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室内全景影像成果坐标统一技术路线研究
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作者 刘小芬 谢刚生 +1 位作者 王丹丹 隆少秋 《测绘通报》 CSCD 北大核心 2019年第7期100-103,113共5页
针对目前室内全景影像和点云成果必须在自带的系统中展示,不利于室内全景影像和点云成果在其他系统和软件中推广使用的问题,通过对NavVis多个扫描数据集处理好的全景影像成果进行研究,验证了NavVis全景影像成果的坐标统一技术路线,为Nav... 针对目前室内全景影像和点云成果必须在自带的系统中展示,不利于室内全景影像和点云成果在其他系统和软件中推广使用的问题,通过对NavVis多个扫描数据集处理好的全景影像成果进行研究,验证了NavVis全景影像成果的坐标统一技术路线,为NavVis全景影像成果不受限制地在其他系统、软件中的使用提供了解决方案,推动高精度室内全景影像的实际应用。 展开更多
关键词 室内 全景影像 坐标统一 NavVis
VLC-Based Indoor Positioning Algorithm Combined with OFDM and Particle Filter 预览
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作者 Jin Wang Haoxu Li +1 位作者 Xiaofeng Zhang Rangzhong Wu 《中国通信:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第1期86-96,共11页
Visible light communications(VLC)have recently attracted a growing interest and can be a potential solution to realize indoor positioning,however,the performance of existing indoor positioning system is limited by mul... Visible light communications(VLC)have recently attracted a growing interest and can be a potential solution to realize indoor positioning,however,the performance of existing indoor positioning system is limited by multipath distortion inside a room.In order to combat the effect of multipath distortion,this paper proposes an LED-based indoor positioning algorithm combined with hybrid OFDM(HOFDM),in which asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM(ACOOFDM)is transmitted on the odd subcarriers while using pulse amplitude modulated discrete multitone(PAM-DMT)to modulate the imaginary part of each even subcarrier.In this scheme,we take a combined approach where a received-signal-strength(RSS)technique is employed to determine the location of the receiver and realize the 3-D positioning by Trust-region-based positioning.Moreover,a particle filter is used to further improve the positioning accuracy.Results confirm that this proposed positioning algorithm can achieve high accuracy even with multipath distortion,and the algorithm has better performance when combined with particle filter. 展开更多
关键词 orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM) indoor positioning particle filter trust region VISIBLE light communications(VLC)
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Enabling entity discovery in indoor commercial environments without pre-deployed infrastructure
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作者 Bo YUAN Xiaolei ZHOU +1 位作者 Xiaoqiang TENG Deke GUO 《中国计算机科学前沿:英文版》 SCIE EI CSCD 2019年第3期618-636,共19页
Finding entities of interest in indoor commercial places, such as the merchandise in supermarkets and shopping malls, is an essential issue for customers, especially when they are unfamiliar with an ad hoc indoor envi... Finding entities of interest in indoor commercial places, such as the merchandise in supermarkets and shopping malls, is an essential issue for customers, especially when they are unfamiliar with an ad hoc indoor environment. This type of location-based indoor service requires comprehensive knowledge of indoor entities, including locations as well as their semantic information. However, the existing indoor localization approaches fail to directly localize these general entities without dedicated devices. This paper first focuses on the problem of discovering large-scale general entities of interest in indoor commercial spaces without pre-deployed infrastructure. We present a unique entity localization approach that leverages the localization results from multiple independent users to accurately determine the location of corresponding entities. Our key idea is to exploit the short-distance estimation with dead reckoning to guarantee the accuracy of entity localization. We develop a prototype system based on the crowdsourcing method, iScan, and test it in one of the biggest supermarkets in Changsha, China, to validate the performance of our design. Extensive experimental results show that our approach can achieve meter-level accuracy in a single day with 70 participants. Moreover, in a monthly evaluation with 500 effective participants, iScan discovered more than 200 entities and localized approximately 75% of them within 2 m. 展开更多
关键词 INDOOR LOCALIZATION ENTITY DISCOVERY crowdsourcing system location-based service
北京住宅中室内外来源PM2.5对慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者心率及心率变异性的短期影响 被引量:1
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作者 迟锐 潘璐 +6 位作者 李宏宇 董伟 胡大宇 杨玄 陈亚红 邓芙蓉 郭新彪 《中华预防医学杂志》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第1期57-63,共7页
目的评价北京住宅中室内外来源PM2.5对慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者心率及心率变异性(HRV)指标的影响。方法于2015年11月至2016年5月,采用定组研究设计,于北京某三甲医院呼吸科招募40例稳定期男性COPD患者,每例患者的研究时间跨度均为连... 目的评价北京住宅中室内外来源PM2.5对慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者心率及心率变异性(HRV)指标的影响。方法于2015年11月至2016年5月,采用定组研究设计,于北京某三甲医院呼吸科招募40例稳定期男性COPD患者,每例患者的研究时间跨度均为连续的5 d。通过自行设计问卷调查其一般情况及疾病史等信息,并对其心率和HRV指标进行动态心电图监测(仅于第3天进行实时监测),HRV包括所有窦性心搏R-R间期的标准差(SDNN)、全程相邻窦性心搏R-R间期之差的均方根(rMSSD)、总功率、低频功率及高频功率。测量每天室内外PM2.5暴露浓度;以Fe作为示踪元素,通过测定PM2.5样品中Fe元素含量,以拆分室内外来源PM2.5暴露浓度。采用混合效应模型分别分析室内外来源PM2.5暴露对COPD患者心率及HRV的短期影响。结果住宅中日均PM2.5暴露浓度的P50(P25,P75)为50.9(26.8,122.7)μg/m^3,室内外来源的PM2.5暴露浓度分别为16.0(1.9,43.7)和27.3(13.5,61.8)μg/m^3。实时监测中,住宅中总PM2.5暴露浓度为(61.5±58.8)μg/m^3,其中室内外来源分别为(25.3±39.1)和(36.2±42.7)μg/m^3。室内来源PM2.5暴露浓度每升高10 μg/m^3使研究对象HRV降低水平高于室外来源,主要表现为:累积滞后4 h时,室内外来源PM2.5暴露浓度每升高10 μg/m^3导致总频率的变化率及95%CI值分别为-3.4%(-4.7%,-2.1%)和-0.6%(-2.0%,-0.8%)(P<0.001);室内来源PM2.5暴露浓度在累积滞后12 h时所对应的高频功率、低频功率、SDNN及rMSSD的变化率及95%CI值分别为-7.6%(-10.1%,-5.1%)、-4.7%(-6.7%,-2.7%)、-3.3%(-4.2%,-2.4%)及-3.0%(-4.5%,-1.5%),室外来源分别为-0.7%(-2.7%,-1.4%)、-0.2%(-1.9%,1.4%)、-0.7%(-1.4%,-0.1%)及-0.2%(-1.3%,0.9%)(P<0.001)。室内来源PM2.5暴露浓度每升高10 μg/m^3导致心率增加程度高于室外来源,主要表现为:滞后8 h时,室内外来源PM2.5暴露浓度每升高10 μg/m^3分别导致心率增加0.7%(95%CI:0.4%,1.0%)和0.4%(95%CI:0.2%,0.6%)(P<0.001)� 展开更多
关键词 颗粒物 空气污染 室内 肺疾病 慢性阻塞性 心率变异性
Application of Indoor Natural Ventilation Simulation in Residential Space Layout 预览
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作者 SUN Bo WU Zihan +1 位作者 JI Xiang LIANG Xinbin 《景观研究:英文版》 2019年第2期16-19,27共5页
Tatural ventilation of indoor air flow and thermal comfort space plays an important role, especially in the interior design of passive cooling factors, indoor space layout, and the location of doors, windows and other... Tatural ventilation of indoor air flow and thermal comfort space plays an important role, especially in the interior design of passive cooling factors, indoor space layout, and the location of doors, windows and other factors on the indoor natural ventilation effect has great influence. Using the method of fluid mechanics, and Airpak3.0 software, indoor natural ventilation for residential buildings was simulated, and the thermal comfort of indoor natural ventilation in a residential building in Xuzhou City was analyzed to explore the effect of indoor spatial layout, location of doors, window opening types on indoor natural ventilation. The results showed that indoor spatial layout played an essential role in indoor natural ventilation, application of numerical simulation for the simulation of the indoor natural ventilation and assessment of indoor natural ventilation effect was a scientific instruction for the indoor spatial design. 展开更多
关键词 NATURAL ventilation AIRPAK SIMULATION INDOOR SPATIAL layout
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Radiological characterization of building materials used in Malaysia and assessment of external and internal doses 预览
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作者 Shittu Abdullahi Aznan Fazli Ismail Supian Samat 《核技术:英文版》 SCIE CAS CSCD 2019年第3期82-96,共15页
In this study, the activity concentrations of ^226Ra,^232Th,^222Rn, and 40K, emanation fractions (P), equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC), and mass exhalation rates (Em) of radon released from building material... In this study, the activity concentrations of ^226Ra,^232Th,^222Rn, and 40K, emanation fractions (P), equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC), and mass exhalation rates (Em) of radon released from building materials used in Malaysia were studied using gamma-ray spectrometer with HPGe detector. Radiological parameters [activity concentration index (ACI), indoor air-absorbed dose rate (Din), annual effective dose (AEDin) from external and internal (ERn), soft tissues (HST) and lung (HL), and effective dose equivalent (Heff)] were estimated to evaluate radiological hazards due to the use of these building materials: sand, cement, gravel, bricks, tiles, fly ash, white cement, and ceramic raw materials. The measured P, EEC, and Em vary from 10 to 30%, 0.9 to 22 Bq m-3, and 33 to 674 mBq h^-1 kg^-1, respectively, while the calculated ACI and AEDin vary from 0.1 ± 0.01 to 2.1 ± 0.1 and 0.1 ± 0.01 to 2.4 ± 0.6 mSv y^-1, respectively. On the other hand, the internal annual effective dose ranges from 0.1 to 1.4 mSv y^-1. The estimated radiological risk parameters were below the recommended maximum values, and radiological hazards associated with building materials under investigation are therefore negligible. 展开更多
关键词 Indoor radon EMANATION fraction Equilibrium EQUIVALENT concentration Mass EXHALATION rate Annual EFFECTIVE DOSE EFFECTIVE DOSE EQUIVALENT
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A Survey of the Research Status of Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Systems Based on Inertial Sensors
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作者 Yuan Wu Hai-Bing Zhu +1 位作者 Qing-Xiu Du Shu-Ming Tang 《国际自动化与计算杂志:英文版》 EI CSCD 2019年第1期65-83,共19页
With the development of micro-electromechanical systems(MEMS),miniaturized,low-power and low-cost inertial measurement units(IMUs)have been widely integrated into mobile terminals and smart wearable devices.This provi... With the development of micro-electromechanical systems(MEMS),miniaturized,low-power and low-cost inertial measurement units(IMUs)have been widely integrated into mobile terminals and smart wearable devices.This provides the prospect of a broad application for the inertial sensor-based pedestrian dead-reckoning(IPDR)systems.Especially for indoor navigation and indoor positioning,the IPDR systems have many unique advantages that other methods do not have.At present,a large number of technologies and methods for IPDR systems are proposed.In this paper,we have analyzed and outlined the IPDR systems based on about 80 documents in the field of IPDR in recent years.The article is structured in the form of an introduction-elucidation-conclusion framework.First,we proposed a general framework to explore the structure of an IPDR system.Then,according to this framework,the IPDR system was divided into six relatively independent sub-problems,which were discussed and summarized separately.Finally,we proposed a graph structure of IPDR systems,and a sub-directed graph,formed by selecting a combined path from the start node to the end node,skillfully constitutes a technical route of one specific IPDR system.At the end of the article,we summarized some key issues that need to be resolved before the IPDR systems are widely used. 展开更多
关键词 INERTIAL measurement unit(IMU) PEDESTRIAN dead-reckoning INDOOR NAVIGATION technical ROUTE general framework
幼儿园便捷式室内体育游戏的开发与实施 预览
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作者 严映君 《宁波教育学院学报》 2019年第2期94-98,共5页
阐述便捷式室内体育游戏的内涵,通过室内体育游戏的方案开发和策略优化,构筑两“全”,三“宜”,四“趣”的便捷式室内体育游戏,有效解决室内体育游戏空间小、隐患大、内容少的问题,有效促进室内体育游戏的开展。
关键词 便捷式 室内 体育游戏 开发实施
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辽宁地区蒲公英冬季居室栽培技术 预览
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作者 胡凤新 高晓杰 《辽宁农业职业技术学院学报》 2019年第2期10-11,32共3页
辽宁地区冬季居室阳光充足,温度较高,适合蒲公英的生长发育。因此冬季充分利用居室栽培蒲公英,既能随时满足城乡居民对蒲公英的需求,又能美化居室环境,丰富业余生活。阐述了辽宁地区冬季居室栽培蒲公英的益处、可行性以及营养土、种子... 辽宁地区冬季居室阳光充足,温度较高,适合蒲公英的生长发育。因此冬季充分利用居室栽培蒲公英,既能随时满足城乡居民对蒲公英的需求,又能美化居室环境,丰富业余生活。阐述了辽宁地区冬季居室栽培蒲公英的益处、可行性以及营养土、种子及栽培盆的准备、播种、生长期管理、采收等关键技术环节。 展开更多
关键词 冬季 居室 蒲公英 栽培技术
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An Assessment of Indoor Environmental Quality in School Buildings in the State of Kuwait 预览
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作者 Jamal Al-Hubail Abdul-Salam Al-Temeemi 《建筑与工程前沿研究(英文)》 2019年第2期5-19,共15页
In this study, indoor quality and environmental comfort were investigated in secondaiy school buildings located in the State of Kuwait. Comfort variables such as temperature and relative humidity (thermal comfort), no... In this study, indoor quality and environmental comfort were investigated in secondaiy school buildings located in the State of Kuwait. Comfort variables such as temperature and relative humidity (thermal comfort), noise (acoustic comfort), illumination (visual comfort), as well as allocated classroom floor area per student (spatial comfort) were measured. Data was collected over a 7-month period on a spot basis during school hours in student-occupied classrooms at 46 selected schools. The measured data was then compared to international guidelines and standards related to indoor environment quality. The data for noise and allocated space were shown to be in the comfort ranges in all the schools. However, 11% of the schools are not adequately illuminated, 33% had temperatures not within the recommended limits, and 22% of the schools had humidity levels either higher or lower than the recommended levels. Also, 9% of the schools had low illummation readings. In addition, during the data monitoring, a survey was conducted by which the student occupants completed a questionnaire so that subjective and objective evaluations could be compared. The findings of the questionnaire displayed significant correlations between the measured data and some ailments and other corr^laints experienced by the students. Ultimately, the results found in this research will provide a baseHne for comparison with future indoor environment quality assessments in buildings. Furthermore, recommendations are suggested in order to improve the environmental quality problems encountered in some of the schools, which may be beneficial for policymakers, facilities managers, and design engineers. 展开更多
关键词 BUILDING ENVIRONMENT sick BUILDING syndrome CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT INDOOR physical parameters Temperature RELATIVE humidity Illummation Noise Space density
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FVO:floor vision aided odometry
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作者 Wenjun LV Yu KANG Jiahu QIN 《中国科学:信息科学(英文版)》 SCIE EI CSCD 2019年第1期92-104,共13页
In many indoor scenarios,such as restaurants,laboratories,and supermarkets,the planar floors are covered with rectangular tiles.We realized that the abundant parallel lines and crossing points formed by tile joints ca... In many indoor scenarios,such as restaurants,laboratories,and supermarkets,the planar floors are covered with rectangular tiles.We realized that the abundant parallel lines and crossing points formed by tile joints can be used as natural features to assist indoor localization,and thus we propose a novel indoor localization method for mobile robots by fusing odometry and monocular vision.The method comprises three steps.First,the heading and location of the mobile robot are approximately estimated by odometry based on incremental encoders.Second,with the aid of a camera,the lens of which points vertically toward the floor,the odometric heading estimation can be corrected by detecting the relative angle between the robot’s heading and the tile joints.Third,the odometric location estimation is corrected by detecting the perpendicular distance between the image center and the tile joints.As compared with the existing indoor localization methods,the proposed method,called floor vision aided odometry,is not only relatively low in economic cost and computational complexity,but also relatively high in accuracy and robustness.The effectiveness of this method is verified by a real-world experiment based on a differential-drive wheeled mobile robot. 展开更多
关键词 mobile robot INDOOR LOCALIZATION MONOCULAR VISION ODOMETRY TILE joint
华南某电子垃圾拆解区周边住宅室内灰尘重金属对儿童的非致癌健康风险评估
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作者 陈希超 朱晓辉 +4 位作者 林必桂 李良忠 于紫玲 向明灯 于云江 《中华预防医学杂志》 CAS CSCD 北大核心 2019年第4期360-364,共5页
目的评估华南某电子垃圾拆解区周边住宅室内灰尘重金属对儿童的非致癌健康风险。方法2016年10月,选取中国华南地区某电子垃圾拆解区周边A村作为研究场所,采用方便抽样抽取村庄内的36户住宅,利用真空吸尘器采集样品,共采集36份,测定每份... 目的评估华南某电子垃圾拆解区周边住宅室内灰尘重金属对儿童的非致癌健康风险。方法2016年10月,选取中国华南地区某电子垃圾拆解区周边A村作为研究场所,采用方便抽样抽取村庄内的36户住宅,利用真空吸尘器采集样品,共采集36份,测定每份样品中重金属As、Cd、Cr、Cu、Mn、Pb和Zn的浓度,并计算平均浓度值。分别采用美国环保署(EPA)推荐健康风险评估模型(HRA)、美国毒物与疾病登记署(ATSDR)的靶器官毒性剂量法(TTD)和二元证据权重分析(BINWOE)模型,评估室内灰尘中重金属对当地儿童的非致癌健康风险。结果As、Cd、Cr、Cu、Mn、Pb和Zn的浓度值分别为(48.90±33.91)、(5.95±3.89)、(173.57±580.37)、(412.71±1190.00)、(612.82±540.70)、(297.41±293.22)和(1052.81±1156.48)mg/kg,采用TTD和BINWOE模型得出的叠加风险(HI)值分别为2.670和2.933,分别是HRA模型叠加HI值(1.386)的1.93和2.12倍,均大于EPA推荐非致癌健康风险阈值(1.00)。结论华南某电子垃圾拆解区周边住宅室内灰尘重金属对当地儿童健康存在一定威胁。 展开更多
关键词 空气污染 室内 金属 危险性评估 靶器官毒性剂量 二元证据权重分析
Energy Consumption and Energy Use Characteristics of High-Rise Hotels: A Case Study of Xi’an, Shaanxi 预览
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作者 LI Xueping WU Yue 《景观研究:英文版》 2019年第2期99-103,共5页
In this paper, 5 high-rise hotels in Xi’an were selected for research, their energy consumption data from 2015 to 2016 were collected and analyzed, their comprehensive energy consumption per unit area was compared by... In this paper, 5 high-rise hotels in Xi’an were selected for research, their energy consumption data from 2015 to 2016 were collected and analyzed, their comprehensive energy consumption per unit area was compared by using the standard coal coefficient, and their energy use characteristics and influencing factors were obtained. The test analyzed various parameters of the indoor environment and evaluated the indoor environmental quality according to the specifications and standards. Starting from the perspective of energy use systems, this paper found energy consumption priorities and problems of these hotels, and proposed feasible energy conservation measures, in a view to providing a reference for energy conservation design of high-rise hotels in Xi’an. 展开更多
关键词 HIGH-RISE HOTELS ENERGY consumption Indoor environment ENERGY use CHARACTERISTICS
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Indoor Positioning Using Public FM and DTMB Signals Based on Compressive Sensing 预览
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作者 Menghuan Yang Hong Wu +2 位作者 Zhiyang Liu Shuxue Ding Hongzhao Peng 《中国通信:英文版》 SCIE CSCD 2019年第5期171-180,共10页
Location-Based Services have become an indispensable part of our daily life, the sparsity of location finding makes it possible to estimate specific position by Compressive Sensing(CS). Using public Frequency Modulati... Location-Based Services have become an indispensable part of our daily life, the sparsity of location finding makes it possible to estimate specific position by Compressive Sensing(CS). Using public Frequency Modulation(FM) broadcasting and Digital Television Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting(DTMB) signals, this paper presents an indoor positioning scheme, which is consisted of an offline stage and an online stage. In the offline stage, the Received Signal Strength(RSS) at the Reference Points(RPs) is measured, including the average and variance of public FM broadcasting and DTMB signals. In the online stage, the K-Weighted Nearest Neighbor algorithm is used to fulfill coarse positioning, which is able to narrow the selection scope of locations and choose partial RPs for accurate positioning. Then, the accurate positioning is implemented through CS. Experiment shows that the average positioning error of the proposed scheme is 1.63 m. What’s more, a CS-based method has been proposed in this paper to reduce the labor cost when collecting data. Experiment shows the average positioning error is 2.04 m, with the advantage of a 34% labor cost reduction. Experiment results indicate that the proposed system is a practical indoor positioning scheme. 展开更多
关键词 INDOOR POSITIONING COMPRESSIVE sensing FM BROADCASTING DTMB
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Brief Study on Application of New Indoor Lawn in Northern Areas of China 预览
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作者 Yinghua LUO Shanmin QU +1 位作者 Xiangping LIU Chenghao JIN 《亚洲农业研究:英文版》 2019年第4期46-47,53共3页
At present,the development and function research of lawn has become diversified,and the application of lawn has been extended from outdoor to indoor environment. The indoor lawn has functions of absorbing toxic and ha... At present,the development and function research of lawn has become diversified,and the application of lawn has been extended from outdoor to indoor environment. The indoor lawn has functions of absorbing toxic and harmful gases,releasing oxygen,increasing air humidity and regulating temperature. It can effectively improve the indoor air quality of northern areas,purify and beautify the home environment.This paper elaborated the purpose and significance of the application of new indoor lawn,the establishment methods of the indoor lawn,and the application design of the indoor lawn landscape. 展开更多
关键词 NORTHERN areas of China INDOOR LAWN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
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A Survey of 3D Indoor Scene Synthesis
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作者 Song-Hai Zhang Shao-Kui Zhang +1 位作者 Yuan Liang Peter Hall 《计算机科学技术学报:英文版》 SCIE EI CSCD 2019年第3期594-608,共15页
Indoor scene synthesis has become a popular topic in recent years.Synthesizing functional and plausible indoor scenes is an inherently difficult task since it requires considerable knowledge to both choose reasonable ... Indoor scene synthesis has become a popular topic in recent years.Synthesizing functional and plausible indoor scenes is an inherently difficult task since it requires considerable knowledge to both choose reasonable object categories and arrange objects appropriately.In this survey,we propose four criteria which group a wide range of 3D(three-dimensional)indoor scene synthesis techniques according to various aspects(specifically,four groups of categories).It also provides hints,througli comprehensively comparing all the techniques to demonstrate their effectiveness and drawbacks,and discussions of potential remaining problems. 展开更多
关键词 content GENERATION INDOOR SCENE SYNTHESIS layout arrangement PROBABILISTIC model
一种室内导航网络众包构建方法 预览
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作者 傅梦颖 王培晓 +1 位作者 张恒才 吴升 《测绘科学技术学报》 北大核心 2019年第1期100-104,共5页
室内导航网络是室内位置服务的基础,传统人工测绘或基于CAD半自动提取等方法时效性较差。室内移动对象众包轨迹数据的出现为室内导航网络构建提供了一种新的解决方案。提出一种室内导航网络众包构建方法。首先提取出用于构建室内导航网... 室内导航网络是室内位置服务的基础,传统人工测绘或基于CAD半自动提取等方法时效性较差。室内移动对象众包轨迹数据的出现为室内导航网络构建提供了一种新的解决方案。提出一种室内导航网络众包构建方法。首先提取出用于构建室内导航网络的廊道区域轨迹点;其次通过轨迹点生长融合聚类算法将廊道轨迹点转化为聚类点;最后通过聚类点连接生成室内导航网络。以某商城一楼2d的移动对象轨迹数据进行了实验。结果表明,本文方法提取的室内导航网络准确度较高,能够为室内空间结构快速变化检测和更新提供支持。 展开更多
关键词 移动对象轨迹 轨迹停留点 生长融合聚类 导航网络 室内
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Relations between indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and constituent concentrations
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作者 Cong Liu Yinping Zhang 《中国环境科学与工程前沿:英文版》 SCIE EI CAS CSCD 2019年第1期1-20,共20页
Outdoor PM2.5 influences both the concentration and composition of indoor PM2.5. People spend over 80% of their time indoors. Therefore, to assess possible health effects of PM2.5 it is important to accurately charact... Outdoor PM2.5 influences both the concentration and composition of indoor PM2.5. People spend over 80% of their time indoors. Therefore, to assess possible health effects of PM2.5 it is important to accurately characterize indoor PM2.5 concentrations and composition. Controlling indoor PM2.5 concentration is presently more feasible and economic than decreasing outdoor PM2.5 concentration. This study reviews modeling and measurements that address relationships between indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and the corresponding constituent concentrations. The key factors in the models are indooroutdoor air exchange rate, particle penetration, and deposition. We compiled studies that report I/O ratios of PM7.5 and typical constituents (sulfate (SO4^2-), nitrate (NO3 ), ammonium (NH4^+), elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn)). From these studies we conclude that: 1) sulfate might be a reasonable tracer of non-volatile species (EC, Fe, Cu, and Mn) and PM2.5 itself;2) particulate nitrate and ammonium generally desorb to gaseous HNO3 and NH3 when they enter indoors, unless, as seldom happens, they have strong indoor sources;3) indoor-originating semi-volatile organic compounds sorb on indoor PM2.5, thereby increasing the PM2.5 OC load. We suggest further studies on indoor-outdoor relationships of PM2.5 and constituents so as to help develop standards for healthy buildings. 展开更多
关键词 INDOOR air quality Exposure SVOC REACTIVE OXIDATIVE species OXIDATIVE potential Chemical transport model
活性炭的发展前景 预览
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作者 陈晓红 《科技创新与应用》 2019年第2期52-53,共2页
近年来室内空气污染越来越严重,因此所造成的疾病也愈来愈多,越来越多的人认识到室内空气污染对健康有害。如何让这些危害远离我们成了重要问题,活性炭工艺品具有的优异的吸附性能和许多独特且不可替代的特性,它独特的净化和美化功能,... 近年来室内空气污染越来越严重,因此所造成的疾病也愈来愈多,越来越多的人认识到室内空气污染对健康有害。如何让这些危害远离我们成了重要问题,活性炭工艺品具有的优异的吸附性能和许多独特且不可替代的特性,它独特的净化和美化功能,不仅可以美化我们的生活空间,也可以净化我们的空气环境。 展开更多
关键词 室内 空气污染 吸附性 活性炭 工艺品 净化性 美化性
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Indoor INS/UWB-based Human Localization With Missing Data Utilizing Predictive UFIR Filtering 预览
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作者 Yuan Xu Choon Ki Ahn +2 位作者 Yuriy S. Shmaliy Xiyuan Chen Lili Bu 《自动化学报:英文版》 CSCD 2019年第4期952-960,共9页
A combined algorithm for the loosely fused ultra wide band(UWB)and inertial navigation system(INS)-based measurements is designed under the indoor human navigation conditions with missing data.The scheme proposed fuse... A combined algorithm for the loosely fused ultra wide band(UWB)and inertial navigation system(INS)-based measurements is designed under the indoor human navigation conditions with missing data.The scheme proposed fuses the INS-and UWB-derived positions via a data fusion filter.Since the UWB signal is prone to drift in indoor environments and its outage highly affects the integrated scheme reliability,we also consider the missing data problem in UWB measurements.To overcome this problem,the loosely-coupled INS/UWB-integrated scheme is augmented with a prediction option based on the predictive unbiased finite impulse response(UFIR)fusion filter.We show experimentally that,the standard UFIR fusion filter has higher robustness than the Kalman filter.It is also shown that the predictive UFIR fusion filter is able to produce an acceptable navigation accuracy under temporary missing UWB-data. 展开更多
关键词 INDOOR human navigation INS/UWB model prediction UNBIASED FIR filter
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