khang Khao in the inner Gulf of Thailand, while that observed in the Andaman Sea is relatively low. Composition of the diseases vary across the study sites. Four groups of study sites, in which there is an 80% similarity of diseases or signs of compromised health composition, are clustered and detected based on the Bray-Curtis similarity. The canonical analysis of principal coordinates reveal that most study sites in the Gulf of Thailand, especially the inner Gulf of Thailand, tend to show a high severity of the diseases. The association of disease severity and composition and the level of human impact are also detected. The study sites located near the shores and/or the areas with intensive tourism tend to have higher human impact, especially on poor water quality, which may be linked to the higher severity and composition of coral diseases and signs of compromised health in the Gulf of Thailand. Fish bites are also observed in many study sites. The severity of fish bites in the Gulf of Thailand is much lower compared to the Andaman Sea. Ko Rawi exhibits the highest severity, following by Ko Surin Nua and Ko Butang. The study sites within marine national park boundaries have a significantly higher severity of fish bites than those outside of the marine national park boundaries. This study suggests that higher coral disease 展开更多
关键词 CORAL DISEASES fish BITES MASSIVE PORITES management GULF of Thailand Andaman Sea
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The Gulf Crisis:An Insight Into Kuwait’s Mediation Efforts 预览
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作者 Abdulhadi Alajmi 《国际关系与外交:英文版》 2018年第10期537-548,共12页
Mediation is an important peaceful means of resolving international disputes.In such cases,the mediator invites member states in dispute to roundtable negotiations to bring about a reconciliation.In the late GCC crisi... Mediation is an important peaceful means of resolving international disputes.In such cases,the mediator invites member states in dispute to roundtable negotiations to bring about a reconciliation.In the late GCC crisis between Qatar on one hand and Saudi Arabia,UAE,Bahrain,and Egypt on the other,Kuwaiti mediation tries to bridge the gap and prevent escalation that might lead to military confrontation against Doha to force a change of regime.However,this mediation is always in danger of an elongated crisis that might worsen the situation and hinder the parties reaching a reconciliatory settlement of their dispute.This is a challenge that confronts the Kuwaiti mediator and jeopardizes the very existence of the GCC in case the Kuwaiti mediator fails to reach a settlement.The dispute went beyond a limited geographic one with Egypt joining the boycott and the symbolic presence of Turkish troops in Qatar.As such,the dispute has created an unprecedented political rift among Gulf States and their rulers and somehow worries the existing regimes.This worrying situation threatens the core principles of some of these States,including those who are still neutral towards the dispute. 展开更多
关键词 KUWAIT MEDIATION DISPUTE GULF CRISIS QATAR GULF Cooperation Council(GCC)
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Accumulation model and prediction of Miocene heavy oil distribution in Gulf of Suez Basin,Egypt 预览
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作者 GUO Xufei SHAN Xuanlong DU Shang 《世界地质:英文版》 2018年第1期26-35,共10页
The Gulf of Suez Basin is a very mature and extremely prospective petroleum province.Many heavy oil fields have been found in the Basin,and such reserves are abundant.Characteristics and models of heavy oil are analyz... The Gulf of Suez Basin is a very mature and extremely prospective petroleum province.Many heavy oil fields have been found in the Basin,and such reserves are abundant.Characteristics and models of heavy oil are analyzed in this study based on tectonic,basin evolution,stratigraphic distribution and geochemical data.The best reservoirs of heavy oil are Miocene sandstone and limestone formations.Source rocks of hydrocarbon include deep limestone and shale of the Brown Limestone,the Thebes Formation and the Rudeis Formation.Thick evaporite rocks with rock salts and anhydrites deposited broadly throughout the basin are the most important regional seals,whereas Miocene shales are intraformational and regional seals that cover small areas.Heavy oil could be directly generated or densified during vertical migration along faults and reservoir accumulation.The heavy oil accumulation model is a mixed model that includes three mechanisms:fault dispersal,sulfocompound reactions and hydrocarbons generated from immature source rock.After analyzing the model and the distribution of source rocks,reservoirs,heavy oil fields and structures,it is concluded that the potential heavy oil area is at the center of the basin. 展开更多
关键词 accumulation model PREDICTION heavy oil DISTRIBUTION GULF of Suez BASIN
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Systematic overview of hepatitis C infection in the Middle East and North Africa 预览
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作者 Karima Chaabna Sohaila Cheema +4 位作者 Amit Abraham Hekmat Alrouh Albert B Lowenfels Patrick Maisonneuve Ravinder Mamtani 《世界胃肠病学杂志:英文版》 SCIE CAS 2018年第27期3038-3054,共17页
AIM To assess the quality of and to critically synthesize the available data on hepatitis C infections in the Middle East and North Africa(MENA)region to map evidence gaps.METHODS We conducted an overview of systemati... AIM To assess the quality of and to critically synthesize the available data on hepatitis C infections in the Middle East and North Africa(MENA)region to map evidence gaps.METHODS We conducted an overview of systematic reviews(SRs)following an a priori developed protocol(CRD42017076736).Our overview followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and metaanalyses guidelines for reporting SRs and abstracts and did not receive any funding.Two independent reviewers systematically searched MEDLINE and conducted a multistage screening of the identified articles.Out of 5758 identified articles,37 SRs of hepatitis C virus(HCV)infection in populations living in 20 countries in the MENA region published between 2008 and 2016 were included in our overview.The nine primary outcomes of interest were HCV antibody(anti-)prevalences and incidences in different at-risk populations;the HCV viremic(RNA positive)rate in HCV-positive individuals;HCV viremic prevalence in the general population(GP);the prevalence of HCV co-infection with the hepatitis B virus,human immunodeficiency virus,or schistosomiasis;the HCV genotype/subtype distribution;and the risk factors for HCV transmission.The conflicts of interest declared by the authors of the SRs were also extracted.Good quality outcomes reported by the SRs were defined as having the population,outcome,study time and setting defined as recommended by the PICOTS framework and a sample size>100.RESULTS We included SRs reporting HCV outcomes with different levels of quality and precision.A substantial proportion of them synthesized data from mixed populations at differing levels of risk for acquiring HCV or at different HCV infection stages(recent and prior HCV transmissions).They also synthesized the data over long periods of time(e.g.,two decades).Anti-HCV prevalence in the GP varied widely in the MENA region from 0.1%(study dates not reported)in the United Arab Emirates to 2.1%-13.5%(2003-2006)in Pakistan and 14.7%(2008)in Egypt.Data were not identified for Bahrain,Jordan 展开更多
关键词 Hepatitis C meta-research risk factors INCIDENCE GENOTYPE Middle East and North AFRICA systematic review Micro-elimination Pakistan GULF Cooperation COUNCIL
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Vaccinations against respiratory infections in Arabian Gulf countries:Barriers and motivators 预览
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作者 Amani S Alqahtani Daniah M Bondagji +4 位作者 Abdullah A Alshehari Mada H Basyouni Tariq M Alhawassi asser F BinDhim Harunor Rashid 《世界临床病例杂志》 2017年第6期212-221,共10页
AIM To study the uptake,barriers and motivators of influenza,pneumococcal,meningococcal and pertussis vaccines among members of public in Arabian Gulf countries.METHODS A cross-sectional survey among the Gulf Cooperat... AIM To study the uptake,barriers and motivators of influenza,pneumococcal,meningococcal and pertussis vaccines among members of public in Arabian Gulf countries.METHODS A cross-sectional survey among the Gulf Cooperation Council(GCC)countries’residents.Data collected electronically through a smartphone app.The survey variables aimed to investigate the respondents’awareness about vaccines against influenza,pneumococcal,meningococcal and pertussis infections.Collected data concerning the respondents’socio-demographic characteristics,their perception toward vaccine uptake and the factors that motivate or demotivate them from taking influenza vaccine.The data were analysed statistically using the SPSS v.23.0.Differences in the characteristics of users from different countries were quantified through bivariate analysis.Other important variables and controlling factors were studied using logistic regression.RESULTS A total of 1812 respondents participated in the study.Their mean age was 27 years,82%were male and 24%had≥1 chronic diseases.The overall uptake of influenza vaccine was 17%(21%among“at risk”people)and ranged from 15%in Saudi Arabia to 24%in Qatar.Doctor’s advice(23%)and a perception of having low body immunity(21%)were the main cited reasons for being vaccinated,whereas unawareness about the vaccine(43%)was the main barrier.The overall uptake of pneumococcal vaccine in the preceding three years was 22%(25%among“at risk”individuals)and ranged from 0%in Bahrain to 79%in Kuwait.The overall uptake of pertussis vaccine was 16%(31%among“vulnerable”people),and ranged from 7%in Saudi Arabia to 75%in Oman.The overall uptake of meningococcal vaccine was 20%(29%among the“at risk”people)and ranged from 3%in Oman to 50%in Bahrain.CONCLUSION The vaccination uptake across GCC countries is suboptimal and varies widely across the countries.Further research is needed to unearth the reasons and formulate action plan. 展开更多
关键词 Gulf Cooperation Council Influenza MENINGOCOCCAL VACCINE MOTIVATORS and barriers PERTUSSIS VACCINE PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINE Respiratory infections
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20世纪40年代初以来中国大陆沿海主要海湾形态变化 被引量:14
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作者 侯西勇 侯婉 毋亭 《地理学报》 EI CSCD 北大核心 2016年第1期118-129,共12页
受气候变化和人类活动的影响,中国海岸带正在经历各种剧烈的变化,海湾形态变化是其中的一个重要方面。基于地形图资料与遥感影像提取20世纪40年代初至2014年7个时相的中国大陆沿海主要海湾的空间信息,进而分析海湾岸线类型结构、开发利... 受气候变化和人类活动的影响,中国海岸带正在经历各种剧烈的变化,海湾形态变化是其中的一个重要方面。基于地形图资料与遥感影像提取20世纪40年代初至2014年7个时相的中国大陆沿海主要海湾的空间信息,进而分析海湾岸线类型结构、开发利用程度和空间位置的变化特征,以及海湾面积、形状和重心分布的变化特征。结果表明,20世纪40年代初以来,中国大陆沿海主要海湾的形态变化显著且复杂,主要体现为:海湾岸线的结构变化显著,自然岸线的长度和比例急剧减少;海湾岸线的开发利用程度持续增强;海湾岸线普遍背陆向海运动;海湾面积普遍大幅萎缩;海湾形状总体趋向复杂但个体间的差异在缩小;海湾重心分布位置普遍背陆向海迁移;海湾变化具有显著的时空差异性等。总的来说,以围填海为主的人类活动是导致海湾发生上述变化特征的主要原因。通过研究,指出应该对中国的海湾进行功能定位划分和分类管理,通过强化以海湾为基本单元的管理,促进中国海岸带综合管理能力的提高和管理目标的实现。 展开更多
关键词 海湾 岸线结构 岸线变化 海湾面积 形状指数 海湾重心 围填海
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