Despite almost half a century of research for theory of mind, its evolutionary origin is largely unknown. This paper proposes that the evolutionary origin of theory of mind starts from the beginning of the human evolu...Despite almost half a century of research for theory of mind, its evolutionary origin is largely unknown. This paper proposes that the evolutionary origin of theory of mind starts from the beginning of the human evolution to form hominins through bipedalism and the mixed habitat. The feet of the early hominins were still adapted for grasping trees rather than walking for long distances and running fast on the ground. The early hominins lived in the mixed habitat of grassy woodland with patches of denser forest, and freshwater springs. The difficulty of walking in the mixed habitat leads to division of labor for the home specialist group (small children, old people, and mothers with small children, and pregnant women) in the safe forest area and the exploration specialist group (young people without the care of small children) in the dangerous open area. The different tasks, attitudes, and mentalities in different specialist groups produce theory of mind as the ability to attribute different mental states to different specialist groups. (Uniformity of mind instead of theory of mind is for generalists without division of labor). The early Homo species with the open habitat developed theory of mind for hunter specialist group and gatherer specialist group. The middle Homo species with complex stone tools developed theory of mind for the cooperative specialist groups in the large production of complex stone tools. The late Homo species with complex social interaction developed theory of mind for mind reading to enhance cooperation and to detect cheaters in complex social interaction. For religion, the unusually harsh Upper Paleolithic Period developed theory of mind for imaginary specialists in terms of supernatural power, guidance, and comfort. Therefore, the three general types of theory of mind are for specialists in division of labor, mind reading in complex social interaction, and imaginary specialists in imaginary division of labor under harsh conditions. Self-awareness in the mirror self-recognition test is al展开更多
The efficacy and mode of action of five chalcone-based imidazole derivatives as corrosion inhibitors of aluminium metal in gas-phase and acidic medium have been investigated herein via quantum chemical calculations. D...The efficacy and mode of action of five chalcone-based imidazole derivatives as corrosion inhibitors of aluminium metal in gas-phase and acidic medium have been investigated herein via quantum chemical calculations. Dispersion-corrected DFT (DFT-D3) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were performed at PBE0/def2-TZVP//PBEh-3c and CAM-B3LYP/def2- TZVP levels of theory, respectively. Conceptual DFT, the quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules (QTAIM) and local energy decomposition (LED) analyses have been performed. The LED analysis was performed at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples (CCSD(T))/def2-SVP level of theory. Frontier molecular orbital energy gaps calculated using the TD-DFT method are found to lie in the range 3.574 - 4.444 eV, indicative of good adsorption and corrosion inhibition efficacies of the investigated molecules. The interactions between aluminium and the inhibitor molecules studied are found to be energetically favorable, owing to negative computed interaction energy values. Furthermore, QTAIM analysis revealed metal-carbon, metal-oxygen and metal-nitrogen interactions in the inhibitor-aluminium complexes, which are predominantly electrostatic in character, according to LED analysis results. Calculated proton affinities (PAs) have revealed the anticorrosion potentials of the investigated inhibitors in acidic medium, with a noticeable dependency on temperature within the range 273.15 - 343.15 K.展开更多
The Number Theory comes back as the heart of unified Science, in a Computing Cosmos using the bases 2;3;5;7 whose two symmetric combinations explain the main lepton mass ratios. The corresponding Holic Principle induc...The Number Theory comes back as the heart of unified Science, in a Computing Cosmos using the bases 2;3;5;7 whose two symmetric combinations explain the main lepton mass ratios. The corresponding Holic Principle induces a symmetry between the Newton and Planck constants which confirm the Permanent Sweeping Holography Bang Cosmology, with invariant baryon density 3/10, the dark baryons being dephased matter-antimatter oscillation. This implies the DNA bi-codon mean isotopic mass, confirming to 0.1 ppm the electron-based Topological Axis, whose terminal boson is the base 2 c-observable Universe in the base 3 Cosmos. The physical parameters involve the Euler idoneal numbers and the special Fermat primes of Wieferich (bases 2) and Mirimanoff (base 3). The prime numbers and crystallographic symmetries are related to the 4-fold structure of the DNA bi-codon. The forgotten Eddington’s proton-tau symmetry is rehabilitated, renewing the supersymmetry quest. This excludes the concepts of Multiverse, Continuum, Infinity, Locality and Zero-mass Particle, leading to stringent predictions in Cosmology, Particle Physics and Biology.展开更多
In this paper we investigate a class of impulsive differential equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Firstly, we define new inner product of <img src="Edit_890fce38-e82b-4f36-be40-9d05e8119b88.png"...In this paper we investigate a class of impulsive differential equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Firstly, we define new inner product of <img src="Edit_890fce38-e82b-4f36-be40-9d05e8119b88.png" width="40" height="17" alt="" /> and prove that the norm which is deduced by the inner product is equivalent to the usual norm. Secondly, we construct the lower and upper solutions of (1.1). Thirdly, we obtain the existence of a positive solution, a negative solution and a sign-changing solution by using critical point theory and variational methods. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the application of our main result.展开更多
Nonsmooth critical point theory and applications to the spectral graph theory Kung-Ching Chang,Sihong Shao,Dong Zhang^Weixi Zhang.Existing critical point theories including metric and topological critical point theori...Nonsmooth critical point theory and applications to the spectral graph theory Kung-Ching Chang,Sihong Shao,Dong Zhang^Weixi Zhang.Existing critical point theories including metric and topological critical point theories are difficult to be applied directly to some concrete problems in particular polyhedral settings,because the notions of critical sets could be either very vague or too large.T o overcome these difficulties,w e develop the critical point theory for nonsmooth but Lipschitzian functions defined on convex polyhedrons.This yields natural extensions of classical results in the critical point theory,such as the Liusternik-Schnirelmann multiplicity theorem.More importantly,eigenvectors for some eigenvalue problems involving graph 1-Laplacian coincide with critical points of the corresponding functions on polytopes,which indicates that the critical point theory proposed in the present paper can be applied to study the nonlinear spectral graph theory.展开更多
The Standard Model of Particle Physics treats four fields—the gravitational, electromagnetic, weak and strong fields. These fields are assumed to converge to a single field at the big bang, but the theory has failed ...The Standard Model of Particle Physics treats four fields—the gravitational, electromagnetic, weak and strong fields. These fields are assumed to converge to a single field at the big bang, but the theory has failed to produce this convergence. Our theory proposes<em> one </em>primordial field and analyzes the evolution of this field. The key assumption is that <em>only</em> the primordial field exists—if any change is to occur, it must be based upon self-interaction, as there is nothing other than the field itself to interact with. This can be formalized as the <em>Principle</em> <em>of </em><em>Self-interaction</em> and the consequences explored. I show that this leads to the linearized Einstein field equations and discuss the key ontological implications of the theory.展开更多
In this paper, we have declined the formalism of the method of the Modified Atomic Orbital Theory (MAOT) applied to the calculations of energies of doubly excited states 2<em>snp</em>, 3<em>snp</e...In this paper, we have declined the formalism of the method of the Modified Atomic Orbital Theory (MAOT) applied to the calculations of energies of doubly excited states 2<em>snp</em>, 3<em>snp</em>, and 4<em>snp</em> Helium-like systems. Then we also applied the variational procedure of the Modified Atomic Orbital Theory to the computations of total energies, excitation energies of doubly-excited states 2<em>snp</em>, 3<em>snp</em>, 4<em>snp</em> types of Helium-like systems. The results obtained in this work are in good agreement with the experimental and theoretical values available.展开更多
Higher-order shear and normal deformation theory is used in this paper to account thickness stretching effect for free vibration analysis of the cylindrical micro/nano shell subjected to an applied voltage and uniform...Higher-order shear and normal deformation theory is used in this paper to account thickness stretching effect for free vibration analysis of the cylindrical micro/nano shell subjected to an applied voltage and uniform temperature rising.Size dependency is included in governing equations based on the modified couple stress theory.Hamilton’s principle is used to derive governing equations of the cylindrical micro/nano shell.Solution procedure is developed using Navier technique for simply-supported boundary conditions.The numerical results are presented to investigate the effect of significant parameters such as some dimensionless geometric parameters,material properties,applied voltages and temperature rising on the free vibration responses.展开更多
Objectives of the research to present a modern theory of water purification for multiple purposes entitled “a novelties filtration theory of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry” is an exceedingly sensitive and s...Objectives of the research to present a modern theory of water purification for multiple purposes entitled “a novelties filtration theory of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry” is an exceedingly sensitive and specific analytical technique in volume layers woven fabrics that can precisely determine the identities and quantities of compounds within volume Nanotube of cotton filament of layers woven fabrics. The problems are that the filters in the local and international markets have increased complications in configuration, installation and cost without reaching the efficiency that humanity hopes. Throw materials and methods the chromatography-mass spectrometry in layers woven fabrics, and throw the nanotube of cotton filament for purification of water dyes and smells. Industry, in which mass spectrometry is a convenient, versatile method for characterization and identification of process throw the Nanotube of cotton filament for purification of water dyes and smells. Results came up with a theme “innovations in textiles”, and also, for characterization of fibers and contaminants of the fabrics. Additive manufacturing in layers woven fabrics, are the processes used to synthesize a volume object under computer control with successive material layers that have been used and highlighted. The conclusions has included chromatography-mass spectrometry drop, physico-chemical, biological, combined physical-biological and chemical-biological treatment processes recently being developed to meet Jet-filtration, the strict discharging limits set by ASTM standards. Some important aspects of both qualitative and quantitative data analysis have been described and the power of using mass profiles to enhance selectivity and sensitivity has been demonstrated.展开更多
A rigorous model for the electron is presented by generalizing the Coulomb’s Law or Gauss’s Law of electrostatics, using a unified theory of electricity and gravity. The permittivity of the free-space is allowed to ...A rigorous model for the electron is presented by generalizing the Coulomb’s Law or Gauss’s Law of electrostatics, using a unified theory of electricity and gravity. The permittivity of the free-space is allowed to be variable, dependent on the energy density associated with the electric field at a given location, employing generalized concepts of gravity and mass/energy density. The electric field becomes a non-linear function of the source charge, where the concept of the energy density needs to be properly defined. Stable solutions are derived for a spherically symmetric, surface-charge distribution of an elementary charge. This is implemented by assuming that the gravitational field and its equivalent permittivity function is proportional to the energy density, as a simple first-order approximation, with the constant of proportionality, referred to as the Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) constant. The stable solution with the lowest mass/energy is assumed to represent a “static” electron without any spin. Further, assuming that the mass/energy of a static electron is half of the total mass/energy of an electron including its spin contribution, the required UEG constant is estimated. More fundamentally, the lowest stable mass of a static elementary charged particle, its associated classical radius, and the UEG constant are related to each other by a dimensionless constant, independent of any specific value of the charge or mass of the particle. This dimensionless constant is numerologically found to be closely related to the fine structure constant. This possible origin of the fine structure constant is further strengthened by applying the proposed theory to successfully model the Casimir effect, from which approximately the same above relationship between the UEG constant, electron’s mass and classical radius, and the fine structure constant, emerges.展开更多
This paper deals with a class of <em>n</em>-degree polynomial differential equations. By the fixed point theorem and mathematical analysis techniques, the existence of one (<em>n</em> is an odd...This paper deals with a class of <em>n</em>-degree polynomial differential equations. By the fixed point theorem and mathematical analysis techniques, the existence of one (<em>n</em> is an odd number) or two (<em>n</em> is an even number) periodic solutions of the equation is obtained. These conclusions have certain application value for judging the existence of periodic solutions of polynomial differential equations with only one higher-order term.展开更多
Extreme gravitational collapse is explored by utilizing two fundamental properties and one reasonable assumption, which together lead logically to an end-state gravitating structure. This structure, called a Terminal ...Extreme gravitational collapse is explored by utilizing two fundamental properties and one reasonable assumption, which together lead logically to an end-state gravitating structure. This structure, called a Terminal state neutron star, manifests nature’s ultimate density of mass and possesses the ultimate electromagnetic barrier. It is then shown how this structure is central to the remarkable mechanism whereby the density is prevented from going higher. A simple process assures that such density is not exceeded—regardless of the quantity of additional mass. As an example, the discourse focuses on the expected progression and outcome when a compact star of <img src="Edit_2c290d68-3330-4724-9e68-e7f1c9d3df1a.png" width="25" height="15" alt="" />—far more mass than can be accommodated by the basic Terminal state structure—undergoes total gravitational collapse. An examination of what happens to the considerable excess mass leads the discussion to the <i>principle of mass extinction by the process of aether deprivation</i> and its profound implications for black-hole physics and the current revolution in cosmology.展开更多
A new method for the unification of gravitational and electromagnetic forces is proposed. Previously, Kaluza-Klein theory dealt with the unification, but it has not yet been established as a complete theory. The main ...A new method for the unification of gravitational and electromagnetic forces is proposed. Previously, Kaluza-Klein theory dealt with the unification, but it has not yet been established as a complete theory. The main reason for this is that Kaluza-Klein theory has various contradictions due to the use of a 5-dimensional metric tensor. In this paper, unlike the conventional method, various equations related to gravitational and electromagnetic force are derived without any contradiction by processing equations having gauge symmetry within a 4-dimensional range. In this process, we propose that Maxwell’s equations for the electromagnetic force are expressed more simply and implicitly than the existing tensor form. Using the gauge symmetry, it shows that electromagnetic force can exist in single metric tensor along with gravity. In addition, since geodesic equations can be derived in the form of coordinate transformation, it has been shown that they are consistent with the existing equations. As a result, it has shown that they are consistent with the existing physical equations without contradiction.展开更多
Photochemical reactions have an important place in photodynamic treatments. A good use of this therapeutic method requires a good mastery of the mechanisms of the reactions involved. Therefore, we have explored in thi...Photochemical reactions have an important place in photodynamic treatments. A good use of this therapeutic method requires a good mastery of the mechanisms of the reactions involved. Therefore, we have explored in this work the photosensitization mechanism of an organometallic complex of azopyridine <em>δ</em>-OsCl<sub>2</sub>(Azpy)<sub>2</sub> through a calculation with the method of Time Dependent Density Functional Theory TDDFT. First, we evaluated the effect of polar and non-polar solvents on the triplet and singlet excited states of this complex. Then secondly, we highlighted the photosensitization mechanism to understand how the complex acts over the diseased cells. These investigations have shown that the <em>δ</em>-OsCl<sub>2</sub>(Azpy)<sub>2</sub> complex is likely to develop photodynamic activity according to two mechanisms: on one hand, it can generate damage to DNA bases or target tissues indirectly through the production of singlet oxygen in water and in DMSO. On the second hand, through the production of the anionic superoxide radical <img src="Edit_a1e628d6-dcd2-41c6-bf3c-7e3cad491857.png" alt="" />in water can act directly or indirectly on these substrates. In addition, polar solvents are assumed to better carry out the photochemical reactions of this azopyridine complex of osmium.展开更多
Dark matter is identified as negative relative energy between quarks in proton and is generated in cold hydrogen gas with pressure gradient in gravitational field. Positive relative energy PRE can be generated between...Dark matter is identified as negative relative energy between quarks in proton and is generated in cold hydrogen gas with pressure gradient in gravitational field. Positive relative energy PRE can be generated between quarks in protons in cold hydrogen gas in outskirts of the universe. The mechanisms for such creation of dark matter and PRE are reviewed and updated in greater detail and clearer manner. The so-generated dark matter in a galaxy can account for the galaxy’s rotation curve. Star formation in this galaxy uses up the hydrogen atoms and thereby reduces its dark matter content. Dark matter created in intergalactic hydrogen gas can form filaments. In a hypothetical model of the universe, a hydrogen atom with a small amount of negative relative energy or dark matter at the outskirts of this universe can via collisions with other atoms turn into one with a small positive relative energy PRE. Once such a sign change takes place, gravitational attraction switches to anti-gravity repulsion unopposed by any pressure gradient. This leads to a “run away” hydrogen atom moving away from the mass center of the universe and provides a basic mechanism for the accelerating expansion of the universe. This theoretical expansion and the measured redshift data are both compatible with the conception of an acceleratingly expanding universe and complement each other. But they cannot verify each other directly because the present model has been constructed for purposes different from those of the measurements. But it can be shown that both approaches do support each other qualitatively under certain circumstances for small velocities. Dark matter and PRE in the present model are not foreign objects like WIMPs and dark energy-cosmological constant but can only be created in cold hydrogen gas in gravitational field. To achieve this, infrequent collisions among the hydrogen atoms must take place. Dark matter was created first and can eventually later evolve into PRE in the outskirts of the universe and in the intergalactic展开更多
The binding energy of the deuteron is estimated from the scalar strong interaction hadron theory SSI. The predicted value is 7.7% lower than the measured value. Existence of a spin 1 dineutron with a binding energy 4/...The binding energy of the deuteron is estimated from the scalar strong interaction hadron theory SSI. The predicted value is 7.7% lower than the measured value. Existence of a spin 1 dineutron with a binding energy 4/5 that of the deuteron or 1.78 MeV is predicted. This is verified by the dineutron, first observed in 2012, in <sup>16</sup>Be decay. No free dineutrons are expected to exist in nature as they can decay into deuterons. These binding energies are limited by short range strong interaction internucleon forces but consist of long range electrostatic energies from quark charges.展开更多
A multi-bubble model of universe is presented, in which gravity is the result of the aging of electromagnetic dipoles produced in quantum fluctuations of the action inside a condensate of a particular type of balancin...A multi-bubble model of universe is presented, in which gravity is the result of the aging of electromagnetic dipoles produced in quantum fluctuations of the action inside a condensate of a particular type of balancing gravitons. In the model, the exchange of gravitons among the dipoles and the potential of vacuum balances the energy of the fluctuation. The effect is to create bubbles of space-time that by growing they expand the local vacuum. The model suggests that the universe originates from overlapping of bubbles of space-time associated with dipoles. Matter is originated during gravitons decay. The use of the Bridge Theory demonstrates how the attractive force field that emerges in each bubble is in the first approximation in accordance with Newtonian gravity at small, medium and large distances in accordance with the theory of General Relativity by also introducing a variable cosmological term that justifies some observed cosmological anomalies. The model overcomes the current concepts of Dark Energy and Dark Mass in favor of a gravity produced by the curvature of space-time of the bubble. The existence of the balancing gravitons provides an estimate of the actual amounts of Dark Energy, Dark Matter and matter measured in the current universe. The estimated theoretical mass of the balancing gravitons is consistent with the Kaluza-Klein gravitons of 2.68 TeV observed in the ATLAS experiment during Run #1. Moreover, the use of the observational data of the rotation speeds of two samples of galaxies allows to verify the good agreement of the real universe with the model, providing a possible explanation of the variability in the measurement of the Hubble constant.展开更多
Simulation of dislocation dynamics opens the opportunity for researchers and scientists to observe in-depth many plastic deformation phenomena. In 2D or 3D media, modeling of physical boundary conditions accurately is...Simulation of dislocation dynamics opens the opportunity for researchers and scientists to observe in-depth many plastic deformation phenomena. In 2D or 3D media, modeling of physical boundary conditions accurately is one of the keys to the success of dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations. The scope of analytical solutions is restricted and applies to specific configurations only. But in dynamics simulations, the dislocations’ shape and orientation change over time thus limiting the use of analytical solutions. The authors of this article present a mesh-based generalized numerical approach based on the collocation point method. The method is applicable to any number of dislocations of any shape/orientation and to different computational domain shapes. Several verifications of the method are provided and successful implementation of the method in 3D DD simulations have been incorporated. Also, the effect of free surfaces on the Peach-Koehler force has been computed. Lastly, the effect of free surfaces on the flow stress of the material has been studied. The results clearly showed a higher force with increased closeness to the free surface and with increased dislocation segment length. The simulations’ results also show a softening effect on the flow stress results due to the effect of the free surfaces.展开更多
Audiovisual production,as social media,plays a considerable role in cultural exchanges around the world,for it is one of the ways for people to know more about exotic cultures.At the same time,due to language barriers...Audiovisual production,as social media,plays a considerable role in cultural exchanges around the world,for it is one of the ways for people to know more about exotic cultures.At the same time,due to language barriers,the importance of subtitle trans⁃lation is gradually recognized.The subtitle translation can go beyond the limits of time and space to faithfully reproduce the story plot and skillfully convey the feelings.From the perspective of relevance theory,the subtitle translation of The Big Bang Theory is chosen as a case in this paper to analyze the inferential process in the following three relevant aspects:relevance in context,rele⁃vance in culture,and relevance in the audience.展开更多
文摘Despite almost half a century of research for theory of mind, its evolutionary origin is largely unknown. This paper proposes that the evolutionary origin of theory of mind starts from the beginning of the human evolution to form hominins through bipedalism and the mixed habitat. The feet of the early hominins were still adapted for grasping trees rather than walking for long distances and running fast on the ground. The early hominins lived in the mixed habitat of grassy woodland with patches of denser forest, and freshwater springs. The difficulty of walking in the mixed habitat leads to division of labor for the home specialist group (small children, old people, and mothers with small children, and pregnant women) in the safe forest area and the exploration specialist group (young people without the care of small children) in the dangerous open area. The different tasks, attitudes, and mentalities in different specialist groups produce theory of mind as the ability to attribute different mental states to different specialist groups. (Uniformity of mind instead of theory of mind is for generalists without division of labor). The early Homo species with the open habitat developed theory of mind for hunter specialist group and gatherer specialist group. The middle Homo species with complex stone tools developed theory of mind for the cooperative specialist groups in the large production of complex stone tools. The late Homo species with complex social interaction developed theory of mind for mind reading to enhance cooperation and to detect cheaters in complex social interaction. For religion, the unusually harsh Upper Paleolithic Period developed theory of mind for imaginary specialists in terms of supernatural power, guidance, and comfort. Therefore, the three general types of theory of mind are for specialists in division of labor, mind reading in complex social interaction, and imaginary specialists in imaginary division of labor under harsh conditions. Self-awareness in the mirror self-recognition test is al
文摘The efficacy and mode of action of five chalcone-based imidazole derivatives as corrosion inhibitors of aluminium metal in gas-phase and acidic medium have been investigated herein via quantum chemical calculations. Dispersion-corrected DFT (DFT-D3) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were performed at PBE0/def2-TZVP//PBEh-3c and CAM-B3LYP/def2- TZVP levels of theory, respectively. Conceptual DFT, the quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules (QTAIM) and local energy decomposition (LED) analyses have been performed. The LED analysis was performed at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples (CCSD(T))/def2-SVP level of theory. Frontier molecular orbital energy gaps calculated using the TD-DFT method are found to lie in the range 3.574 - 4.444 eV, indicative of good adsorption and corrosion inhibition efficacies of the investigated molecules. The interactions between aluminium and the inhibitor molecules studied are found to be energetically favorable, owing to negative computed interaction energy values. Furthermore, QTAIM analysis revealed metal-carbon, metal-oxygen and metal-nitrogen interactions in the inhibitor-aluminium complexes, which are predominantly electrostatic in character, according to LED analysis results. Calculated proton affinities (PAs) have revealed the anticorrosion potentials of the investigated inhibitors in acidic medium, with a noticeable dependency on temperature within the range 273.15 - 343.15 K.
文摘The Number Theory comes back as the heart of unified Science, in a Computing Cosmos using the bases 2;3;5;7 whose two symmetric combinations explain the main lepton mass ratios. The corresponding Holic Principle induces a symmetry between the Newton and Planck constants which confirm the Permanent Sweeping Holography Bang Cosmology, with invariant baryon density 3/10, the dark baryons being dephased matter-antimatter oscillation. This implies the DNA bi-codon mean isotopic mass, confirming to 0.1 ppm the electron-based Topological Axis, whose terminal boson is the base 2 c-observable Universe in the base 3 Cosmos. The physical parameters involve the Euler idoneal numbers and the special Fermat primes of Wieferich (bases 2) and Mirimanoff (base 3). The prime numbers and crystallographic symmetries are related to the 4-fold structure of the DNA bi-codon. The forgotten Eddington’s proton-tau symmetry is rehabilitated, renewing the supersymmetry quest. This excludes the concepts of Multiverse, Continuum, Infinity, Locality and Zero-mass Particle, leading to stringent predictions in Cosmology, Particle Physics and Biology.
文摘In this paper we investigate a class of impulsive differential equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Firstly, we define new inner product of <img src="Edit_890fce38-e82b-4f36-be40-9d05e8119b88.png" width="40" height="17" alt="" /> and prove that the norm which is deduced by the inner product is equivalent to the usual norm. Secondly, we construct the lower and upper solutions of (1.1). Thirdly, we obtain the existence of a positive solution, a negative solution and a sign-changing solution by using critical point theory and variational methods. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the application of our main result.
文摘Nonsmooth critical point theory and applications to the spectral graph theory Kung-Ching Chang,Sihong Shao,Dong Zhang^Weixi Zhang.Existing critical point theories including metric and topological critical point theories are difficult to be applied directly to some concrete problems in particular polyhedral settings,because the notions of critical sets could be either very vague or too large.T o overcome these difficulties,w e develop the critical point theory for nonsmooth but Lipschitzian functions defined on convex polyhedrons.This yields natural extensions of classical results in the critical point theory,such as the Liusternik-Schnirelmann multiplicity theorem.More importantly,eigenvectors for some eigenvalue problems involving graph 1-Laplacian coincide with critical points of the corresponding functions on polytopes,which indicates that the critical point theory proposed in the present paper can be applied to study the nonlinear spectral graph theory.
文摘The Standard Model of Particle Physics treats four fields—the gravitational, electromagnetic, weak and strong fields. These fields are assumed to converge to a single field at the big bang, but the theory has failed to produce this convergence. Our theory proposes<em> one </em>primordial field and analyzes the evolution of this field. The key assumption is that <em>only</em> the primordial field exists—if any change is to occur, it must be based upon self-interaction, as there is nothing other than the field itself to interact with. This can be formalized as the <em>Principle</em> <em>of </em><em>Self-interaction</em> and the consequences explored. I show that this leads to the linearized Einstein field equations and discuss the key ontological implications of the theory.
文摘In this paper, we have declined the formalism of the method of the Modified Atomic Orbital Theory (MAOT) applied to the calculations of energies of doubly excited states 2<em>snp</em>, 3<em>snp</em>, and 4<em>snp</em> Helium-like systems. Then we also applied the variational procedure of the Modified Atomic Orbital Theory to the computations of total energies, excitation energies of doubly-excited states 2<em>snp</em>, 3<em>snp</em>, 4<em>snp</em> types of Helium-like systems. The results obtained in this work are in good agreement with the experimental and theoretical values available.
文摘Higher-order shear and normal deformation theory is used in this paper to account thickness stretching effect for free vibration analysis of the cylindrical micro/nano shell subjected to an applied voltage and uniform temperature rising.Size dependency is included in governing equations based on the modified couple stress theory.Hamilton’s principle is used to derive governing equations of the cylindrical micro/nano shell.Solution procedure is developed using Navier technique for simply-supported boundary conditions.The numerical results are presented to investigate the effect of significant parameters such as some dimensionless geometric parameters,material properties,applied voltages and temperature rising on the free vibration responses.
文摘Objectives of the research to present a modern theory of water purification for multiple purposes entitled “a novelties filtration theory of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry” is an exceedingly sensitive and specific analytical technique in volume layers woven fabrics that can precisely determine the identities and quantities of compounds within volume Nanotube of cotton filament of layers woven fabrics. The problems are that the filters in the local and international markets have increased complications in configuration, installation and cost without reaching the efficiency that humanity hopes. Throw materials and methods the chromatography-mass spectrometry in layers woven fabrics, and throw the nanotube of cotton filament for purification of water dyes and smells. Industry, in which mass spectrometry is a convenient, versatile method for characterization and identification of process throw the Nanotube of cotton filament for purification of water dyes and smells. Results came up with a theme “innovations in textiles”, and also, for characterization of fibers and contaminants of the fabrics. Additive manufacturing in layers woven fabrics, are the processes used to synthesize a volume object under computer control with successive material layers that have been used and highlighted. The conclusions has included chromatography-mass spectrometry drop, physico-chemical, biological, combined physical-biological and chemical-biological treatment processes recently being developed to meet Jet-filtration, the strict discharging limits set by ASTM standards. Some important aspects of both qualitative and quantitative data analysis have been described and the power of using mass profiles to enhance selectivity and sensitivity has been demonstrated.
文摘A rigorous model for the electron is presented by generalizing the Coulomb’s Law or Gauss’s Law of electrostatics, using a unified theory of electricity and gravity. The permittivity of the free-space is allowed to be variable, dependent on the energy density associated with the electric field at a given location, employing generalized concepts of gravity and mass/energy density. The electric field becomes a non-linear function of the source charge, where the concept of the energy density needs to be properly defined. Stable solutions are derived for a spherically symmetric, surface-charge distribution of an elementary charge. This is implemented by assuming that the gravitational field and its equivalent permittivity function is proportional to the energy density, as a simple first-order approximation, with the constant of proportionality, referred to as the Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) constant. The stable solution with the lowest mass/energy is assumed to represent a “static” electron without any spin. Further, assuming that the mass/energy of a static electron is half of the total mass/energy of an electron including its spin contribution, the required UEG constant is estimated. More fundamentally, the lowest stable mass of a static elementary charged particle, its associated classical radius, and the UEG constant are related to each other by a dimensionless constant, independent of any specific value of the charge or mass of the particle. This dimensionless constant is numerologically found to be closely related to the fine structure constant. This possible origin of the fine structure constant is further strengthened by applying the proposed theory to successfully model the Casimir effect, from which approximately the same above relationship between the UEG constant, electron’s mass and classical radius, and the fine structure constant, emerges.
文摘This paper deals with a class of <em>n</em>-degree polynomial differential equations. By the fixed point theorem and mathematical analysis techniques, the existence of one (<em>n</em> is an odd number) or two (<em>n</em> is an even number) periodic solutions of the equation is obtained. These conclusions have certain application value for judging the existence of periodic solutions of polynomial differential equations with only one higher-order term.
文摘Extreme gravitational collapse is explored by utilizing two fundamental properties and one reasonable assumption, which together lead logically to an end-state gravitating structure. This structure, called a Terminal state neutron star, manifests nature’s ultimate density of mass and possesses the ultimate electromagnetic barrier. It is then shown how this structure is central to the remarkable mechanism whereby the density is prevented from going higher. A simple process assures that such density is not exceeded—regardless of the quantity of additional mass. As an example, the discourse focuses on the expected progression and outcome when a compact star of <img src="Edit_2c290d68-3330-4724-9e68-e7f1c9d3df1a.png" width="25" height="15" alt="" />—far more mass than can be accommodated by the basic Terminal state structure—undergoes total gravitational collapse. An examination of what happens to the considerable excess mass leads the discussion to the <i>principle of mass extinction by the process of aether deprivation</i> and its profound implications for black-hole physics and the current revolution in cosmology.
文摘A new method for the unification of gravitational and electromagnetic forces is proposed. Previously, Kaluza-Klein theory dealt with the unification, but it has not yet been established as a complete theory. The main reason for this is that Kaluza-Klein theory has various contradictions due to the use of a 5-dimensional metric tensor. In this paper, unlike the conventional method, various equations related to gravitational and electromagnetic force are derived without any contradiction by processing equations having gauge symmetry within a 4-dimensional range. In this process, we propose that Maxwell’s equations for the electromagnetic force are expressed more simply and implicitly than the existing tensor form. Using the gauge symmetry, it shows that electromagnetic force can exist in single metric tensor along with gravity. In addition, since geodesic equations can be derived in the form of coordinate transformation, it has been shown that they are consistent with the existing equations. As a result, it has shown that they are consistent with the existing physical equations without contradiction.
文摘Photochemical reactions have an important place in photodynamic treatments. A good use of this therapeutic method requires a good mastery of the mechanisms of the reactions involved. Therefore, we have explored in this work the photosensitization mechanism of an organometallic complex of azopyridine <em>δ</em>-OsCl<sub>2</sub>(Azpy)<sub>2</sub> through a calculation with the method of Time Dependent Density Functional Theory TDDFT. First, we evaluated the effect of polar and non-polar solvents on the triplet and singlet excited states of this complex. Then secondly, we highlighted the photosensitization mechanism to understand how the complex acts over the diseased cells. These investigations have shown that the <em>δ</em>-OsCl<sub>2</sub>(Azpy)<sub>2</sub> complex is likely to develop photodynamic activity according to two mechanisms: on one hand, it can generate damage to DNA bases or target tissues indirectly through the production of singlet oxygen in water and in DMSO. On the second hand, through the production of the anionic superoxide radical <img src="Edit_a1e628d6-dcd2-41c6-bf3c-7e3cad491857.png" alt="" />in water can act directly or indirectly on these substrates. In addition, polar solvents are assumed to better carry out the photochemical reactions of this azopyridine complex of osmium.
文摘Dark matter is identified as negative relative energy between quarks in proton and is generated in cold hydrogen gas with pressure gradient in gravitational field. Positive relative energy PRE can be generated between quarks in protons in cold hydrogen gas in outskirts of the universe. The mechanisms for such creation of dark matter and PRE are reviewed and updated in greater detail and clearer manner. The so-generated dark matter in a galaxy can account for the galaxy’s rotation curve. Star formation in this galaxy uses up the hydrogen atoms and thereby reduces its dark matter content. Dark matter created in intergalactic hydrogen gas can form filaments. In a hypothetical model of the universe, a hydrogen atom with a small amount of negative relative energy or dark matter at the outskirts of this universe can via collisions with other atoms turn into one with a small positive relative energy PRE. Once such a sign change takes place, gravitational attraction switches to anti-gravity repulsion unopposed by any pressure gradient. This leads to a “run away” hydrogen atom moving away from the mass center of the universe and provides a basic mechanism for the accelerating expansion of the universe. This theoretical expansion and the measured redshift data are both compatible with the conception of an acceleratingly expanding universe and complement each other. But they cannot verify each other directly because the present model has been constructed for purposes different from those of the measurements. But it can be shown that both approaches do support each other qualitatively under certain circumstances for small velocities. Dark matter and PRE in the present model are not foreign objects like WIMPs and dark energy-cosmological constant but can only be created in cold hydrogen gas in gravitational field. To achieve this, infrequent collisions among the hydrogen atoms must take place. Dark matter was created first and can eventually later evolve into PRE in the outskirts of the universe and in the intergalactic
文摘The binding energy of the deuteron is estimated from the scalar strong interaction hadron theory SSI. The predicted value is 7.7% lower than the measured value. Existence of a spin 1 dineutron with a binding energy 4/5 that of the deuteron or 1.78 MeV is predicted. This is verified by the dineutron, first observed in 2012, in <sup>16</sup>Be decay. No free dineutrons are expected to exist in nature as they can decay into deuterons. These binding energies are limited by short range strong interaction internucleon forces but consist of long range electrostatic energies from quark charges.
文摘A multi-bubble model of universe is presented, in which gravity is the result of the aging of electromagnetic dipoles produced in quantum fluctuations of the action inside a condensate of a particular type of balancing gravitons. In the model, the exchange of gravitons among the dipoles and the potential of vacuum balances the energy of the fluctuation. The effect is to create bubbles of space-time that by growing they expand the local vacuum. The model suggests that the universe originates from overlapping of bubbles of space-time associated with dipoles. Matter is originated during gravitons decay. The use of the Bridge Theory demonstrates how the attractive force field that emerges in each bubble is in the first approximation in accordance with Newtonian gravity at small, medium and large distances in accordance with the theory of General Relativity by also introducing a variable cosmological term that justifies some observed cosmological anomalies. The model overcomes the current concepts of Dark Energy and Dark Mass in favor of a gravity produced by the curvature of space-time of the bubble. The existence of the balancing gravitons provides an estimate of the actual amounts of Dark Energy, Dark Matter and matter measured in the current universe. The estimated theoretical mass of the balancing gravitons is consistent with the Kaluza-Klein gravitons of 2.68 TeV observed in the ATLAS experiment during Run #1. Moreover, the use of the observational data of the rotation speeds of two samples of galaxies allows to verify the good agreement of the real universe with the model, providing a possible explanation of the variability in the measurement of the Hubble constant.
文摘Simulation of dislocation dynamics opens the opportunity for researchers and scientists to observe in-depth many plastic deformation phenomena. In 2D or 3D media, modeling of physical boundary conditions accurately is one of the keys to the success of dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations. The scope of analytical solutions is restricted and applies to specific configurations only. But in dynamics simulations, the dislocations’ shape and orientation change over time thus limiting the use of analytical solutions. The authors of this article present a mesh-based generalized numerical approach based on the collocation point method. The method is applicable to any number of dislocations of any shape/orientation and to different computational domain shapes. Several verifications of the method are provided and successful implementation of the method in 3D DD simulations have been incorporated. Also, the effect of free surfaces on the Peach-Koehler force has been computed. Lastly, the effect of free surfaces on the flow stress of the material has been studied. The results clearly showed a higher force with increased closeness to the free surface and with increased dislocation segment length. The simulations’ results also show a softening effect on the flow stress results due to the effect of the free surfaces.
文摘Audiovisual production,as social media,plays a considerable role in cultural exchanges around the world,for it is one of the ways for people to know more about exotic cultures.At the same time,due to language barriers,the importance of subtitle trans⁃lation is gradually recognized.The subtitle translation can go beyond the limits of time and space to faithfully reproduce the story plot and skillfully convey the feelings.From the perspective of relevance theory,the subtitle translation of The Big Bang Theory is chosen as a case in this paper to analyze the inferential process in the following three relevant aspects:relevance in context,rele⁃vance in culture,and relevance in the audience.