The aim of the present work is to assess the offshore wave energy potential along the Atlantic coast of Morocco.Research works of this paper focus on the identification of the most energetic sites for wave energy conv...The aim of the present work is to assess the offshore wave energy potential along the Atlantic coast of Morocco.Research works of this paper focus on the identification of the most energetic sites for wave energy converters(WECs)deployment.For this purpose,11 sites have been explored;all of them are located at more than 40m depth on the Moroccan Atlantic coast.The wave power at each site is computed on the basis of wave data records in terms of significant wave height and energy period provided by theWaveWatch three(WW3)model.Results indicate that the coast sites located between latitudes 30°30′N and 33°N are the most energetic with an annual average wave power estimated at about 30 kW?m^-1,whereas,in the other sites,the wave power is significantly lower.Moreover,the study of the monthly and seasonal temporal variability is found to be uniform in the powerful sites with values four times greater in winter than in summer.The directional investigation on the significant wave height has shown that for almost all the powerful sites,the incoming waves have a dominant sector ranging between Northern(N)and Western-Northern-Western(WNW)directions.展开更多
A wave forecasting system using FUNWAVE-TVD which is based on the fully nonlinear Boussinesq equations by Chen(2006)was developed to provide an accurate wave prediction in the Port of Busan,South Korea.This system is ...A wave forecasting system using FUNWAVE-TVD which is based on the fully nonlinear Boussinesq equations by Chen(2006)was developed to provide an accurate wave prediction in the Port of Busan,South Korea.This system is linked to the Korea Operational Oceanographic System(KOOS)developed by Park et al.(2015).The computational domain covers a region of 9.6 km×7.0 km with a grid size of 2 m in both directions,which is sufficient to resolve short waves and dominant sea states.The total number of grid points exceeds 16 millions,making the model computational expensive.To provide real-time forecasting,an interpolation method,which is based on pre-calculated results of FUNWAVE-TVD and SWAN forecasting results at the FUNWAVE-TVD offshore boundary,was used.A total of 45 cases were pre-calculated,which took 71 days on 924 computational cores of a Linux cluster system.Wind wave generation and propagation from the deep water were computed using the SWAN in KOOS.SWAN results provided a boundary condition for the FUNWAVE-TVD forecasting system.To verify the model,wave observations were conducted at three locations inside the port in a time period of more than 7 months.A model/model comparison between FUNWAVE-TVD and SWAN was also carried out.It is found that,FUNWAVE-TVD improves the forecasting results significantly compared to SWAN which underestimates wave heights in sheltered areas due to incorrect physical mechanism of wave diffraction,as well as large wave heights caused by wave reflections inside the port.展开更多
Linearized shallow water perturbation equations with approximation in an equatorial β plane are used to obtain the analytical solution of wave packet anomalies in the upper bounded equatorial ocean. The main results ...Linearized shallow water perturbation equations with approximation in an equatorial β plane are used to obtain the analytical solution of wave packet anomalies in the upper bounded equatorial ocean. The main results are as follows. The wave packet is a superposition of eastward travelling Kelvin waves and westward travelling Rossby waves with the slowest speed, and satisfies the boundary conditions of eastern and western coasts, respectively.The decay coefficient of this solution to the north and south sides of the equator is inversely proportional only to the phase velocity of Kelvin waves in the upper water. The oscillation frequency of the wave packet, which is also the natural frequency of the ocean, is proportional to its mode number and the phase velocity of Kelvin waves and is inversely proportional to the length of the equatorial ocean in the east-west direction. The flow anomalies of the wave packet of Mode 1 most of the time appear as zonal flows with the same direction. They reach the maximum at the center of the equatorial ocean and decay rapidly away from the equator, manifested as equatorially trapped waves. The flow anomalies of the wave packet of Mode 2 appear as the zonal flows with the same direction most of the time in half of the ocean, and are always 0 at the center of the entire ocean which indicates stagnation, while decaying away from the equator with the same speed as that of Mode 1. The spatial structure and oscillation period of the wave packet solution of Mode 1 and Mode 2 are consistent with the changing periods of the surface spatial field and time coefficient of the first and second modes of complex empirical orthogonal function(EOF)analysis of flow anomalies in the actual equatorial ocean. This indicates that the solution does exist in the real ocean, and that El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation(ENSO) and Indian Ocean dipole(IOD) are both related to Mode 2.After considering the Indonesian throughflow, we can obtain the length of bounded equatorial ocean by taking the sum of that of the t展开更多
The present paper studies the influences of the bubble size distribution on the propagation of acoustic waves in dilute polydisperse bubbly liquids theoretically.The proposed approach is validated by using available e...The present paper studies the influences of the bubble size distribution on the propagation of acoustic waves in dilute polydisperse bubbly liquids theoretically.The proposed approach is validated by using available experimental data in the literature.It is revealed that the bubble size distribution has impacts on both the wave speed and the wave attenuation.Specifically,the minimum wave speed together with the corresponding frequency could be both significantly affected by the bubble size distribution (e.g.,the standard deviation).Furthermore,the maximum wave attenuation in the frequency response curve is also sensitive to the variations of the bubble size distribution.展开更多
With growing computational power, the first-order wave-maker theory has become well established and is widely used for numerical wave flumes. However, existing numerical models based on the first-order wave-maker theo...With growing computational power, the first-order wave-maker theory has become well established and is widely used for numerical wave flumes. However, existing numerical models based on the first-order wave-maker theory lose accuracy as nonlinear effects become prominent. Because spurious harmonic waves and primary waves have different propagation velocities, waves simulated by using the first-order wave-maker theory have an unstable wave profile. In this paper, a numerical wave flume with a piston-type wave-maker based on the second-order wave-maker theory has been established. Dynamic mesh technique was developed. The boundary treatment for irregular wave simulation was specially dealt with. Comparisons of the free-surface elevations using the first-order and second-order wave-maker theory prove that second-order wave-maker theory can generate stable wave profiles in both the spatial and time domains. Harmonic analysis and spectral analysis were used to prove the superiority of the second-order wave-maker theory from other two aspects. To simulate irregular waves, the numerical flume was improved to solve the problem of the water depth variation due to low-frequency motion of the wave board. In summary, the new numerical flume using the second-order wave-maker theory can guarantee the accuracy of waves by adding an extra motion of the wave board. The boundary treatment method can provide a reference for the improvement of nonlinear numerical flume.展开更多
Longitudinal waves propagating in the direction of the magnetic field represents a special class according to the wave equation.They seem to be ubiquitous in nature,as can be shown by numerous natural phenomena.It is ...Longitudinal waves propagating in the direction of the magnetic field represents a special class according to the wave equation.They seem to be ubiquitous in nature,as can be shown by numerous natural phenomena.It is therefore possible that biological systems may use these waves as a medium or as a carrier wave for signal transfer.As longitudinal waves can also be generated technically,an experimental set up has been established in order to show that the wave is able to transfer biological signals effectively apart from any chemical contact.The schematic diagram of the transmitter is explained,the special properties of the magnetic wave,working at 6.78 MHz,as well as the biological antennas,acting as a receiver,are in the focus of the first part of the presentation.It will be referred,how a medical doctor in Spain is using the system for anticancer treatment i.e.,to encourage discussions on medical purposes.展开更多
The parameter inversion of internal solitary waves (ISWs) based on optical remote sensing images is a key work. A new approach is proposed and demonstrated for simulating the optical remote sensing images of ISWs with...The parameter inversion of internal solitary waves (ISWs) based on optical remote sensing images is a key work. A new approach is proposed and demonstrated for simulating the optical remote sensing images of ISWs with a smooth surface in the laboratory. An optical remote sensing simulation system used to detect ISWs is constructed by a two-dimensional ISW flume, a LED (light emitting diode) light source and two CCD (charge coupled device) cameras. The optical remote sensing images of the horizontal surface and ISWs propagation images of a vertical side are detected simultaneously, which aims to explore the response of optical remote sensing corresponding to ISWs with the smooth surface. The results show that during the propagation of ISWs, dark pattern images are obtained by CCD 1 camera. The characteristics of the dark patterns vary along with the incident angle of the light source. The characteristic parameters of the optical remote sensing images correspond to the wave factors of vertical profiles. The experiment also shows a positive correlation between the dark pattern width and the half wave width under different amplitudes of ISWs. The system has the advantages of clear phenomenon and high repeatability, which provides the scientific basis for quantitative investigation on imaging mechanism of ISW by optical remote sensing.展开更多
Wave energy resource assessment and trends around Indonesian’s ocean has been carried out by means of analyzing satellite observations. Wave energy flux or wave power can be approximated using parameterized sea state...Wave energy resource assessment and trends around Indonesian’s ocean has been carried out by means of analyzing satellite observations. Wave energy flux or wave power can be approximated using parameterized sea states derived from satellite data. Unfortunately, only some surface parameters can be measured from remote sensing satellites, for example for ocean surface waves: significant wave height. Others, like peak wave period and energy period are not available, but can instead be estimated using empirical models. The results have been assessed by meteorological season. The assessment shows clearly where and when the wave power resource is promising around Indonesian’s ocean. The most striking result was found from June to August, in which about 30–40 kW/m(the 90 th percentile: 40–60 kW/m, the 99th percentile: 50–70 kW/m) wave power energy on average has been found around south of the Java Island. The significant trends of wave energy at the 95% level have also been studied and it is found that the trends only occurred for the extreme cases, which is the 99th percentile(i.e.,highest 1%). Wave power energy could increase up to 150 W/m per year. The significant wave heights and wave power have been compared with the results obtained from global wave model hindcast carried out by wave model WAVEWATCH III. The comparisons indicated excellent agreements.展开更多
Based on phase focusing theory,focusing waves with different spectral types and breaking severities were generated in a wave flume.The time series of surface elevation fluctuation along the flume were obtained by util...Based on phase focusing theory,focusing waves with different spectral types and breaking severities were generated in a wave flume.The time series of surface elevation fluctuation along the flume were obtained by utilizing 22 wave probes mounted along the mid-stream of the flume.Based on the wave spectrum obtained using fast Fourier transform(FFT),the instability characteristics of the energy spectrum were reported in this paper.By analyzing the variation of total spectral energy,the total spectral energy after wave breaking was found to clearly decrease,and the loss value and ratio gradually increased and tended to stabilize with the enhancement of breaking severity for different spectral types.When wave breaking occurred,the energy loss was primarily in a high-frequency range of f/fp >1.0,and energy gain was primarily in a low-frequency range of f/fp<1.0.As the breaking severity increased,the energy gain-loss ratio decreased gradually,which demonstrates that the energy was mostly dissipated.For plunging waves,the energy gain-loss ratio reached 24%for the constant wave steepness(CWS)spectrum,and was slightly larger at approximately 30%for the constant wave amplitude(CWA)spectrum,and was the largest at approximately 42%for the Pierson-Moskowitz(PM)spectrum.展开更多
The swashing motion on mild beach slope is dominated by the motion of low frequency waves (LFWs). Companying such a motion, there are two types of swashing motion states, occurrence or no occurrence of LFW’s collisio...The swashing motion on mild beach slope is dominated by the motion of low frequency waves (LFWs). Companying such a motion, there are two types of swashing motion states, occurrence or no occurrence of LFW’s collision. The present study distinguishes the two states qualitatively by relating it to the number of generated LFWs for the case of two incident wave groups. A simplified swashing index is established theoretically for this purpose. A series of related experiments were performed to observe the generated out-going LFWs on different mild slope from 1:20 to 1:160 and to determine the critical value of the swashing index. Numerical simulations based on higher order Boussinesq equations are also performed to help the recognition of the LFWs generated in the experiment.展开更多
A two-dimensional numerical Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD)model is established on the basis of viscous CFD theory to investigate the motion response and power absorption performance of a bottom-hinged flap-type wav...A two-dimensional numerical Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD)model is established on the basis of viscous CFD theory to investigate the motion response and power absorption performance of a bottom-hinged flap-type wave energy converter(WEC)under regular wave conditions.The convergence study of mesh size and time step is performed to ensure that wave height and motion response are sufficiently accurate.Wave height results reveal that the attenuation of wave height along the wave tank is less than 5%only if the suitable mesh size and time step are selected.The model proposed in this work is verified against published experimental and numerical models.The effects of mechanical damping,wave height,wave frequency,and water depth on the motion response,power generation,and energy conversion efficiency of the flap-type WEC are investigated.The selection of the appropriate mechanical damping of the WEC is crucial for the optimal extraction of wave power.The optimal mechanical damping can be readily predicted by using potential flow theory.It can then be verified by applying CFD numerical results.In addition,the motion response and the energy conversion efficiency of the WEC decrease as the incident wave height increases because the strengthened nonlinear effect of waves intensifies energy loss.Moreover,the energy conversion efficiency of theWEC decreases with increasing water depth and remains constant as the water depth reaches a critical value.Therefore,the selection of the optimal parameters during the design process is necessary to ensure that the WEC exhibits the maximum energy conversion efficiency.展开更多
It is well known that shear wave propagates slower across than parallel to a fracture,and as a result,a travelling shear wave splits into two directions when it encounters a fracture.Shear wave splitting and permeabil...It is well known that shear wave propagates slower across than parallel to a fracture,and as a result,a travelling shear wave splits into two directions when it encounters a fracture.Shear wave splitting and permeability of porous rock core samples having single fracture were experimentally investigated using a high-pressure triaxial cell,which can measure seismic shear wave velocities in two directions mutually perpendicular to the sample axis in addition to the longitudinal compressive wave velocity.A single fracture was created in the samples using a modified Brazilian split test device,where the cylindrical sample edges were loaded on two diametrically opposite lines by sharp guillotines along the sample length.Based on tilt tests and fracture surface profilometry,the method of artificially induced tensile fracture in the sample was found to create repeatable fracture surfaces and morphologies.Seismic velocities of the fractured samples were determined under different levels of stress confinement and fracture shear displacement or mismatch.The effective confining stress was varied from 0.5 MPa to 55 MPa,while the fractures were mismatched by 0 mm,0.45 mm and 1 mm.The degree of matching of the fracture surfaces in the core samples was evaluated using the joint matching coefficient(JMC).Shear wave splitting,as measured by the difference in the magnitudes of shear wave velocities parallel(VS1)and perpendicular(VS2)to the fracture,is found to be insensitive to the degree of mismatching of the fracture joint surfaces at 2 MPa,and decreased and approached zero as the effective stress was increased.Simple models for the stress-and JMC-dependent shear wave splitting and fractured rock permeability were developed based on the experimental observations.The effects of the joint wall compressive strength(JCS),JMC and stress on the stress dependency of joint aperture were discussed in terms of hydro-mechanical response.Finally,a useful relationship between fractured rock permeability and shear wave splitting was found aft展开更多
The observation of GW150914 gave a new independent measurement of the luminosity distance of a gravitational wave event. In this paper, we constrain the anisotropy of the Universe by using gravitational wave events.We...The observation of GW150914 gave a new independent measurement of the luminosity distance of a gravitational wave event. In this paper, we constrain the anisotropy of the Universe by using gravitational wave events.We simulate hundreds of events of binary neutron star merger that may be observed by the Einstein Telescope. Full simulation of the production process of gravitational wave data is employed. We find that 200 binary neutron star merging events with the redshift in (0,1) observed by the Einstein Telescope may constrain the anisotropy with an accuracy comparable to that from the Union2.1 supernovae. This result shows that gravitational waves can be a powerful tool for investigating cosmological anisotropy.展开更多
The gradient preconditioning approach based on seismic wave energy can effectively avoid the huge memory consumption of the gradient preconditioning algorithms based on the Hessian matrix. However, the accuracy of thi...The gradient preconditioning approach based on seismic wave energy can effectively avoid the huge memory consumption of the gradient preconditioning algorithms based on the Hessian matrix. However, the accuracy of this approach is prone to be influ- enced by the energy of reflected waves. To tackle this problem, the paper proposes a new gradient preconditioning method based on the energy of transmitted waves. The approach scales the gradient through a precondition factor, which is calculated by the ‘ap- proximate transmission wavefield’ simulation based on the nonreflecting acoustic wave equation. The method requires no computing nor storing of the Hessian matrix and its inverse matrix. Furthermore, the proposed method can effectively eliminate the effects of geometric spreading and disproportionality in the gradient illumination. The results of model experiments show that the time-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) using the gradient preconditioning based on transmitted wave energy can achieve higher inversion accuracy for deep high-velocity bodies and their underlying strata in comparison with the one using the gradient preconditioning based on seismic wave energy. The field marine seismic data test shows that our proposed method is also highly applicable to the FWI of field marine seismic data.展开更多
Marmara Sea, located between Black Sea and Aegean Sea, is an important sea for ocean engineering activities. In this study, wave power potential of Marmara Sea was investigated using the third generation spectral wind...Marmara Sea, located between Black Sea and Aegean Sea, is an important sea for ocean engineering activities. In this study, wave power potential of Marmara Sea was investigated using the third generation spectral wind-wave model MIKE 21 SW with unstructured mesh. Wind data was obtained from ECMWF ERA-Interim re-analyses wind dataset at 10 m with a spatial resolution of 0.1? for the period of 1994 to 2014. The numerical model was calibrated with measured wave data from a buoy station located in Marmara Sea. Mesh optimization was also performed to obtain the most suitable mesh structure for the study area. This study is the first that dealt with the determination of wave energy potential of Marmara Sea. The numerical model results are presented in terms of monthly, seasonal and annual average of wave power flux(k W m-1). The maximum wave power flux is 1.13 kW m-1 and occurs in November. The overall annual mean wave power flux during 1994–2014 is found to be 0.27 kW m-1 in the offshore regions.展开更多
A slender cylindrical member is the fundamental component of many coastal and offshore structures.It is essential to understand the action of breaking waves on structural members since,when these members are subjected...A slender cylindrical member is the fundamental component of many coastal and offshore structures.It is essential to understand the action of breaking waves on structural members since,when these members are subjected to wave impact load,the structural damages and failures may be catastrophic.In the present study,an experimental investigation has been carried out to measure the response of the slender vertical cylinder subjected to breaking wave impact.Pressure measurements were made in order to estimate the total force acting on the structure.An empirical relation is established between total impact force and the wave steepness parameter which dictates the intensity of the breaking.Pressure rise time is an important parameter dictating the impact event.Simultaneous acceleration and strain measurements were made to evaluate the response of the cylinder.Deflection has been derived from structure acceleration.The deflection due to the moderate plunging differs by two order more than severe plunging events.Strain rate is another important consideration for the impact loading.The higher strain rate increases the resistance of the material.Under the breaking wave impact on the cylinder,the strain rate varies from 102 to 10-4.展开更多
基金conducted as part of the research activity within the EMISys research team at the Turbomachinery Lab with the institution’s financial support of Mohammadia School of Engineers and Mohammed V University in Rabat.
文摘The aim of the present work is to assess the offshore wave energy potential along the Atlantic coast of Morocco.Research works of this paper focus on the identification of the most energetic sites for wave energy converters(WECs)deployment.For this purpose,11 sites have been explored;all of them are located at more than 40m depth on the Moroccan Atlantic coast.The wave power at each site is computed on the basis of wave data records in terms of significant wave height and energy period provided by theWaveWatch three(WW3)model.Results indicate that the coast sites located between latitudes 30°30′N and 33°N are the most energetic with an annual average wave power estimated at about 30 kW?m^-1,whereas,in the other sites,the wave power is significantly lower.Moreover,the study of the monthly and seasonal temporal variability is found to be uniform in the powerful sites with values four times greater in winter than in summer.The directional investigation on the significant wave height has shown that for almost all the powerful sites,the incoming waves have a dominant sector ranging between Northern(N)and Western-Northern-Western(WNW)directions.
基金The Project of Development on Technology for Offshore Waste Final Disposalthe Project of Investigation of Large Swell Waves and Rip Currents and Development of the Disaster Response System.
文摘A wave forecasting system using FUNWAVE-TVD which is based on the fully nonlinear Boussinesq equations by Chen(2006)was developed to provide an accurate wave prediction in the Port of Busan,South Korea.This system is linked to the Korea Operational Oceanographic System(KOOS)developed by Park et al.(2015).The computational domain covers a region of 9.6 km×7.0 km with a grid size of 2 m in both directions,which is sufficient to resolve short waves and dominant sea states.The total number of grid points exceeds 16 millions,making the model computational expensive.To provide real-time forecasting,an interpolation method,which is based on pre-calculated results of FUNWAVE-TVD and SWAN forecasting results at the FUNWAVE-TVD offshore boundary,was used.A total of 45 cases were pre-calculated,which took 71 days on 924 computational cores of a Linux cluster system.Wind wave generation and propagation from the deep water were computed using the SWAN in KOOS.SWAN results provided a boundary condition for the FUNWAVE-TVD forecasting system.To verify the model,wave observations were conducted at three locations inside the port in a time period of more than 7 months.A model/model comparison between FUNWAVE-TVD and SWAN was also carried out.It is found that,FUNWAVE-TVD improves the forecasting results significantly compared to SWAN which underestimates wave heights in sheltered areas due to incorrect physical mechanism of wave diffraction,as well as large wave heights caused by wave reflections inside the port.
基金The National Major Research High Performance Computing Program of China under contract 2016YFB0200800the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences under contract No.XDA20060501.
文摘Linearized shallow water perturbation equations with approximation in an equatorial β plane are used to obtain the analytical solution of wave packet anomalies in the upper bounded equatorial ocean. The main results are as follows. The wave packet is a superposition of eastward travelling Kelvin waves and westward travelling Rossby waves with the slowest speed, and satisfies the boundary conditions of eastern and western coasts, respectively.The decay coefficient of this solution to the north and south sides of the equator is inversely proportional only to the phase velocity of Kelvin waves in the upper water. The oscillation frequency of the wave packet, which is also the natural frequency of the ocean, is proportional to its mode number and the phase velocity of Kelvin waves and is inversely proportional to the length of the equatorial ocean in the east-west direction. The flow anomalies of the wave packet of Mode 1 most of the time appear as zonal flows with the same direction. They reach the maximum at the center of the equatorial ocean and decay rapidly away from the equator, manifested as equatorially trapped waves. The flow anomalies of the wave packet of Mode 2 appear as the zonal flows with the same direction most of the time in half of the ocean, and are always 0 at the center of the entire ocean which indicates stagnation, while decaying away from the equator with the same speed as that of Mode 1. The spatial structure and oscillation period of the wave packet solution of Mode 1 and Mode 2 are consistent with the changing periods of the surface spatial field and time coefficient of the first and second modes of complex empirical orthogonal function(EOF)analysis of flow anomalies in the actual equatorial ocean. This indicates that the solution does exist in the real ocean, and that El Ni?o-Southern Oscillation(ENSO) and Indian Ocean dipole(IOD) are both related to Mode 2.After considering the Indonesian throughflow, we can obtain the length of bounded equatorial ocean by taking the sum of that of the t
基金the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project Nos.51606221,51506051).
文摘The present paper studies the influences of the bubble size distribution on the propagation of acoustic waves in dilute polydisperse bubbly liquids theoretically.The proposed approach is validated by using available experimental data in the literature.It is revealed that the bubble size distribution has impacts on both the wave speed and the wave attenuation.Specifically,the minimum wave speed together with the corresponding frequency could be both significantly affected by the bubble size distribution (e.g.,the standard deviation).Furthermore,the maximum wave attenuation in the frequency response curve is also sensitive to the variations of the bubble size distribution.
基金the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant Nos. 51579038, 51739010, 51490672, 51879037).
文摘With growing computational power, the first-order wave-maker theory has become well established and is widely used for numerical wave flumes. However, existing numerical models based on the first-order wave-maker theory lose accuracy as nonlinear effects become prominent. Because spurious harmonic waves and primary waves have different propagation velocities, waves simulated by using the first-order wave-maker theory have an unstable wave profile. In this paper, a numerical wave flume with a piston-type wave-maker based on the second-order wave-maker theory has been established. Dynamic mesh technique was developed. The boundary treatment for irregular wave simulation was specially dealt with. Comparisons of the free-surface elevations using the first-order and second-order wave-maker theory prove that second-order wave-maker theory can generate stable wave profiles in both the spatial and time domains. Harmonic analysis and spectral analysis were used to prove the superiority of the second-order wave-maker theory from other two aspects. To simulate irregular waves, the numerical flume was improved to solve the problem of the water depth variation due to low-frequency motion of the wave board. In summary, the new numerical flume using the second-order wave-maker theory can guarantee the accuracy of waves by adding an extra motion of the wave board. The boundary treatment method can provide a reference for the improvement of nonlinear numerical flume.
文摘Longitudinal waves propagating in the direction of the magnetic field represents a special class according to the wave equation.They seem to be ubiquitous in nature,as can be shown by numerous natural phenomena.It is therefore possible that biological systems may use these waves as a medium or as a carrier wave for signal transfer.As longitudinal waves can also be generated technically,an experimental set up has been established in order to show that the wave is able to transfer biological signals effectively apart from any chemical contact.The schematic diagram of the transmitter is explained,the special properties of the magnetic wave,working at 6.78 MHz,as well as the biological antennas,acting as a receiver,are in the focus of the first part of the presentation.It will be referred,how a medical doctor in Spain is using the system for anticancer treatment i.e.,to encourage discussions on medical purposes.
基金The National Key Research and Development Program of China under contract No. 2017YFC1405600the National Natural Science Foundation of China under contract No. 41476001.
文摘The parameter inversion of internal solitary waves (ISWs) based on optical remote sensing images is a key work. A new approach is proposed and demonstrated for simulating the optical remote sensing images of ISWs with a smooth surface in the laboratory. An optical remote sensing simulation system used to detect ISWs is constructed by a two-dimensional ISW flume, a LED (light emitting diode) light source and two CCD (charge coupled device) cameras. The optical remote sensing images of the horizontal surface and ISWs propagation images of a vertical side are detected simultaneously, which aims to explore the response of optical remote sensing corresponding to ISWs with the smooth surface. The results show that during the propagation of ISWs, dark pattern images are obtained by CCD 1 camera. The characteristics of the dark patterns vary along with the incident angle of the light source. The characteristic parameters of the optical remote sensing images correspond to the wave factors of vertical profiles. The experiment also shows a positive correlation between the dark pattern width and the half wave width under different amplitudes of ISWs. The system has the advantages of clear phenomenon and high repeatability, which provides the scientific basis for quantitative investigation on imaging mechanism of ISW by optical remote sensing.
基金The Minister for Research, Technology and Higher Education, Indonesia under contract No. 2611/UN4.21/LK.23/2017 through Research and Community Service Institution at Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia.
文摘Wave energy resource assessment and trends around Indonesian’s ocean has been carried out by means of analyzing satellite observations. Wave energy flux or wave power can be approximated using parameterized sea states derived from satellite data. Unfortunately, only some surface parameters can be measured from remote sensing satellites, for example for ocean surface waves: significant wave height. Others, like peak wave period and energy period are not available, but can instead be estimated using empirical models. The results have been assessed by meteorological season. The assessment shows clearly where and when the wave power resource is promising around Indonesian’s ocean. The most striking result was found from June to August, in which about 30–40 kW/m(the 90 th percentile: 40–60 kW/m, the 99th percentile: 50–70 kW/m) wave power energy on average has been found around south of the Java Island. The significant trends of wave energy at the 95% level have also been studied and it is found that the trends only occurred for the extreme cases, which is the 99th percentile(i.e.,highest 1%). Wave power energy could increase up to 150 W/m per year. The significant wave heights and wave power have been compared with the results obtained from global wave model hindcast carried out by wave model WAVEWATCH III. The comparisons indicated excellent agreements.
基金financially supported by the State Key Research and Development Program of China(Grant No.2016YFC1401405)National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant Nos.51779038 and 51279028).
文摘Based on phase focusing theory,focusing waves with different spectral types and breaking severities were generated in a wave flume.The time series of surface elevation fluctuation along the flume were obtained by utilizing 22 wave probes mounted along the mid-stream of the flume.Based on the wave spectrum obtained using fast Fourier transform(FFT),the instability characteristics of the energy spectrum were reported in this paper.By analyzing the variation of total spectral energy,the total spectral energy after wave breaking was found to clearly decrease,and the loss value and ratio gradually increased and tended to stabilize with the enhancement of breaking severity for different spectral types.When wave breaking occurred,the energy loss was primarily in a high-frequency range of f/fp >1.0,and energy gain was primarily in a low-frequency range of f/fp<1.0.As the breaking severity increased,the energy gain-loss ratio decreased gradually,which demonstrates that the energy was mostly dissipated.For plunging waves,the energy gain-loss ratio reached 24%for the constant wave steepness(CWS)spectrum,and was slightly larger at approximately 30%for the constant wave amplitude(CWA)spectrum,and was the largest at approximately 42%for the Pierson-Moskowitz(PM)spectrum.
基金the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.51879033).
文摘The swashing motion on mild beach slope is dominated by the motion of low frequency waves (LFWs). Companying such a motion, there are two types of swashing motion states, occurrence or no occurrence of LFW’s collision. The present study distinguishes the two states qualitatively by relating it to the number of generated LFWs for the case of two incident wave groups. A simplified swashing index is established theoretically for this purpose. A series of related experiments were performed to observe the generated out-going LFWs on different mild slope from 1:20 to 1:160 and to determine the critical value of the swashing index. Numerical simulations based on higher order Boussinesq equations are also performed to help the recognition of the LFWs generated in the experiment.
基金supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51409066,51761135013)the High Technology Ship Scientific Research Project from the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the People’s Republic of China–Floating Security Platform Project(the second stage,201622)the Fundamental Research Fund for the Central University (HEUCFJ180104,HEUCFP1809).
文摘A two-dimensional numerical Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD)model is established on the basis of viscous CFD theory to investigate the motion response and power absorption performance of a bottom-hinged flap-type wave energy converter(WEC)under regular wave conditions.The convergence study of mesh size and time step is performed to ensure that wave height and motion response are sufficiently accurate.Wave height results reveal that the attenuation of wave height along the wave tank is less than 5%only if the suitable mesh size and time step are selected.The model proposed in this work is verified against published experimental and numerical models.The effects of mechanical damping,wave height,wave frequency,and water depth on the motion response,power generation,and energy conversion efficiency of the flap-type WEC are investigated.The selection of the appropriate mechanical damping of the WEC is crucial for the optimal extraction of wave power.The optimal mechanical damping can be readily predicted by using potential flow theory.It can then be verified by applying CFD numerical results.In addition,the motion response and the energy conversion efficiency of the WEC decrease as the incident wave height increases because the strengthened nonlinear effect of waves intensifies energy loss.Moreover,the energy conversion efficiency of theWEC decreases with increasing water depth and remains constant as the water depth reaches a critical value.Therefore,the selection of the optimal parameters during the design process is necessary to ensure that the WEC exhibits the maximum energy conversion efficiency.
基金Financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant No. DE-FE0000730
文摘It is well known that shear wave propagates slower across than parallel to a fracture,and as a result,a travelling shear wave splits into two directions when it encounters a fracture.Shear wave splitting and permeability of porous rock core samples having single fracture were experimentally investigated using a high-pressure triaxial cell,which can measure seismic shear wave velocities in two directions mutually perpendicular to the sample axis in addition to the longitudinal compressive wave velocity.A single fracture was created in the samples using a modified Brazilian split test device,where the cylindrical sample edges were loaded on two diametrically opposite lines by sharp guillotines along the sample length.Based on tilt tests and fracture surface profilometry,the method of artificially induced tensile fracture in the sample was found to create repeatable fracture surfaces and morphologies.Seismic velocities of the fractured samples were determined under different levels of stress confinement and fracture shear displacement or mismatch.The effective confining stress was varied from 0.5 MPa to 55 MPa,while the fractures were mismatched by 0 mm,0.45 mm and 1 mm.The degree of matching of the fracture surfaces in the core samples was evaluated using the joint matching coefficient(JMC).Shear wave splitting,as measured by the difference in the magnitudes of shear wave velocities parallel(VS1)and perpendicular(VS2)to the fracture,is found to be insensitive to the degree of mismatching of the fracture joint surfaces at 2 MPa,and decreased and approached zero as the effective stress was increased.Simple models for the stress-and JMC-dependent shear wave splitting and fractured rock permeability were developed based on the experimental observations.The effects of the joint wall compressive strength(JCS),JMC and stress on the stress dependency of joint aperture were discussed in terms of hydro-mechanical response.Finally,a useful relationship between fractured rock permeability and shear wave splitting was found aft
基金grants from NSFC(11675182,11690022,11603005,1177503.
文摘The observation of GW150914 gave a new independent measurement of the luminosity distance of a gravitational wave event. In this paper, we constrain the anisotropy of the Universe by using gravitational wave events.We simulate hundreds of events of binary neutron star merger that may be observed by the Einstein Telescope. Full simulation of the production process of gravitational wave data is employed. We find that 200 binary neutron star merging events with the redshift in (0,1) observed by the Einstein Telescope may constrain the anisotropy with an accuracy comparable to that from the Union2.1 supernovae. This result shows that gravitational waves can be a powerful tool for investigating cosmological anisotropy.
基金appreciate the support of the NSFCShandong Joint Fund for Marine Science Research Centers (No. U1606401)the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41574105 and 41704114)the National Science and Technology Major Project of China (No.2016ZX05027-002) and Taishan Scholar Project Funding (No. tspd20161007).
文摘The gradient preconditioning approach based on seismic wave energy can effectively avoid the huge memory consumption of the gradient preconditioning algorithms based on the Hessian matrix. However, the accuracy of this approach is prone to be influ- enced by the energy of reflected waves. To tackle this problem, the paper proposes a new gradient preconditioning method based on the energy of transmitted waves. The approach scales the gradient through a precondition factor, which is calculated by the ‘ap- proximate transmission wavefield’ simulation based on the nonreflecting acoustic wave equation. The method requires no computing nor storing of the Hessian matrix and its inverse matrix. Furthermore, the proposed method can effectively eliminate the effects of geometric spreading and disproportionality in the gradient illumination. The results of model experiments show that the time-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) using the gradient preconditioning based on transmitted wave energy can achieve higher inversion accuracy for deep high-velocity bodies and their underlying strata in comparison with the one using the gradient preconditioning based on seismic wave energy. The field marine seismic data test shows that our proposed method is also highly applicable to the FWI of field marine seismic data.
基金TüBITAK(The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey)(No.112M 413).
文摘Marmara Sea, located between Black Sea and Aegean Sea, is an important sea for ocean engineering activities. In this study, wave power potential of Marmara Sea was investigated using the third generation spectral wind-wave model MIKE 21 SW with unstructured mesh. Wind data was obtained from ECMWF ERA-Interim re-analyses wind dataset at 10 m with a spatial resolution of 0.1? for the period of 1994 to 2014. The numerical model was calibrated with measured wave data from a buoy station located in Marmara Sea. Mesh optimization was also performed to obtain the most suitable mesh structure for the study area. This study is the first that dealt with the determination of wave energy potential of Marmara Sea. The numerical model results are presented in terms of monthly, seasonal and annual average of wave power flux(k W m-1). The maximum wave power flux is 1.13 kW m-1 and occurs in November. The overall annual mean wave power flux during 1994–2014 is found to be 0.27 kW m-1 in the offshore regions.
文摘A slender cylindrical member is the fundamental component of many coastal and offshore structures.It is essential to understand the action of breaking waves on structural members since,when these members are subjected to wave impact load,the structural damages and failures may be catastrophic.In the present study,an experimental investigation has been carried out to measure the response of the slender vertical cylinder subjected to breaking wave impact.Pressure measurements were made in order to estimate the total force acting on the structure.An empirical relation is established between total impact force and the wave steepness parameter which dictates the intensity of the breaking.Pressure rise time is an important parameter dictating the impact event.Simultaneous acceleration and strain measurements were made to evaluate the response of the cylinder.Deflection has been derived from structure acceleration.The deflection due to the moderate plunging differs by two order more than severe plunging events.Strain rate is another important consideration for the impact loading.The higher strain rate increases the resistance of the material.Under the breaking wave impact on the cylinder,the strain rate varies from 102 to 10-4.